Special Issue "Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kristin I. Stanford
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department Physiol & Cell Biology, Dorothy M Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Interests: exercise; metabolism; adipose tissue biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. Exercise is an important therapeutic tool to combat several diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, among others. Advancing age or increasing obesity also effect the metabolic response to exercise. Nutrition is another factor that impacts the development and treatment of many chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and Alzheimer’s disease.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing the scientific literature, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The proposed manuscripts should cover the effects of exercise, metabolism, and nutrition.

Dr. Kristin I. Stanford
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Metabolism
  • Nutrition
  • Obesity

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
β2 Adrenergic Regulation of the Phagocytic and Microbicide Capacity of Macrophages from Obese and Lean Mice: Effects of Exercise
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2721; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112721 (registering DOI) - 09 Nov 2019
Abstract
Macrophages are crucial in the inflammation associated with obesity. Exercise is the main non-pharmacological strategy against obesity, not only for improving metabolic impairment, but also because of its anti-inflammatory effects, particularly those mediated by β2 adrenergic receptors (β2-AR). Nevertheless, these anti-inflammatory effects could [...] Read more.
Macrophages are crucial in the inflammation associated with obesity. Exercise is the main non-pharmacological strategy against obesity, not only for improving metabolic impairment, but also because of its anti-inflammatory effects, particularly those mediated by β2 adrenergic receptors (β2-AR). Nevertheless, these anti-inflammatory effects could immunocompromise the innate response against pathogen challenge. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of obesity, and of exercise in this condition, on the β2 adrenergic regulation of the innate function of macrophages. High fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice were used to evaluate the effects of acute and regular exercise on the phagocytic and microbicide capacities of peritoneal macrophages. Selective β2-AR agonist terbutaline (1 µM) decreased the phagocytic and microbicide activities of macrophages from control lean and obese sedentary animals. While acute exercise did not modify the inhibitory capacity of terbutaline, regular exercise abolished this inhibitory effect. These effects cannot be explained only by changes in the surface expression of β2-AR. In conclusion, (1) obesity does not alter the β2-AR-mediated decrease of the innate response of macrophages and (2) regular exercise can revert the inhibitory effect of terbutaline on the phagocytic activity of macrophages, although obesity seems to hinder this immunophysiological adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Oxidative Stress and Enhanced FGF21 Formation in Livers of Endurance-Exercised Rats with Diet-Induced NASH
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2709; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112709 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) including the severe form with steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly prevalent ailments to which no approved pharmacological treatment exists. Dietary intervention aiming at 10% weight reduction is efficient but fails due to low compliance. Increase in physical activity is [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) including the severe form with steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly prevalent ailments to which no approved pharmacological treatment exists. Dietary intervention aiming at 10% weight reduction is efficient but fails due to low compliance. Increase in physical activity is an alternative that improved NAFLD even in the absence of weight reduction. The underlying mechanisms are unclear and cannot be studied in humans. Here, a rat NAFLD model was developed that reproduces many facets of the diet-induced NAFLD in humans. The impact of endurance exercise was studied in this model. Male Wistar rats received control chow or a NASH-inducing diet rich in fat, cholesterol, and fructose. Both diet groups were subdivided into a sedentary and an endurance exercise group. Animals receiving the NASH-inducing diet gained more body weight, got glucose intolerant and developed a liver pathology with steatosis, hepatocyte hypertrophy, inflammation and fibrosis typical of NAFLD or NASH. Contrary to expectations, endurance exercise did not improve the NASH activity score and even enhanced hepatic inflammation. However, endurance exercise attenuated the hepatic cholesterol overload and the ensuing severe oxidative stress. In addition, exercise improved glucose tolerance possibly in part by induction of hepatic FGF21 production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Obesity Affects β2 Adrenergic Regulation of the Inflammatory Profile and Phenotype of Circulating Monocytes from Exercised Animals
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112630 - 02 Nov 2019
Abstract
Anomalous immune/inflammatory responses in obesity take place along with alterations in the neuroendocrine responses and dysregulation in the immune/stress feedback mechanisms. Exercise is a potential anti-inflammatory strategy in this context, but the influence of exercise on the β2 adrenergic regulation of the monocyte-mediated [...] Read more.
