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Special Issue "Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Susanna Brighenti

Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medicine Huddinge, Center for Infectious Medicine (CIM), Stockholm, Sweden
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Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Peter Bergman

Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Laboratory Medicine (Labmed), Clinical microbiology, Stockholm, Sweden
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Interests: nutrition; chronic disease; prevention; cardiovascular disease; cancer; infection; inflammation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global burden of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular and renal diseases, diabetes, certain cancers, osteoporosis, obesity, and also chronic infections and chronic inflammatory diseases, is rapidly increasing. This creates a major public health threat that requires innovative prevention and therapeutic strategies. Diet and nutrition are fundamental cornerstones to prevent chronic diseases from early childhood throughout adult life and thus provide ample opportunities for targeted interventions. A common misconception is that chronic diseases are most prevalent in the industrialized world, while the truth is that the rate of chronic diseases is mostly increasing in developing countries. Susceptibility to chronic diseases is a multifactorial event that typically involves behavioral, biological, as well as societal factors. In addition, metabolic diversity, the human microbiome, and, not least, the impact of nutrition on the immune system may be important determinants of chronic disease outcome. This Special Issue ”Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease”, considers the role of nutrition in chronic disease and the development of nutritional supplementation and dietary recommendations for potential clinical applications.

Assoc. Prof. Susanna Brighenti
Assoc. Prof. Peter Bergman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • chronic disease
  • prevention
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cancer
  • infection
  • inflammation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: The Influence of Treatment Modality
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081920
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
Background: We analyzed the dietary patterns of Brazilian individuals with a self-declared diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and explored associations with treatment modality. Methods: Weekly consumption of 14 food intake markers was analyzed in 839 individuals from the 2013 Brazil National Health [...] Read more.
Background: We analyzed the dietary patterns of Brazilian individuals with a self-declared diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and explored associations with treatment modality. Methods: Weekly consumption of 14 food intake markers was analyzed in 839 individuals from the 2013 Brazil National Health Survey with a self-declared diagnosis of CKD undergoing nondialysis (n = 480), dialysis (n = 48), or renal transplant (n = 17) treatment or no CKD treatment (n = 294). Dietary patterns were derived by exploratory factor analysis of food intake groups. Multiple linear regression models, adjusted by sociodemographic and geographical variables, were used to evaluate possible differences in dietary pattern scores between different CKD treatment groups. Results: Two food patterns were identified: an “Unhealthy” pattern (red meat, sweet sugar beverages, alcoholic beverages, and sweets and a negative loading of chicken, excessive salt, and fish) and a “Healthy” pattern (raw and cooked vegetables, fruits, fresh fruit juice, and milk). The Unhealthy pattern was inversely associated with nondialysis and dialysis treatment (β: −0.20 (95% CI: −0.33; −0.06) and β: −0.80 (−1.16; −0.45), respectively) and the Healthy pattern was positively associated with renal transplant treatment (β: 0.32 (0.03; 0.62)). Conclusions: Two dietary patterns were identified in Brazilian CKD individuals and these patterns were linked to CKD treatment modality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Lowers CYP-Mediated Bioactivation and Toxicity of Acetaminophen in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081862
Received: 21 July 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
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Abstract
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol in green tea. To investigate the effects of dietary EGCG on oxidative stress and the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen in the liver, rats were fed diets with (0.54%) or without EGCG supplementation for four weeks [...] Read more.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol in green tea. To investigate the effects of dietary EGCG on oxidative stress and the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen in the liver, rats were fed diets with (0.54%) or without EGCG supplementation for four weeks and were then injected intraperitoneally with acetaminophen (1 g/kg). The results showed that EGCG lowered hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2E1, and 3A, and UDP-glucurosyltransferase activities prior to acetaminophen injection. After acetaminophen challenge, the elevations in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and histological changes in the liver were ameliorated by EGCG treatment. EGCG reduced acetaminophen-induced apoptosis by lowering the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in the liver. EGCG mildly increased autophagy by increasing the LC3B II/I ratio. Lower hepatic acetaminophen–glutathione and acetaminophen–protein adducts contents were observed after EGCG treatment. EGCG increased glutathione peroxidase and NAD(P)H quinone 1 oxidoreductase activities and reduced organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1a1 expression in the liver after acetaminophen treatment. Our results indicate that EGCG may reduce oxidative stress and lower the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen. The reductions in CYP-mediated acetaminophen bioactivation and uptake transporter, as well as enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity, may limit the accumulation of toxic products in the liver and thus lower hepatotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D and Phenylbutyrate Supplementation Does Not Modulate Gut Derived Immune Activation in HIV-1
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071675
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals ( [...] Read more.
Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 167) were included from a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial of daily 5000 IU vitamin D and 500 mg phenylbutyrate for 16 weeks (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01702974). Baseline and per-protocol plasma samples at week 16 were analysed for soluble CD14, the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, choline, and betaine. Assessment of the gut microbiota involved 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colonic biopsies. Vitamin D + phenylbutyrate treatment significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p < 0.001) but had no effects on sCD14, the kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, or choline levels. Subgroup-analyses of vitamin D insufficient subjects demonstrated a significant increase of LL-37 in the treatment group (p = 0.02), whereas treatment failed to significantly impact LL-37-levels in multiple regression analysis. Further, no effects on the microbiota was found in number of operational taxonomic units (p = 0.71), Shannon microbial diversity index (p = 0.82), or in principal component analyses (p = 0.83). Nutritional supplementation with vitamin D + phenylbutyrate did not modulate gut-derived inflammatory markers or microbial composition in treatment-naïve HIV-1 individuals with active viral replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Diversity of Gut Microbiota Affecting Serum Level of Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin in Patients with Crohn’s Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071541
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
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Abstract
Several reports have indicated a possible link between decreasing plasma levels of vitamin K and bone mineral density. It has been suggested that intestinal bacteria contribute to maintenance of vitamin K. Several factors are involved in the reduction of vitamin K in patients [...] Read more.
Several reports have indicated a possible link between decreasing plasma levels of vitamin K and bone mineral density. It has been suggested that intestinal bacteria contribute to maintenance of vitamin K. Several factors are involved in the reduction of vitamin K in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). We aimed to assess the relationship between gut microbiota and alternative indicators of vitamin K deficiency in patients with CD. We collected the feces of 26 patients with clinically inactive CD. We extracted 16S rRNA from the intestinal bacteria in the feces and amplified it by polymerase chain reaction. The generated polymerase chain reaction product was analyzed using a 16S metagenomic approach by Illumina Miseq platform. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentration was used as an alternative indicator of vitamin K deficiency. There was a significant negative correlation between serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin and mean Chao1 index in cases of low activity. The diversity of the gut microbiota was significantly lower, and Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were significantly decreased in the vitamin K-deficient group in comparison to the vitamin K-normal group. Taken together, these data suggested the significance of investigating the gut microbiota even in patients with clinically inactive CD for improving patients’ vitamin K status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptation and Validation of Alternative Healthy Eating Index in Hemodialysis Patients (AHEI-HD) and Its Association with all-Cause Mortality: A Multi-Center Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061407
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
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Abstract
A valid diet quality assessment scale has not been investigated in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to adapt and validate the alternative healthy eating index in hemodialysis patients (AHEI-HD), and investigate its associations with all-cause mortality. A prospective study was conducted on 370 hemodialysis [...] Read more.
A valid diet quality assessment scale has not been investigated in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to adapt and validate the alternative healthy eating index in hemodialysis patients (AHEI-HD), and investigate its associations with all-cause mortality. A prospective study was conducted on 370 hemodialysis patients from seven hospital-based dialysis centers. Dietary data (using three independent 24-hour dietary records), clinical and laboratory parameters were collected. The construct and criterion validity of original AHEI-2010 with 11 items and the AHEI-HD with 16 items were examined. Both scales showed reasonable item-scale correlations and satisfactory discriminant validity. The AHEI-HD demonstrated a weaker correlation with energy intake compared with AHEI-2010. Principle component analysis yielded the plateau scree plot line in AHEI-HD but not in AHEI-2010. In comparison with patients in lowest diet quality (tertile 1), those in highest diet quality (tertile 3) had significantly lower risk for death, with a hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of HR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.18 – 0.90; p = 0.028, as measured by AHEI-2010, and HR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.17–0.82; p = 0.014 as measured by AHEI-HD, respectively. In conclusion, AHEI-HD was shown to have greater advantages than AHEI-2010. AHEI-HD was suggested for assessments of diet quality in hemodialysis patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Daily Nutritional Supplementation with Vitamin D3 and Phenylbutyrate to Treatment-Naïve HIV Patients Tested in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010133
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Poor nutritional status is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients including vitamin D (vitD3) deficiency. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to investigate if daily nutritional supplementation with vitD3 (5000 IU) and phenylbutyrate [...] Read more.
