Special Issue "Nutritional Status and Bone Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Marlena Kruger
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Health Sciences, College of Health, Massey University, New Zealand
Tel. +6469517571
Interests: bone health; osteoarthritis; osteoporosis; aging; long chain fatty acids; micronutrients; in vitro models for bone health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the prevention of osteoporosis, which is recognized as a major public health problem, nutrition may appear as an alternative strategy for optimizing skeletal health. The importance of adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes for bone health is now well documented. Dairy products may be seen as just providing calcium, other minerals and proteins, but may contain some bioactive fractions that are bone active with benefit beyond calcium and minerals. We invite investigators to contribute original research articles that will provide new insights into the physiological response to nutritional interventions or dietary patterns at any life stage. In addition, research that aims to clarify the molecular mechanisms of action by specific nutrients on the musculoskeletal system and respective cells are desirable. We will assume that intervention studies presented will have been designed to provide sufficient dietary calcium. Studies documenting interactions among nutrients are also welcome. Research presented may cover nutrition in childhood and adolescence, in adults, as well as in the elderly, with the intention to prevent or treat osteoporosis. Clinical trials must have been registered with a known database.

Prof. Marlena Kruger
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Nutrition
  • Vitamin D
  • Osteoclast
  • Osteoblast
  • Osteoporosis
  • Dairy foods
  • Polyphenols
  • Dietary patterns
  • Ageing
  • children

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Nutrient Intake Prior to Exercise Is Necessary for Increased Osteogenic Marker Response in Diabetic Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071494 - 30 Jun 2019
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes increases bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Usual treatment with anti-resorptive bisphosphonate drugs has some undesirable side effects, which justified our interest in the osteogenic potential of nutrition and exercise. Since meal eating reduces bone resorption, downhill locomotion increases mechanical [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes increases bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. Usual treatment with anti-resorptive bisphosphonate drugs has some undesirable side effects, which justified our interest in the osteogenic potential of nutrition and exercise. Since meal eating reduces bone resorption, downhill locomotion increases mechanical stress, and brief osteogenic responsiveness to mechanical stress is followed by several hours of refractoriness, we designed a study where 40-min of mechanical stress was manipulated by treadmill walking uphill or downhill. Exercise preceded or followed two daily meals by one hour, and the meals and exercise bouts were 7 hours apart. Fifteen subjects each performed two of five trials: No exercise (SED), uphill exercise before (UBM) or after meals (UAM), and downhill exercise before (DBM) or after meals (DAM). Relative to SED trial, osteogenic response, defined as the ratio of osteogenic C-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (CICP) over bone-resorptive C-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX) markers, increased in exercise-after-meal trials, but not in exercise-before-meal trials. CICP/CTX response rose significantly after the first exercise-after-meal bout in DAM, and after the second one in UAM, due to a greater CICP rise, and not a decline in CTX. Post-meal exercise, but not the pre-meal exercise, also significantly lowered serum insulin response and homeostatic model (HOMA-IR) assessment of insulin resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal Change in Biomarkers of Bone Turnover Following Late Evening Ingestion of a Calcium-Fortified, Milk-Based Protein Matrix in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061413 - 23 Jun 2019
Abstract
The diurnal rhythm of bone remodeling suggests nocturnal dietary intervention to be most effective. This study investigated the effect of bedtime ingestion of a calcium-fortified, milk-derived protein matrix (MBPM) or maltodextrin (CON) on acute (0–4 h) blood and 24-h urinary change in biomarkers [...] Read more.
The diurnal rhythm of bone remodeling suggests nocturnal dietary intervention to be most effective. This study investigated the effect of bedtime ingestion of a calcium-fortified, milk-derived protein matrix (MBPM) or maltodextrin (CON) on acute (0–4 h) blood and 24-h urinary change in biomarkers of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. In CON, participants received 804 ± 52 mg calcium, 8.2 ± 3.2 µg vitamin D and 1.3 ± 0.2 g/kg BM protein per day. MBPM increased calcium intake to 1679 ± 196 mg, vitamin D to 9.2 ± 3.1 µg and protein to 1.6 ± 0.2 g/kg BM. Serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP), and urinary N-telopeptide cross-links of type I collagen (NTX), pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) was measured. Analyzed by AUC and compared to CON, a −32% lower CTX (p = 0.011, d = 0.83) and 24% (p = 0.52, d = 0.2) increase in P1NP was observed for MBPM. Mean total 24 h NTX excreted in MBPM was −10% (p = 0.035) lower than CON. Urinary PYD and DPD were unaffected by treatment. This study demonstrates the acute effects of bedtime ingestion of a calcium-fortified, milk-based protein matrix on bone remodeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Parathyroid Hormone, Vitamin D and Calcium Intake, and Bone Density in Healthy Adult Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the D-SOL Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061267 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is still limited data on the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and bone health in healthy younger adults, particularly in Latin America. This cross-sectional analysis aimed to investigate the associations of 25(OH)D and plasma PTH concentrations with bone parameters, [...] Read more.