Anomalous immune/inflammatory responses in obesity take place along with alterations in the neuroendocrine responses and dysregulation in the immune/stress feedback mechanisms. Exercise is a potential anti-inflammatory strategy in this context, but the influence of exercise on the β2 adrenergic regulation of the monocyte-mediated inflammatory response in obesity remains completely unknown. The first objective of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise on the inflammatory profile and phenotype of monocytes from obese and lean animals, and the second aim was to determine whether obesity could affect monocytes’ inflammatory response to β2 adrenergic activation in exercised animals. C57BL/6J mice were allocated to different lean or obese groups: sedentary, with acute exercise, or with regular exercise. The inflammatory profile and phenotype of their circulating monocytes were evaluated by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of the selective β2 adrenergic receptor agonist terbutaline. Exercise caused an anti-inflammatory effect in obese individuals and a pro-inflammatory effect in lean individuals. β2 adrenergic receptor stimulation exerted a global pro-inflammatory effect in monocytes from exercised obese animals and an anti-inflammatory effect in monocytes from exercised lean animals. Thus, β2 adrenergic regulation of inflammation in monocytes from exercised animals seems to depend on the inflammatory basal set-point. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Nutrient Intake Timing on Post-Exercise Glycogen Accumulation and Its Related Signaling Pathways in Mouse Skeletal Muscle
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112555 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
We investigated the effects of nutrient intake timing on glycogen accumulation and its related signals in skeletal muscle after an exercise that did not induce large glycogen depletion. Male ICR mice ran on a treadmill at 25 m/min for 60 min under a [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of nutrient intake timing on glycogen accumulation and its related signals in skeletal muscle after an exercise that did not induce large glycogen depletion. Male ICR mice ran on a treadmill at 25 m/min for 60 min under a fed condition. Mice were orally administered a solution containing 1.2 mg/g carbohydrate and 0.4 mg/g protein or water either immediately (early nutrient, EN) or 180 min (late nutrient, LN) after the exercise. Tissues were harvested at 30 min after the oral administration. No significant difference in blood glucose or plasma insulin concentrations was found between the EN and LN groups. The plantaris muscle glycogen concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the EN group—but not in the LN group—compared to the respective time-matched control group. Akt Ser473 phosphorylation was significantly higher in the EN group than in the time-matched control group (p < 0.01), while LN had no effect. Positive main effects of time were found for the phosphorylations in Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) Thr642 (p < 0.05), 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) Thr172 (p < 0.01), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase Ser79 (p < 0.01); however, no effect of nutrient intake was found for these. We showed that delayed nutrient intake could not increase muscle glycogen after endurance exercise which did not induce large glycogen depletion. The results also suggest that post-exercise muscle glycogen accumulation after nutrient intake might be partly influenced by Akt activation. Meanwhile, increased AS160 and AMPK activation by post-exercise fasting might not lead to glycogen accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Balance and Active Lifestyle: Potential Mediators of Health and Quality of Life Perception in Aging
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2122; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092122 - 06 Sep 2019
Abstract
The relationship between aging and perception of health and quality of life is complex and its mediation mechanisms need to be further explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of total energy expenditure and intake, body mass, and [...] Read more.
