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Open AccessArticle

Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Consumed by the Low-Income Population in Brazil: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia 70910-900, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1418;
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
Objective: This study aimed to characterize the nutritional quality of breakfast consumed by the low-income Brazilian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1547 low-income individuals attending 36 Community Restaurants (CRs) in Brazil. Food consumption was analyzed by the frequency of food groups presented in the 24 h recall for three days. The nutritional consumption consisted of the analysis of the total energetic value (TEV) and the macronutrients, fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, calcium, and sodium. The nutrients were evaluated considering the percentage of contribution concerning the daily recommendation of consumption. Results: Among the 4641 breakfasts expected to be consumed and reported, 17.2% (n = 797) of the consumers did not consume breakfast. Therefore, we analyzed the 3844 breakfasts. The analysis of food groups showed a high consumption of dairy and cereals, and low consumption of fruits, roots/tubers, and meat/eggs. The percentages of energy contribution of the macronutrients in the TEV were adequate for a balanced diet. The mean intake of monounsaturated fatty acids was low, and the contribution percentages of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids were within the recommendations. The mean fiber intake of the breakfast was low, agreeing with the result of low fruit consumption. Calcium intake covered 73.49% of that expected for this meal, and sodium intake was adequate in breakfast. Conclusion: The individuals studied consumed a nutritionally balanced breakfast. Although dairy was one of the most consumed groups, calcium consumption was low, indicating the need to consume higher portions of food sources of this nutrient. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast; nutritional composition; low-income; public policies breakfast; nutritional composition; low-income; public policies
MDPI and ACS Style

de Sousa, J.R.; Botelho, R.B.A.; Akutsu, R.C.C.A.; Zandonadi, R.P. Nutritional Quality of Breakfast Consumed by the Low-Income Population in Brazil: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1418.

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