There is still limited data on the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and bone health in healthy younger adults, particularly in Latin America. This cross-sectional analysis aimed to investigate the associations of 25(OH)D and plasma PTH concentrations with bone parameters, and potential confounders, in women living in a high (England) or low (Brazil) latitude country. Bone was assessed by either peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) (England) or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan (Brazil), serum 25(OH)D concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and PTH by the chemiluminescent method. In participants living in England, total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) was significantly higher in women <29 years compared to ≥30 years, and total and cortical vBMD values at the 66% site were negatively correlated with weight and body mass index (BMI). In participants living in Brazil, age was positively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD) at the femur and bone mineral content (BMC), and weight, BMI, and body fat were correlated with BMD (lumbar spine and femur) and BMC. PTH concentrations were negatively correlated with 25(OH)D concentrations, and the prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism was 28.6% (n = 14) in participants with concentrations <25 nmol/L and 12.2% (n = 41) with concentrations between 25 and 49.9 nmol/L, compared to 6.3% (n = 79) in those with concentrations ≥50 nmol/L. In conclusion, weight and BMI were significantly correlated with bone parameters in both groups and age was significantly correlated with BMD at the femoral neck for women living in Brazil only. Although 25(OH)D concentrations were not correlated to bone parameters at any sites, in either country, PTH concentrations showed a significant correlation with total vBMD at the 66% site for women living in England. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was more common amongst those with deficient and insufficient vitamin D status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Nutrient Patterns and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061262 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In women, the menopausal transition is characterized by acid-base imbalance, estrogen deficiency and rapid bone loss. Research into nutritional factors that influence bone health is therefore necessary. In this study, the relationship between nutrient patterns and nutrients important for bone health with bone [...] Read more.
In women, the menopausal transition is characterized by acid-base imbalance, estrogen deficiency and rapid bone loss. Research into nutritional factors that influence bone health is therefore necessary. In this study, the relationship between nutrient patterns and nutrients important for bone health with bone mineral density (BMD) was explored. In this cross-sectional analysis, 101 participants aged between 54 and 81 years were eligible. Body composition and BMD analyses were performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nutrient data were extracted from a 3-day diet diary (3-DDD) using Foodworks 9 and metabolic equivalent (MET-minutes) was calculated from a self-reported New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ). Significant positive correlations were found between intakes of calcium (p = 0.003, r = 0.294), protein (p = 0.013, r = 0.246), riboflavin (p = 0.020, r = 0.232), niacin equivalent (p = 0.010, r = 0.256) and spine BMD. A nutrient pattern high in riboflavin, phosphorus and calcium was significantly positively correlated with spine (p < 0.05, r = 0.197) and femoral neck BMD (p < 0.05, r = 0.213), while the nutrient pattern high in vitamin E, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and omega 6 fatty acids was negatively correlated with hip (p < 0.05, r = −0.215) and trochanter BMD (p < 0.05, r = −0.251). These findings support the hypothesis that a nutrient pattern high in the intake of vitamin E, α-tocopherol and omega 6 fatty acids appears to be detrimental for bone health in postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
Open AccessArticle
Bone Health, Body Composition, and Vitamin D Status of Black Preadolescent Children in South Africa
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061243 - 31 May 2019
Abstract
Optimal bone health is important in children to reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Both body composition and vitamin D play an important role in bone health. This study aimed to describe bone health, body composition, and vitamin D status, and [...] Read more.
