Special Issue "Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Susanna Brighenti

Guest Editor
Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medicine Huddinge, Center for Infectious Medicine (CIM), Stockholm, Sweden
Assoc. Prof. Peter Bergman

Guest Editor
Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Laboratory Medicine (Labmed), Clinical microbiology, Stockholm, Sweden
Interests: nutrition; chronic disease; prevention; cardiovascular disease; cancer; infection; inflammation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The global burden of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular and renal diseases, diabetes, certain cancers, osteoporosis, obesity, and also chronic infections and chronic inflammatory diseases, is rapidly increasing. This creates a major public health threat that requires innovative prevention and therapeutic strategies. Diet and nutrition are fundamental cornerstones to prevent chronic diseases from early childhood throughout adult life and thus provide ample opportunities for targeted interventions. A common misconception is that chronic diseases are most prevalent in the industrialized world, while the truth is that the rate of chronic diseases is mostly increasing in developing countries. Susceptibility to chronic diseases is a multifactorial event that typically involves behavioral, biological, as well as societal factors. In addition, metabolic diversity, the human microbiome, and, not least, the impact of nutrition on the immune system may be important determinants of chronic disease outcome. This Special Issue ”Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease”, considers the role of nutrition in chronic disease and the development of nutritional supplementation and dietary recommendations for potential clinical applications.

Assoc. Prof. Susanna Brighenti
Assoc. Prof. Peter Bergman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nutrition
  • chronic disease
  • prevention
  • cardiovascular disease
  • cancer
  • infection
  • inflammation

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061682 - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
Today, chronic disease is a major public health problem around the world that is rapidly increasing with a growing and aging population [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluations of the Peroxidative Susceptibilities of Cod Liver Oils by a 1H NMR Analysis Strategy: Peroxidative Resistivity of a Natural Collagenous and Biogenic Amine-Rich Fermented Product
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030753 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
High-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was employed to molecularly screen the lipid, lipid oxidation product (LOP), and antioxidant compositions of four natural (unrefined) cod liver oil (CLO) products. Products 1–3 were non-fermented CLOs, whilst Product 4 was isolated from pre-fermented [...] Read more.
High-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was employed to molecularly screen the lipid, lipid oxidation product (LOP), and antioxidant compositions of four natural (unrefined) cod liver oil (CLO) products. Products 1–3 were non-fermented CLOs, whilst Product 4 was isolated from pre-fermented cod livers. Supporting analytical data that were acquired included biogenic amine, flavanone, tannin, phenolic antioxidant, α-tocopherol, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) determinations by recommended HPLC, LC/MS/MS, or spectrophotometric methods. SDS-PAGE, HPLC, and 1H NMR analyses investigated and determined collagenous antioxidants and their molecular mass ranges. 1H NMR analysis of aldehydic LOPs was employed to explore the susceptibilities/resistivities of each CLO product to peroxidation that is induced by thermal stressing episodes (TSEs) at 180°C, or following prolonged (42 day) storage episodes at 4 and 23 °C. Product 4 displayed extremely high ORAC values, which were much greater than those of Products 1–3, and that were predominantly ascribable to significant levels of peroxidation-blocking and/or aldehyde-consuming collagenous polypeptides/peptides and ammoniacal agents therein. Significantly lower levels of toxic aldehydes were generated in the pre-fermented Product 4 during exposure to TSEs, or the above long-term storage episodes. These results confirmed the enhanced peroxidative resistivity of a fermented, antioxidant-fortified natural CLO product over those of non-fermented unrefined products. Product 4: Green Pasture Blue Ice™ Fermented Cod Liver Oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Oxaliplatin-Fluoropyrimidine Combination (XELOX) Therapy Does Not Affect Plasma Amino Acid Levels and Plasma Markers of Oxidative Stress in Colorectal Cancer Surgery Patients: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112667 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer may lower muscle protein synthesis and increase oxidative stress. We hypothesize that chemotherapy may worsen plasma amino acids (AAs) and markers of oxidative stress (MOS). Therefore, this study aimed to document plasma AAs and MOS before, during and after [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy for colorectal cancer may lower muscle protein synthesis and increase oxidative stress. We hypothesize that chemotherapy may worsen plasma amino acids (AAs) and markers of oxidative stress (MOS). Therefore, this study aimed to document