Special Issue "Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Christopher Blesso Website E-Mail
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Phone: 860-486-9049
Fax: 860-486-3674
Interests: Sphingolipids, Phospholipids, Cholesterol, Lipoproteins, Obesity, Inflammation, HDL, Polyphenols, Anthocyanins, Atherosclerosis
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ji-Young Lee Website E-Mail
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Interests: obesity; inflammation; fibrogenesis; energy metabolism; immunometabolism; liver disease; anthocyanins; carotenoids

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants supply a significant amount of polyphenols to the human diet, including anthocyanins, which are thought to contribute to the inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic disease. Anthocyanins are pigments found in plant structures that consist of an anthocyanidin (aglycone) attached to sugar moieties. Cyanidin, peonidin, pelargonidin, malvidin, delphinidin, and petunidin are the six major anthocyanidins commonly found in fruits and vegetables. Recent meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies have reported anthocyanidin intakes were inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on bone health with the consumption of anthocyanins, as well as for the prevention of certain cancers and age-related cognitive decline. Anthocyanins may positively influence health through their well-documented effects on cellular antioxidant status and inflammation; however, their underlying mechanisms of action are likely complex and require further elucidation. It is the purpose of this Special Issue to highlight the diverse bioactivities of anthocyanins in the protection against chronic disease. This Special Issue welcomes clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and experiments conducted in cell or animal models that examine the potential health benefits of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods.

Assist. Prof. Dr. Chris Blesso
Prof. Dr. Ji-Young Lee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Anthocyanins
  • Flavonoids
  • Berries
  • Obesity
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Diabetes
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidative stress
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2107; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092107 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Anthocyanins may contribute to the inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic disease. Anthocyanins are pigments found in plant structures that consist of an anthocyanidin (aglycone) attached to sugar moieties. Anthocyanins may be beneficial for health through effects on cellular antioxidant [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins may contribute to the inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and chronic disease. Anthocyanins are pigments found in plant structures that consist of an anthocyanidin (aglycone) attached to sugar moieties. Anthocyanins may be beneficial for health through effects on cellular antioxidant status and inflammation; however, their underlying mechanisms of action in their protection of chronic diseases are likely complex and require further elucidation. This Special Issue comprises 8 peer-reviewed papers (including 6 original research articles) which highlight the diverse bioactivities of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods in the protection against chronic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Purple Sweet Potato Polyphenols Differentially Influence the Microbial Composition Depending on the Fermentability of Dietary Fiber in a Mixed Culture of Swine Fecal Bacteria
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071495 - 30 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The prevalence of many chronic diseases which have been associated with poor nutrition may be reduced by the positive modulation of colonic microbiota. In this study, we assess the effects of purple sweet potato polyphenols (PSP) in a mixed culture of swine fecal [...] Read more.
The prevalence of many chronic diseases which have been associated with poor nutrition may be reduced by the positive modulation of colonic microbiota. In this study, we assess the effects of purple sweet potato polyphenols (PSP) in a mixed culture of swine fecal bacteria during in vitro colonic fermentation using pig colonic digest. Jar fermenters were used to conduct a small scale in vitro colonic fermentation experiments under the anaerobic condition for 48 h. Jar fermenters were assigned to one of the following groups: Cellulose, cellulose + PSP, inulin, and inulin + PSP. The present study revealed that the polyphenolic content of purple sweet potato could modulate the colonic microbiota by differentially increasing the population of beneficial bacteria and decreasing the pathogenic bacteria depending on cellulose and inulin. Accordingly, PSP might be a material conducive for improving the conditions for the fermentation of partly-fermentable dietary fiber. Besides, PSP was also responsible for the drastic reduction of putrefactive products, especially p-cresol to a significant level. Our results suggest that PSP could alter the microbial composition depending upon the fermentability of dietary fiber and has the potential to maintain a stable and healthy colonic environment that will ultimately alleviate chronic diseases development and confer health benefits to the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Aronia Berry Supplementation Mitigates Inflammation in T Cell Transfer-Induced Colitis by Decreasing Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061316 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease. Consumption of aronia berry inhibits T cell transfer colitis, but the antioxidant mechanisms pertinent to immune function are unclear. We hypothesized that aronia berry consumption could inhibit inflammation by modulating [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease. Consumption of aronia berry inhibits T cell transfer colitis, but the antioxidant mechanisms pertinent to immune function are unclear. We hypothesized that aronia berry consumption could inhibit inflammation by