Optimal bone health is important in children to reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Both body composition and vitamin D play an important role in bone health. This study aimed to describe bone health, body composition, and vitamin D status, and the relationship between these among a group of conveniently sampled black preadolescent South African children (n = 84) using a cross-sectional study. Body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) were assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (n = 59) were assessed using dried blood spots. A quarter (25%) of children presented with low bone mass density for their chronological age (BMD Z-score < −2) and 7% with low BMC-for-age (BMC Z-score < −2), while only 34% of the children had sufficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL). Lean mass was the greatest body compositional determinant for variances observed in bone health measures. Body composition and bone health parameters were not significantly different across vitamin D status groups (p > 0.05), except for lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (LS-BMAD) (p < 0.01). No association was found between bone parameters at all sites and levels of 25(OH)D (p > 0.05). Further research, using larger representative samples of South African children including all race groups is needed before any conclusions and subsequent recommendation among this population group can be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
Open AccessArticle
Treadmill Exercise before and during Pregnancy Improves Bone Deficits in Pregnant Growth Restricted Rats without the Exacerbated Effects of High Fat Diet
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061236 - 30 May 2019
Abstract
Growth restriction programs adult bone deficits and increases the risk of obesity, which may be exacerbated during pregnancy. We aimed to determine if high-fat feeding could exacerbate the bone deficits in pregnant growth restricted dams, and whether treadmill exercise would attenuate these deficits. [...] Read more.
Growth restriction programs adult bone deficits and increases the risk of obesity, which may be exacerbated during pregnancy. We aimed to determine if high-fat feeding could exacerbate the bone deficits in pregnant growth restricted dams, and whether treadmill exercise would attenuate these deficits. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced on embryonic day 18 (E18) in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats using bilateral uterine vessel ligation (restricted) or sham (control) surgery. The F1 females consumed a standard or high-fat (HFD) diet from 5 weeks, commenced treadmill exercise at 16 weeks, and they were mated at 20 weeks. Femora and plasma from the pregnant dams were collected at post-mortem (E20) for peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), mechanical testing, histomorphometry, and plasma analysis. Sedentary restricted females had bone deficits compared to the controls, irrespective of diet, where such deficits were prevented with exercise. Osteocalcin increased in the sedentary restricted females compared to the control females. In the sedentary HFD females, osteocalcin was reduced and CTX-1 was increased, with increased peak force and bending stress compared to the chow females. Exercise that was initiated before and continued during pregnancy prevented bone deficits in the dams born growth restricted, whereas a HFD consumption had minimal bone effects. These findings further highlight the beneficial effects of exercise for individuals at risk of bone deficits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin C Activates Osteoblastogenesis and Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis via Wnt/β-Catenin/ATF4 Signaling Pathways
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030506 - 27 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of vitamin C on osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast formation, and the effects of vitamin C concentration on bone microstructure in ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed the recovery of bone mineral density and bone separation in [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of vitamin C on osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast formation, and the effects of vitamin C concentration on bone microstructure in ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats. Micro-computed tomography analysis revealed the recovery of bone mineral density and bone separation in OVX rats treated with vitamin C. Histomorphometrical analysis revealed improvements in the number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes; the osteoblast and osteoclast surface per bone surface; and bone volume in vitamin C-treated OVX rats. The vitamin C-treated group additionally displayed an increase in the expression of osteoblast differentiation genes, including bone morphogenetic protein-2, small mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin, and type I collagen. Vitamin C reduced the expression of osteoclast differentiation genes, such as receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and cathepsin K. This study is the first to show that vitamin C can inhibit osteoporosis by promoting osteoblast formation and blocking osteoclastogenesis through the activation of wingless-type MMTV integration site family/β-catenin/activating transcription factor 4 signaling, which is achieved through the serine/threonine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Therefore, our results suggest that vitamin C improves bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Resistant Starch Attenuates Bone Loss in Ovariectomised Mice by Regulating the Intestinal Microbiota and Bone-Marrow Inflammation
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020297 - 30 Jan 2019
Abstract
The intestinal microbiota may regulate bone metabolism by reducing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and T cells in bone tissues of oestrogen-deficient mice have been reported. Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fibre and results in changes in the composition of the [...] Read more.
The intestinal microbiota may regulate bone metabolism by reducing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and T cells in bone tissues of oestrogen-deficient mice have been reported. Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fibre and results in changes in the composition of the gut microbiota. We evaluated the effects of RS supplemented in diets on intestinal microbial composition, bone mineral density, and inflammatory-gene expression in the colon and bone marrow of ovariectomised (OVX) mice. OVX mice were divided randomly into three groups: OVX control, OVX fed a 20% high amylose corn starch (HAS) diet, and OVX fed a 20% acid-hydrolysed HAS (AH-HAS) diet. HAS and AH-HAS diets contained 6.8% and 12% of RS, respectively. After 6 weeks, treatment with HAS or AH-HAS increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. in faeces. The AH-HAS diet tended to upregulate mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in the colon, and downregulate expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and IL-7 receptor genes in the bone marrow of OVX mice. AH-HAS treatment attenuated ovariectomy-induced bone loss. These findings suggest that AH-HAS might change the microbiota and immune status of the bone marrow, resulting in attenuated bone resorption in OVX mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
High Fat Mixed Meal Tolerance Test Leads to Suppression of Osteocalcin Decrease in Obese Insulin Resistant Subjects Compared to Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2018, 10(11), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111611 - 01 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nutrients influence bone turnover. Carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC) participates in bone formation whereas its undercarboxylated form (Glu-OC) acts as a hormone in glucose metabolism. The aim of the study was to determine the responses of Gla-OC, Glu-OC, and total-OC (calculated as the sum of [...] Read more.