The relationship between aging and perception of health and quality of life is complex and its mediation mechanisms need to be further explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of total energy expenditure and intake, body mass, and body image dissatisfaction on the relationship between age and perception of health and quality of life. Forty-two senior athletes, 55 physically active, and 61 sedentary individuals (aged 55–84 years) were evaluated for total energy expenditure (EE), energy intake (EI), body mass index (BMI), absolute Body Dissatisfaction Index (BDIabx), and physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health and quality of life perception. Multiple mediation analyses were applied to assess the relationship between age and PCS and MCS indices, through the mediators EE, EI, BMI, and BDIabx. For MCS, but not for PSC, the mediation analysis showed: (a) a direct effect of age; (b) a mediation path through EE, EI, BMI, and BDIabx; and (c) a positive total effect. The combination of positive and negative mediating effects influencing the mental health perception underlined that with advancing age, the maintenance of high levels of energy expenditure through physical activity could positively impact body image satisfaction and, in turn, mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Plasma Amino Acid Profile in Recreational Runners with Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1875; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081875 - 13 Aug 2019
Abstract
This study investigated the exercise-induced changes in oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and amino acid profile in plasma of omnivorous (OMN, n = 25), lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV, n = 25) and vegan (VEG, n = 23) recreational runners. Oxidative stress was measured as [...] Read more.
This study investigated the exercise-induced changes in oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO) metabolism and amino acid profile in plasma of omnivorous (OMN, n = 25), lacto-ovo-vegetarian (LOV, n = 25) and vegan (VEG, n = 23) recreational runners. Oxidative stress was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), NO as nitrite and nitrate, and various amino acids, including homoarginine and guanidinoacetate, the precursor of creatine. All analytes were measured by validated stable-isotope dilution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods. Pre-exercise, VEG had the highest MDA and nitrate concentrations, whereas nitrite concentration was highest in LOV. Amino acid profiles differed between the groups, with guanidinoacetate being highest in OMN. Upon acute exercise, MDA increased in the LOV and VEG group, whereas nitrate, nitrite and creatinine did not change. Amino acid profiles changed post-exercise in all groups, with the greatest changes being observed for alanine (+28% in OMN, +21% in LOV and +28% in VEG). Pre-exercise, OMN, LOV and VEG recreational runners differ with respect to oxidative stress, NO metabolism and amino acid profiles, in part due to their different dietary pattern. Exercise elicited different changes in oxidative stress with no changes in NO metabolism and closely comparable elevations in alanine. Guanidinoacetate seems to be differently utilized in OMN, LOV and VEG, pre- and post-exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Caffeine and Coconut Oil Intake, Isolated or Combined, Does Not Improve Running Times of Recreational Runners: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled and Crossover Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071661 - 20 Jul 2019
Abstract
The aim was to evaluate the effect of caffeine (CAF) and extra virgin coconut oil (CO), isolated or combined, on running performance in runners. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover study was conducted with thirteen recreational runners aged 18–40. All volunteers performed a [...] Read more.
The aim was to evaluate the effect of caffeine (CAF) and extra virgin coconut oil (CO), isolated or combined, on running performance in runners. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover study was conducted with thirteen recreational runners aged 18–40. All volunteers performed a 1600 m time trial at a 400 m track, each ingesting four different substances: (1) placebo (water), (2) decaffeinated coffee plus isolated CAF (DECAF + CAF), (3) decaffeinated coffee plus isolated CAF plus soy oil (DECAF + CAF + SO), and (4) decaffeinated coffee plus isolated CAF plus extra virgin coconut oil (DECAF + CAF + CO). The substances were ingested 60 min before the trials, the order of the situations was randomized, and there were one-week intervals between them. At the end of the trials, the Borg scale was applied to evaluate the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the time was measured. Results: Our data did not show differences in running time among the trials (placebo: 7.64 ± 0.80, DECAF + CAF: 7.61 ± 1.02, DECAF + CAF + SO: 7.66 ± 0.89, and DECAF + CAF + CO: 7.58 ± 0.74 min; p = 0.93), nor RPE (placebo: 6.15 ± 2.03, DECAF + CAF: 6.00 ± 2.27, DECAF + CAF + SO: 6.54 ± 2.73, and DECAF + CAF + CO: 6.00 ± 2.45 score; p = 0.99). Lactate concentrations (placebo: 6.23 ± 2.72, DECAF + CAF: 4.43 ± 3.77, DECAF + CAF + SO: 5.29 ± 3.77, and DECAF + CAF + CO: 6.17 ± 4.18 mmol/L; p = 0.55) also was not modified. Conclusion: Our study shows that ingestion of decaffeinated coffee with the addition of isolated CAF and extra virgin CO, either isolated or combined, does not improve 1600 m running times, nor influence RPE and lactate concentrations in recreational runners. Thus, combination of coffee with CO as a pre-workout supplement seems to be unsubstantiated for a short-distance race. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Caffeine Ingestion did not Enhance Punch Performance in Professional Mixed-Martial Arts Athletes
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061422 - 25 Jun 2019
Abstract
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport where competitors utilize strikes (punches, kicks, knees, and elbows) and submission techniques to defeat opponents in a cage or ring. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on [...] Read more.
Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport where competitors utilize strikes (punches, kicks, knees, and elbows) and submission techniques to defeat opponents in a cage or ring. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on punching performance by professional MMA athletes. The study used a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. Eleven professional MMA competitors (27.6 ± 4.3 years and 83.5 ± 7.8 kg of body weight) ingested a dose of caffeine (5 mg·kg−1) or placebo 60 min prior to three sets of punching. Each set consisted of 15 s, at which participants were asked to perform straight punches with maximum strength and frequency with his dominant arm. After each set, a 45 s recovery time was applied. Using a force transducer attached to a cushioned plate, the punch frequency, and mean and maximal punch force was measured. The readiness to invest in both physical (RTIPE) and mental (RTIME) effort was assessed prior to the protocol, and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after. Caffeine ingestion did not result in increased punching frequency, mean and maximum punch force, RTIPE, RTIME, and RPE when compared to the placebo condition. Based on these results, acute caffeine ingestion did not improve punching performance in professional MMA athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Forced Physical Activity on the Severity of Experimental Colitis in Normal Weight and Obese Mice. Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Biomarkers
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051127 - 21 May 2019
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders represented by two major phenotypic forms, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Cross talk between adipokines and myokines, as well as changes in intestinal microcirculation, was proposed in pathogenesis of these disorders. C57BL/6 male mice [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders represented by two major phenotypic forms, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Cross talk between adipokines and myokines, as well as changes in intestinal microcirculation, was proposed in pathogenesis of these disorders. C57BL/6 male mice were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a standard (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD). After the adaptation period, two groups of animals fed SD or HFD were subjected to 6 weeks of the forced treadmill exercise and the experimental colitis was induced in both groups of sedentary and exercising mice fed SD and HFD by intra-colonic administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid. The disease activity index (DAI), colonic blood flow (CBF), the weight of animals, caloric intake, the mesenteric fad pad, the colonic oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and intestinal expression and protein content of proinflammatory markers were evaluated. Macroscopic and microscopic colitis in sedentary SD mice was accompanied by a significant fall in CBF and exacerbated in those fed a HFD. The contents of MDA, GSH, and SOD activity were significantly increased in both SD and HFD fed mice with treadmill exercise as compared with sedentary mice. In sedentary HFD mice a significant increase in the intestinal oxidative stress parameters and mucosal expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-17, IFNγ, IL-6, and IL-10 protein were observed and these effects were aggravated in mice subjected to forced treadmill exercise. The mucosal expression of mRNA for TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, COX-2, SOD-1, SOD-2, GPx mRNAs, and the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein expression were upregulated in colonic mucosa of treadmill exercising HFD mice with colitis compared with those without exercise. We conclude that forced treadmill running exacerbates the severity of colonic damage in obese mice due to a fall in colonic microcirculation, an increase in oxidative stress, and the rise in expression and activity of proinflammatory biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association of Life’s Simple 7 with Aldosterone among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050955 - 26 Apr 2019
Abstract
Background: Among African Americans (AAs), attaining higher levels of American Heart Association (AHA) ideal cardiovascular health (Life’s Simple 7 [LS7]) is associated with lower risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We previously showed that aldosterone is associated with higher risk of diabetes [...] Read more.