plasma AAs and MOS before, during and after chemotherapy in colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery patients. Fourteen normal-weight CRC patients were enrolled one month after surgery and scheduled for oxaliplatin-fluoropyrimidine combination (XELOX) therapy. Venous blood samples for AA and MOS (malondialdehyde, MDA; 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) measurements were drawn in fasting patients before each oxaliplatin infusion at initiation (A), 1 month (B) and 3 months (C) of the therapy, and after XELOX had finished (6 months, D). The results showed that during XELOX therapy (from phase B to phase D), in comparison to baseline (phase A), the branched chain amino acid/essential amino acid ratio, branched chain amino acids expressed as a percentage of total AAs, and arginine expressed as a percentage of total AAs significantly decreased (p = 0.017, p = 0.028, p = 0.028, respectively). Plasma levels of MOS did not change significantly. This study indicates that XELOX therapy does not affect plasma AA levels or worsen oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: The Influence of Treatment Modality
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081920 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: We analyzed the dietary patterns of Brazilian individuals with a self-declared diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and explored associations with treatment modality. Methods: Weekly consumption of 14 food intake markers was analyzed in 839 individuals from the 2013 Brazil National Health [...] Read more.
Background: We analyzed the dietary patterns of Brazilian individuals with a self-declared diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and explored associations with treatment modality. Methods: Weekly consumption of 14 food intake markers was analyzed in 839 individuals from the 2013 Brazil National Health Survey with a self-declared diagnosis of CKD undergoing nondialysis (n = 480), dialysis (n = 48), or renal transplant (n = 17) treatment or no CKD treatment (n = 294). Dietary patterns were derived by exploratory factor analysis of food intake groups. Multiple linear regression models, adjusted by sociodemographic and geographical variables, were used to evaluate possible differences in dietary pattern scores between different CKD treatment groups. Results: Two food patterns were identified: an “Unhealthy” pattern (red meat, sweet sugar beverages, alcoholic beverages, and sweets and a negative loading of chicken, excessive salt, and fish) and a “Healthy” pattern (raw and cooked vegetables, fruits, fresh fruit juice, and milk). The Unhealthy pattern was inversely associated with nondialysis and dialysis treatment (β: −0.20 (95% CI: −0.33; −0.06) and β: −0.80 (−1.16; −0.45), respectively) and the Healthy pattern was positively associated with renal transplant treatment (β: 0.32 (0.03; 0.62)). Conclusions: Two dietary patterns were identified in Brazilian CKD individuals and these patterns were linked to CKD treatment modality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Lowers CYP-Mediated Bioactivation and Toxicity of Acetaminophen in Rats
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1862; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081862 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol in green tea. To investigate the effects of dietary EGCG on oxidative stress and the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen in the liver, rats were fed diets with (0.54%) or without EGCG supplementation for four weeks [...] Read more.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenol in green tea. To investigate the effects of dietary EGCG on oxidative stress and the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen in the liver, rats were fed diets with (0.54%) or without EGCG supplementation for four weeks and were then injected intraperitoneally with acetaminophen (1 g/kg). The results showed that EGCG lowered hepatic oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2E1, and 3A, and UDP-glucurosyltransferase activities prior to acetaminophen injection. After acetaminophen challenge, the elevations in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity and histological changes in the liver were ameliorated by EGCG treatment. EGCG reduced acetaminophen-induced apoptosis by lowering the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in the liver. EGCG mildly increased autophagy by increasing the LC3B II/I ratio. Lower hepatic acetaminophen–glutathione and acetaminophen–protein adducts contents were observed after EGCG treatment. EGCG increased glutathione peroxidase and NAD(P)H quinone 1 oxidoreductase activities and reduced organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1a1 expression in the liver after acetaminophen treatment. Our results indicate that EGCG may reduce oxidative stress and lower the metabolism and toxicity of acetaminophen. The reductions in CYP-mediated acetaminophen bioactivation and uptake transporter, as well as enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity, may limit the accumulation of toxic products in the liver and thus lower hepatotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D and Phenylbutyrate Supplementation Does Not Modulate Gut Derived Immune Activation in HIV-1
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071675 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals ( [...] Read more.