Nutrients influence bone turnover. Carboxylated osteocalcin (Gla-OC) participates in bone formation whereas its undercarboxylated form (Glu-OC) acts as a hormone in glucose metabolism. The aim of the study was to determine the responses of Gla-OC, Glu-OC, and total-OC (calculated as the sum of Gla-OC and Glu-OC) to a high fat mixed meal tolerance test (HFMTT) in non-obese (body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2, n = 24) and obese subjects (30 < BMI < 40 kg/m2, n = 70) (both sexes, aged 25–65 years). Serum Gla-OC and Glu-OC were measured at baseline as well as at 2 and 6 h during a HFMTT by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Baseline Gla-OC, Glu-OC, and total-OC levels were lower in obese individuals compared to non-obese participants (p = 0.037, p = 0.016 and p = 0.005, respectively). The decrease in Gla-OC and total-OC, but not in Glu-OC, concentrations during the HFMTT was suppressed in obese, but not in non-obese controls (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p = 0.08, respectively). Subjects with the highest homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values had a less pronounced decrease in total-OC compared to patients with values of HOMA-IR index in the 1st quartile (p < 0.05). Net incremental area under Gla-OC inversely correlated with adiponectin (rho = −0.35, p = 0.001). Increase in insulin sensitivity and adiponectin level in obese subjects could beneficially influence postprandial bone turnover expressed by osteocalcin concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Vitamin D Deficiency and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Vitamin D Receptor and GC Genes and Analysis of Their Distribution in Mexican Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091175 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Genome-wide association studies in people with European ancestry suggest that polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin D (VD) metabolism have an effect on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, nothing is known about these polymorphisms in populations with Amerindian ancestry. Our aim was [...] Read more.
Genome-wide association studies in people with European ancestry suggest that polymorphisms in genes involved in vitamin D (VD) metabolism have an effect on serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, nothing is known about these polymorphisms in populations with Amerindian ancestry. Our aim was to evaluate the association between genetic variants on the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D binding protein (GC) genes, involved in the VD pathway, and VD deficiency in 689 unrelated Mexican postmenopausal women. We also described the frequencies of these variants in 355 postmenopausal women from different ethnic groups. Based on our preliminary results of 400 unrelated Mexican postmenopausal women, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for genotyping. The SNPs rs4516035 in VDR and rs2282679 in GC were associated with VD deficiency. Additionally, women who carried three risk alleles had a 3.67 times higher risk of suffering VD deficiency, compared to women with no risk alleles (p = 0.002). The rs4516035-C allele frequency in the Amerindian population was enriched in the South East region of Mexico. In contrast, the highest frequency of the rs2298850-C allele, a proxy for the tag SNP rs2282679, was observed in the South region. Our results indicate that genetic variants in VDR and GC genes are associated with VD deficiency in Mexican postmenopausal women. Moreover, an association was observed for the variants rs3794060 and rs4944957 of the DHCR7/NADSYN1 gene with osteopenia/osteoporosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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Open AccessCommentary
Magnesium: Are We Consuming Enough?
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1863; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121863 - 02 Dec 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Magnesium is essential for maintaining normal cellular and organ function. In-adequate magnesium balance is associated with various disorders, such as skeletal deformities, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome. Unfortunately, routinely measured serum magnesium levels do not always reflect total body magnesium status. Thus, normal [...] Read more.
Magnesium is essential for maintaining normal cellular and organ function. In-adequate magnesium balance is associated with various disorders, such as skeletal deformities, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome. Unfortunately, routinely measured serum magnesium levels do not always reflect total body magnesium status. Thus, normal blood magnesium levels eclipse the wide-spread magnesium deficiency. Other magnesium measuring methods, including the magnesium loading test, may provide more accurate reflections of total body magnesium status and thus improve identification of magnesium-deficient individuals, and prevent magnesium deficiency related complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Status and Bone Health)
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