modulating the antioxidant function of immunocytes and gastrointestinal tissues. Colitis was induced in recombinase activating gene-1 deficient (Rag1-/-) mice injected with syngeneic CD4+CD62L+ naïve T cells. Concurrent with transfer, mice consumed either 4.5% w/w aronia berry-supplemented or a control diet for five weeks. Aronia berry inhibited intestinal inflammation evidenced by lower colon weight/length ratios, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) uptake, mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the colon. Aronia berry also suppressed systemic inflammation evidenced by lower FDG uptake in the spleen, liver, and lung. Colitis induced increased colon malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased colon glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, reduced glutathione (rGSH) level, and suppressed expression of antioxidant enzymes in the colon and mesenteric lymph node (MLN). Aronia berry upregulated expression of antioxidant enzymes, prevented colitis-associated depletion of rGSH, and maintained GPx activity. Moreover, aronia berry modulated mitochondria-specific antioxidant activity and decreased splenic mitochondrial H2O2 production in colitic mice. Thus, aronia berry consumption inhibits oxidative stress in the colon during T cell transfer colitis because of its multifaceted antioxidant function in both the cytosol and mitochondria of immunocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) Extract Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Action by Modulating Macrophage Phenotypes
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050975 - 28 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Macrophages are polarized into different phenotypes depending on tissue microenvironment where they reside. In obesity-associated inflammation, M1-type macrophages are predominant in the inflamed tissue, exerting pro-inflammatory responses. Our previous studies demonstrate that blackcurrant consumption attenuates hepatic inflammation and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses of splenocytes [...] Read more.
Macrophages are polarized into different phenotypes depending on tissue microenvironment where they reside. In obesity-associated inflammation, M1-type macrophages are predominant in the inflamed tissue, exerting pro-inflammatory responses. Our previous studies demonstrate that blackcurrant consumption attenuates hepatic inflammation and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses of splenocytes in obese mice. In this study, we determined whether blackcurrant modulates macrophage phenotypes to exert its anti-inflammatory action. Mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and human THP-1 macrophages were polarized into M1 macrophages in the presence or absence of blackcurrant extract (BCE). BCE repressed M1 polarization of both murine and human macrophages. Also, to gain insight into the role of blackcurrant metabolites produced in vivo in the regulation of macrophage phenotypes, BMDM were treated with serum obtained from lean or obese mice fed blackcurrant. While serum from lean mice fed blackcurrant did not exert either anti-inflammatory actions or suppressive effects on M1 polarization, serum from obese mice fed blackcurrant reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes in BMDM. Our data demonstrate that BCE suppresses M1 polarization, with reduced pro-inflammatory responses. Moreover, this study suggests that blackcurrant metabolites may not exert their anti-inflammatory effect directly by altering macrophage phenotypes, but possibly by inhibiting the production of obesity-associated inflammatory factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Sex-Specific Changes in Gut Microbiome Composition following Blueberry Consumption in C57BL/6J Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020313 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberries improve vascular function and insulin sensitivity. However, the bioavailability of the active compounds in blueberries is largely dependent on the gut microbiota, which may themselves be altered by blueberry components. The objective of the current study [...] Read more.
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of blueberries improve vascular function and insulin sensitivity. However, the bioavailability of the active compounds in blueberries is largely dependent on the gut microbiota, which may themselves be altered by blueberry components. The objective of the current study was to explore a possible sex-dependent modulation of the gut microbiota following supplementation with blueberries in adult mice. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice (n = 7–10/group) were provided with control or blueberry-containing diets (5% freeze-dried powder) for 4 weeks. Body weight, composition, and food intake were measured weekly. Genomic DNA was isolated from the cecal contents for 16S rRNA sequencing. Blueberry feeding decreased α-diversity (operational taxonomical unit abundance) and altered β-diversity (p < 0.05). At the phylum level, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was significantly lower in the blueberry-fed groups (p < 0.001), along with increased Tenericutes and decreased Deferribacteres. At the genus level, blueberry feeding led to sexually-dimorphic differences, which were associated with predicted metabolic pathways. Pathways such as fatty acid and lipid metabolism were significantly different and demonstrated a stronger association with microbes in the male. To summarize, blueberry supplementation led to sexually-dimorphic global changes in the gut microbiome, which could possibly contribute to physiological changes in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Blackcurrant Supplementation Improves Trabecular Bone Mass in Young but Not Aged Mice
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111671 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Due to deleterious side effects of currently available medications, the search for novel, safe, and effective preventive agents for improving bone health in aging continues and is urgently needed. This study aimed to determine whether dietary blackcurrants (BC), an anthocyanin-rich berry, can improve [...] Read more.