Dysbiosis and a dysregulated gut immune barrier function contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-1 infection. We investigated if nutritional supplementation with vitamin D and phenylbutyrate could improve gut-derived inflammation, selected microbial metabolites, and composition of the gut microbiota. Treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 167) were included from a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial of daily 5000 IU vitamin D and 500 mg phenylbutyrate for 16 weeks (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01702974). Baseline and per-protocol plasma samples at week 16 were analysed for soluble CD14, the antimicrobial peptide LL-37, kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, choline, and betaine. Assessment of the gut microbiota involved 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colonic biopsies. Vitamin D + phenylbutyrate treatment significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p < 0.001) but had no effects on sCD14, the kynurenine/tryptophan-ratio, TMAO, or choline levels. Subgroup-analyses of vitamin D insufficient subjects demonstrated a significant increase of LL-37 in the treatment group (p = 0.02), whereas treatment failed to significantly impact LL-37-levels in multiple regression analysis. Further, no effects on the microbiota was found in number of operational taxonomic units (p = 0.71), Shannon microbial diversity index (p = 0.82), or in principal component analyses (p = 0.83). Nutritional supplementation with vitamin D + phenylbutyrate did not modulate gut-derived inflammatory markers or microbial composition in treatment-naïve HIV-1 individuals with active viral replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Diversity of Gut Microbiota Affecting Serum Level of Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin in Patients with Crohn’s Disease
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071541 - 08 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Several reports have indicated a possible link between decreasing plasma levels of vitamin K and bone mineral density. It has been suggested that intestinal bacteria contribute to maintenance of vitamin K. Several factors are involved in the reduction of vitamin K in patients [...] Read more.
Several reports have indicated a possible link between decreasing plasma levels of vitamin K and bone mineral density. It has been suggested that intestinal bacteria contribute to maintenance of vitamin K. Several factors are involved in the reduction of vitamin K in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). We aimed to assess the relationship between gut microbiota and alternative indicators of vitamin K deficiency in patients with CD. We collected the feces of 26 patients with clinically inactive CD. We extracted 16S rRNA from the intestinal bacteria in the feces and amplified it by polymerase chain reaction. The generated polymerase chain reaction product was analyzed using a 16S metagenomic approach by Illumina Miseq platform. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentration was used as an alternative indicator of vitamin K deficiency. There was a significant negative correlation between serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin and mean Chao1 index in cases of low activity. The diversity of the gut microbiota was significantly lower, and Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were significantly decreased in the vitamin K-deficient group in comparison to the vitamin K-normal group. Taken together, these data suggested the significance of investigating the gut microbiota even in patients with clinically inactive CD for improving patients’ vitamin K status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptation and Validation of Alternative Healthy Eating Index in Hemodialysis Patients (AHEI-HD) and Its Association with all-Cause Mortality: A Multi-Center Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1407; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061407 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A valid diet quality assessment scale has not been investigated in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to adapt and validate the alternative healthy eating index in hemodialysis patients (AHEI-HD), and investigate its associations with all-cause mortality. A prospective study was conducted on 370 hemodialysis [...] Read more.