Background: Among African Americans (AAs), attaining higher levels of American Heart Association (AHA) ideal cardiovascular health (Life’s Simple 7 [LS7]) is associated with lower risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We previously showed that aldosterone is associated with higher risk of diabetes and CVD in AAs. Thus, we investigated the association of LS7 metrics with aldosterone in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). Methods: Ideal metrics were defined by AHA 2020 goals for health behaviors (smoking, dietary intake, physical activity, and body mass index) and health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose). The number of ideal LS7 metrics attained at baseline were summed into a continuous score (0–7) and categorical groups (Poor: 0–1, Intermediate: 2–3, and Ideal: ≥4 ideal LS7 metrics). Multivariable linear regression was used. Results: Among 4,095 JHS participants (mean age 55 ± 13 years, 65% female), median serum aldosterone was 4.90, 4.30, and 3.70 ng/dL in the poor (n = 1132), intermediate (n = 2288) and ideal (n = 675) categories respectively. Aldosterone was 15% [0.85 (0.80, 0.90)] and 33% [0.67 (0.61, 0.75)] lower in the intermediate and ideal LS7 categories compared to the poor LS7 category. Each additional LS7 metric attained on continuous LS7 score (0–7) was associated with an 11% [0.89 (0.86, 0.91)] lower aldosterone level with variation by sex with women having a 15% lower aldosterone vs. 5% in men. Conclusions: Higher attainment of ideal LS7 metrics was associated with lower serum aldosterone among AAs with a greater magnitude of association among women compared to men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Exercise Performance by 48 Hours, and 15-Day Supplementation with Mangiferin and Luteolin in Men
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020344 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The natural polyphenols mangiferin and luteolin have free radical-scavenging properties, induce the antioxidant gene program and down-regulate the expression of superoxide-producing enzymes. However, the effects of these two polyphenols on exercise capacity remains mostly unknown. To determine whether a combination of luteolin (peanut [...] Read more.
The natural polyphenols mangiferin and luteolin have free radical-scavenging properties, induce the antioxidant gene program and down-regulate the expression of superoxide-producing enzymes. However, the effects of these two polyphenols on exercise capacity remains mostly unknown. To determine whether a combination of luteolin (peanut husk extract containing 95% luteolin, PHE) and mangiferin (mango leave extract (MLE), Zynamite®) at low (PHE: 50 mg/day; and 140 mg/day of MLE containing 100 mg of mangiferin; L) and high doses (PHE: 100 mg/day; MLE: 420 mg/day; H) may enhance exercise performance, twelve physically active men performed incremental exercise to exhaustion, followed by sprint and endurance exercise after 48 h (acute effects) and 15 days of supplementation (prolonged effects) with polyphenols or placebo, following a double-blind crossover design. During sprint exercise, mangiferin + luteolin supplementation enhanced exercise performance, facilitated muscle oxygen extraction, and improved brain oxygenation, without increasing the VO2. Compared to placebo, mangiferin + luteolin increased muscle O2 extraction during post-exercise ischemia, and improved sprint performance after ischemia-reperfusion likely by increasing glycolytic energy production, as reflected by higher blood lactate concentrations after the sprints. Similar responses were elicited by the two doses tested. In conclusion, acute and prolonged supplementation with mangiferin combined with luteolin enhances performance, muscle O2 extraction, and brain oxygenation during sprint exercise, at high and low doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Impact of Endurance and Resistance Training on Skeletal Muscle Glucose Metabolism in Older Adults
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2636; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112636 - 03 Nov 2019
Abstract
Aging is associated with insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. While this process is multifaceted, age-related changes to skeletal muscle are expected to contribute to impaired glucose metabolism. Some of these changes include sarcopenia, impaired insulin signaling, and imbalances in [...] Read more.