Poor nutritional status is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients including vitamin D (vitD3) deficiency. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to investigate if daily nutritional supplementation with vitD3 (5000 IU) and phenylbutyrate (PBA, 2 × 500 mg) could mediate beneficial effects in treatment-naïve HIV patients. Primary endpoint: the change in plasma HIV-1 comparing week 0 to 16 using modified intention-to-treat (mITT, n = 197) and per-protocol (n = 173) analyses. Secondary endpoints: longitudinal HIV viral load, T cell counts, body mass index (BMI), middle-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), and 25(OH)D3 levels in plasma. Baseline characteristics were detectable viral loads (median 7897 copies/mL), low CD4+ (median 410 cells/µL), and elevated CD8+ (median 930 cells/µL) T cell counts. Most subjects were vitD3 deficient at enrolment, but a gradual and significant improvement of vitD3 status was demonstrated in the vitD3 + PBA group compared with placebo (p < 0.0001) from week 0 to 16 (median 37.5 versus 115.5 nmol/L). No significant changes in HIV viral load, CD4+ or CD8+ T cell counts, BMI or MUAC could be detected. Clinical adverse events were similar in both groups. Daily vitD3 + PBA for 16 weeks was well-tolerated and effectively improved vitD3 status but did not reduce viral load, restore peripheral T cell counts or improve BMI or MUAC in HIV patients with slow progressive disease. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01702974. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Dietary Patterns and Renal Health Outcomes in the General Population: A Review Focusing on Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081877
Received: 9 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
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Abstract
Healthy dietary patterns may promote kidney health and prevent adverse renal outcomes. Although reviews have summarized the findings from studies on dietary patterns for chronic kidney disease (CKD) management, less is known about dietary patterns for maintaining kidney health prior to CKD development. [...] Read more.
Healthy dietary patterns may promote kidney health and prevent adverse renal outcomes. Although reviews have summarized the findings from studies on dietary patterns for chronic kidney disease (CKD) management, less is known about dietary patterns for maintaining kidney health prior to CKD development. The current review summarized the results from observational studies from March 2009 to March 2019 investigating associations between dietary patterns and renal outcomes in the general population. The main renal outcome assessed was CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). A total of twenty-six research articles met the inclusion criteria. Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets were significantly associated with a decreased risk of CKD in the majority of the studies. Furthermore, a posteriori “unhealthy” dietary patterns were associated with an increased risk of CKD. In conclusion, the findings from this review suggest that adherence to DASH and Mediterranean dietary patterns may be useful in promoting kidney health and preventing CKD in the general population. More studies, in particular among minorities, are warranted to investigate the role of diet, a potentially modifiable factor, in promoting kidney health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Coffee Intake and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061274
Received: 27 April 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
Many studies have explored the relationship between coffee—one of the most commonly consumed beverages today—and obesity. Despite inconsistent results, the relationship has not been systematically summarized. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis by compiling data from 12 epidemiologic studies identified from PubMed and Embase [...] Read more.
Many studies have explored the relationship between coffee—one of the most commonly consumed beverages today—and obesity. Despite inconsistent results, the relationship has not been systematically summarized. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis by compiling data from 12 epidemiologic studies identified from PubMed and Embase through February 2019. The included studies assessed obesity by body mass index (BMI, a measure of overall adiposity) or waist circumference (WC, a measure of central adiposity); analyzed the measure as a continuous outcome or binary outcome. Using random effects model, weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained for continuous outcomes; summary relative risk (RR) and 95% CI for the highest vs. lowest categories of coffee intake were estimated for binary outcome. For BMI, WMD was −0.08 (95% CI −0.14, −0.02); RR was 1.49 (95% CI 0.97, 2.29). For WC, WMD was −0.27 (95% CI −0.51, −0.02) and RR was 1.07 (95% CI 0.84, 1.36). In subgroup analysis by sex, evidence for an inverse association was more evident in men, specifically for continuous outcome, with WMD −0.05 (95% CI −0.09, −0.02) for BMI and −0.21 (95% CI −0.35, −0.08) for WC. Our meta-analysis suggests that higher coffee intake might be modestly associated with reduced adiposity, particularly in men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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