Due to deleterious side effects of currently available medications, the search for novel, safe, and effective preventive agents for improving bone health in aging continues and is urgently needed. This study aimed to determine whether dietary blackcurrants (BC), an anthocyanin-rich berry, can improve bone mass in a mouse model of age-related bone loss. Thirty-five female C57BL/6J mice, 3 months old (n = 20) and 18 months old (n = 15), were randomized to consume either a standard chow diet or a standard chow diet with 1% (w/w) BC for four months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Micro computed tomography (µCT), and histomorphometric analyses were conducted to assess bone parameters on femurs. Biochemical assays were conducted to determine bone resorption, antioxidant activity, and inflammation in humerus homogenates. Trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) was significantly lower in aged mice compared to young mice (young control, 3.7 ± 0.4% vs aged control, 1.5 ± 0.5%, mean ± SEM (standard error of mean), p < 0.01; young BC, 5.3 ± 0.6% vs aged BC, 1.1 ± 0.3%, p < 0.001). µCT analysis revealed that BC supplementation increased trabecular BV/TV in young mice by 43.2% (p < 0.05) compared to controls. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a 50% increase, though this effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). The osteoblast surface increased by 82.5% in aged mice with BC compared to controls (p < 0.01). In humerus homogenates of young mice, BC consumption reduced C-telopeptide of type I collagen by 12.4% (p < 0.05) and increased glutathione peroxidase by 96.4% (p < 0.05). In humerus homogenates of aged mice, BC consumption increased catalase by 12% (p = 0.09). Aged mice had significantly elevated concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine contributing to bone resorption, which was reduced by 43.3% with BC consumption (p = 0.06). These results suggest that early consumption of BC may protect from aging-associated bone loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Agraz Consumption on Adipocytokines, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress Markers in Women with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1639; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111639 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by increased oxidative stress and a pro-inflammatory state. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (known as “agraz”) is a berry rich in polyphenolic compounds with demonstrated antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical studies. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by increased oxidative stress and a pro-inflammatory state. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (known as “agraz”) is a berry rich in polyphenolic compounds with demonstrated antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of agraz consumption on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in women with MetS. Forty women with MetS (47 ± 9 years) were randomly assigned to consume daily either 200 mL of agraz nectar or placebo over four weeks in a double-blind, cross-over design study, separated by a 4-week washout period. Metabolic and inflammatory markers in serum and antioxidant/oxidative stress markers in serum and urine were assessed at the end of each period. Serum antioxidant capacity measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was significantly higher (p = 0.028), while urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was lower (p = 0.041) after agraz consumption, compared to placebo. In conclusion, consumption of agraz during four weeks increased serum antioxidant capacity and decreased a marker of DNA oxidative damage in women with MetS, compared to placebo. These results suggest that agraz consumption may play a protective role in patients with MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dietary Anthocyanins and Stroke: A Review of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071479 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Cerebrovascular accidents are currently the second major cause of death and the third leading cause of disability in the world, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), which has provided protocols for stroke prevention. Although there is a multitude of studies on the [...] Read more.
Cerebrovascular accidents are currently the second major cause of death and the third leading cause of disability in the world, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), which has provided protocols for stroke prevention. Although there is a multitude of studies on the health benefits associated with anthocyanin (ACN) consumption, there is no a rigorous systematization of the data linking dietary ACN with stroke prevention. This review is intended to present data from epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies dealing with the stroke related to ACN-rich diets or ACN supplements, along with possible mechanisms of action revealed by pharmacokinetic studies, including ACN passage through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Potential Factors Influencing the Effects of Anthocyanins on Blood Pressure Regulation in Humans: A Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061431 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Dietary intake of anthocyanins (ACNs) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease. While the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering effects of ACN consumption have been consistently reported, their effect(s) on blood pressure regulation is less consistent and results from [...] Read more.
Dietary intake of anthocyanins (ACNs) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular and coronary heart disease. While the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering effects of ACN consumption have been consistently reported, their effect(s) on blood pressure regulation is less consistent and results from human studies are mixed. The objective of this review is attempting to identify potential patterns which may explain the variability in results related to blood pressure. To do so, we review 66 human intervention trials testing the effects on blood pressure of purified ACN or ACN-rich extracts, or whole berries, berry juices, powders, purees and whole phenolic extracts, from berries that are rich in ACN and have ACNs as predominant bioactives. Several factors appear to be involved on the mixed results reported. In particular, the baseline characteristics of the population in terms of blood pressure and total flavonoid intake, the dose and duration of the intervention, the differential effects of individual ACN and their synergistic effects with other phytochemicals, the ACN content and bioavailability from the food matrix, and individual differences in ACN absorption and metabolism related to genotype and microbiota enterotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Anthocyanins and Human Health)
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