Aging is associated with insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. While this process is multifaceted, age-related changes to skeletal muscle are expected to contribute to impaired glucose metabolism. Some of these changes include sarcopenia, impaired insulin signaling, and imbalances in glucose utilization. Endurance and resistance exercise training have been endorsed as interventions to improve glucose tolerance and whole-body insulin sensitivity in the elderly. While both types of exercise generally increase insulin sensitivity in older adults, the metabolic pathways through which this occurs can differ and can be dependent on preexisting conditions including obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we will first highlight age-related changes to skeletal muscle which can contribute to insulin resistance, followed by a comparison of endurance and resistance training adaptations to insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Adipose Tissue Quality in Aging: How Structural and Functional Aspects of Adipose Tissue Impact Skeletal Muscle Quality
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2553; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112553 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
The interplay between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and the impact on mobility and aging remain enigmatic. The progressive decline in mobility promoted by aging has been previously attributed to the loss of skeletal mass and function and more recently linked to changes [...] Read more.
The interplay between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and the impact on mobility and aging remain enigmatic. The progressive decline in mobility promoted by aging has been previously attributed to the loss of skeletal mass and function and more recently linked to changes in body fat composition and quantity. Regardless of body size, visceral and intermuscular adipose depots increase with aging and are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the quality of adipose tissue, in particular abdominal subcutaneous as it is the largest depot, likely plays a significant role in aging outcomes, such as mobility decline, though its communication with other tissues such as skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss the age-associated development of a pro-inflammatory profile, cellular senescence, and metabolic inflexibility in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Collectively, these facets of adipose tissue quality influence its secretory profile and crosstalk with skeletal muscle and likely contribute to the development of muscle atrophy and disability. Therefore, the identification of the key structural and functional components of adipose tissue quality—including necrosis, senescence, inflammation, self-renewal, metabolic flexibility—and adipose tissue-secreted proteins that influence mobility via direct effects on skeletal muscle are necessary to prevent morbidity/mortality in the aging population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Glucose Transport and Glucose Metabolism by Exercise Training
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102432 - 12 Oct 2019
Abstract
Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training are both well-known for their ability to improve human health; especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, there are critical differences between these two main forms of exercise training and the adaptations that they induce [...] Read more.
Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training are both well-known for their ability to improve human health; especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, there are critical differences between these two main forms of exercise training and the adaptations that they induce in the body that may account for their beneficial effects. This article reviews the literature and highlights key gaps in our current understanding of the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis, skeletal muscle glucose transport and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
The Regulation of Lipokines by Environmental Factors
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102422 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
Adipose tissue is a highly metabolically-active tissue that senses and secretes hormonal and lipid mediators that facilitate adaptations to metabolic tissues. In recent years, the role of lipokines, which are lipid species predominantly secreted from adipose tissue that act as hormonal regulators in [...] Read more.
Adipose tissue is a highly metabolically-active tissue that senses and secretes hormonal and lipid mediators that facilitate adaptations to metabolic tissues. In recent years, the role of lipokines, which are lipid species predominantly secreted from adipose tissue that act as hormonal regulators in many metabolic tissues, has been an important area of research for obesity and diabetes. Previous studies have identified that these secreted lipids, including palmitoleate, 12,13-diHOME, and fatty acid–hydroxy–fatty acids (FAHFA) species, are important regulators of metabolism. Moreover, environmental factors that directly affect the secretion of lipokines such as diet, exercise, and exposure to cold temperatures constitute attractive therapeutic strategies, but the mechanisms that regulate lipokine stimulation have not been thoroughly reviewed. In this study, we will discuss the chemical characteristics of lipokines that position them as attractive targets for chronic disease treatment and prevention and the emerging roles of lipokines as regulators of inter-tissue communication. We will define the target tissues of lipokines, and explore the ability of lipokines to prevent or delay the onset and development of chronic diseases. Comprehensive understanding of the lipokine synthesis and lipokine-driven regulation of metabolic outcomes is instrumental for developing novel preventative and therapeutic strategies that harness adipose tissue-derived lipokines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Exercise and Nutritional Intervention on Body Composition, Metabolic Health, and Physical Performance in Adults with Sarcopenic Obesity: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092163 - 09 Sep 2019
Abstract
People with sarcopenic obesity (SO) are characterized by both low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and high body fat (obesity); they have greater risks of metabolic diseases and physical disability than people with sarcopenia or obesity alone. Exercise and nutrition have been reported to be [...] Read more.
People with sarcopenic obesity (SO) are characterized by both low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and high body fat (obesity); they have greater risks of metabolic diseases and physical disability than people with sarcopenia or obesity alone. Exercise and nutrition have been reported to be effective for both obesity and sarcopenia management. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of exercise and nutrition on body composition, metabolic health, and physical performance in individuals with SO. Studies investigating the effects of exercise and nutrition on body composition, metabolic health, and physical performance in SO individuals were searched from electronic databases up to April 2019. Fifteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Aerobic exercise decreased body weight and fat mass (FM). Resistance exercise (RE) decreased FM and improved grip strength. The combination of aerobic exercise and RE decreased FM and improved walking speed. Nutritional intervention, especially low-calorie high-protein (LCHP) diet, decreased FM but did not affect muscle mass and grip strength. In addition to exercise training, nutrition did not provide extra benefits in outcome. Exercise, especially RE, is essential to improve body composition and physical performance in individuals with SO. Nutritional intervention with LCHP decreases FM but does not improve physical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Open AccessDiscussion
Ketogenic Diets and Exercise Performance
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2296; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102296 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
The ketogenic diet (KD) has gained a resurgence in popularity due to its purported reputation for fighting obesity. The KD has also acquired attention as an alternative and/or supplemental method for producing energy in the form of ketone bodies. Recent scientific evidence highlights [...] Read more.
The ketogenic diet (KD) has gained a resurgence in popularity due to its purported reputation for fighting obesity. The KD has also acquired attention as an alternative and/or supplemental method for producing energy in the form of ketone bodies. Recent scientific evidence highlights the KD as a promising strategy to treat obesity, diabetes, and cardiac dysfunction. In addition, studies support ketone body supplements as a potential method to induce ketosis and supply sustainable fuel sources to promote exercise performance. Despite the acceptance in the mainstream media, the KD remains controversial in the medical and scientific communities. Research suggests that the KD or ketone body supplementation may result in unexpected side effects, including altered blood lipid profiles, abnormal glucose homeostasis, increased adiposity, fatigue, and gastrointestinal distress. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of ketone body metabolism and a background on the KD and ketone body supplements in the context of obesity and exercise performance. The effectiveness of these dietary or supplementation strategies as a therapy for weight loss or as an ergogenic aid will be discussed. In addition, the recent evidence that indicates ketone body metabolism is a potential target for cardiac dysfunction will be reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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Carbohydrate Availability and Physical Performance: Physiological Overview and Practical Recommendations
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051084 - 16 May 2019
Abstract
Strong evidence during the last few decades has highlighted the importance of nutrition for sport performance, the role of carbohydrates (CHO) being of special interest. Glycogen is currently not only considered an energy substrate but also a regulator of the signaling pathways that [...] Read more.
Strong evidence during the last few decades has highlighted the importance of nutrition for sport performance, the role of carbohydrates (CHO) being of special interest. Glycogen is currently not only considered an energy substrate but also a regulator of the signaling pathways that regulate exercise-induced adaptations. Thus, low or high CHO availabilities can result in both beneficial or negative results depending on the purpose. On the one hand, the depletion of glycogen levels is a limiting factor of performance during sessions in which high exercise intensities are required; therefore ensuring a high CHO availability before and during exercise is of major importance. A high CHO availability has also been positively related to the exercise-induced adaptations to resistance training. By contrast, a low CHO availability seems to promote endurance-exercise-induced adaptations such as mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced lipolysis. In the present narrative review, we aim to provide a holistic overview of how CHO availability impacts physical performance as well as to provide practical recommendations on how training and nutrition might be combined to maximize performance. Attending to the existing evidence, no universal recommendations regarding CHO intake can be given to athletes as nutrition should be periodized according to training loads and objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
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