A valid diet quality assessment scale has not been investigated in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to adapt and validate the alternative healthy eating index in hemodialysis patients (AHEI-HD), and investigate its associations with all-cause mortality. A prospective study was conducted on 370 hemodialysis patients from seven hospital-based dialysis centers. Dietary data (using three independent 24-hour dietary records), clinical and laboratory parameters were collected. The construct and criterion validity of original AHEI-2010 with 11 items and the AHEI-HD with 16 items were examined. Both scales showed reasonable item-scale correlations and satisfactory discriminant validity. The AHEI-HD demonstrated a weaker correlation with energy intake compared with AHEI-2010. Principle component analysis yielded the plateau scree plot line in AHEI-HD but not in AHEI-2010. In comparison with patients in lowest diet quality (tertile 1), those in highest diet quality (tertile 3) had significantly lower risk for death, with a hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of HR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.18 – 0.90; p = 0.028, as measured by AHEI-2010, and HR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.17–0.82; p = 0.014 as measured by AHEI-HD, respectively. In conclusion, AHEI-HD was shown to have greater advantages than AHEI-2010. AHEI-HD was suggested for assessments of diet quality in hemodialysis patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Daily Nutritional Supplementation with Vitamin D3 and Phenylbutyrate to Treatment-Naïve HIV Patients Tested in a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010133 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Poor nutritional status is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients including vitamin D (vitD3) deficiency. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to investigate if daily nutritional supplementation with vitD3 (5000 IU) and phenylbutyrate [...] Read more.
Poor nutritional status is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients including vitamin D (vitD3) deficiency. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to investigate if daily nutritional supplementation with vitD3 (5000 IU) and phenylbutyrate (PBA, 2 × 500 mg) could mediate beneficial effects in treatment-naïve HIV patients. Primary endpoint: the change in plasma HIV-1 comparing week 0 to 16 using modified intention-to-treat (mITT, n = 197) and per-protocol (n = 173) analyses. Secondary endpoints: longitudinal HIV viral load, T cell counts, body mass index (BMI), middle-upper-arm circumference (MUAC), and 25(OH)D3 levels in plasma. Baseline characteristics were detectable viral loads (median 7897 copies/mL), low CD4+ (median 410 cells/µL), and elevated CD8+ (median 930 cells/µL) T cell counts. Most subjects were vitD3 deficient at enrolment, but a gradual and significant improvement of vitD3 status was demonstrated in the vitD3 + PBA group compared with placebo (p < 0.0001) from week 0 to 16 (median 37.5 versus 115.5 nmol/L). No significant changes in HIV viral load, CD4+ or CD8+ T cell counts, BMI or MUAC could be detected. Clinical adverse events were similar in both groups. Daily vitD3 + PBA for 16 weeks was well-tolerated and effectively improved vitD3 status but did not reduce viral load, restore peripheral T cell counts or improve BMI or MUAC in HIV patients with slow progressive disease. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01702974. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Ketoacid Analogues Supplementation in Chronic Kidney Disease and Future Perspectives
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092071 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Diet is a key component of care during chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nutritional interventions, and, specifically, a restricted protein diet has been under debate for decades. In order to reduce the risk of nutritional disorders in very-low protein diets (VLDP), supplementation by nitrogen-free [...] Read more.
Diet is a key component of care during chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nutritional interventions, and, specifically, a restricted protein diet has been under debate for decades. In order to reduce the risk of nutritional disorders in very-low protein diets (VLDP), supplementation by nitrogen-free ketoacid analogues (KAs) have been proposed. The aim of this review is to summarize the potential effects of this dietary therapy on renal function, uremic toxins levels, and nutritional and metabolic parameters and propose future directions. The purpose of this paper is also to select all experimental and randomized clinical studies (RCTs) that have compared VLDP + KA to normal diet or/and low protein diet (LPD). We reviewed the SCOPUS, WEB of SCIENCES, CENTRAL, and PUBMED databases from their inception to 1 January, 2019. Following duplicate removal and application of exclusion criteria, 23 RCTs and 12 experimental studies were included. LPD/VLPD + KAs appear nutritionally safe even if how muscle protein metabolism adapts to an LPD/VLPD + KAs is still largely unknown. VLPD + KAs seem to reduce uremic toxins production but the impact on intestinal microbiota remains unexplored. All studies observed a reduction of acidosis, phosphorus, and possibly sodium intake, while still providing adequate calcium intake. The impact of this diet on carbohydrate and bone parameters are only preliminary and need to be confirmed with RCTs. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study, the largest RCTs, failed to demonstrate a benefit in the primary outcome of the decline rate for the glomerular filtration rate. However, the design of this study was challenged and data were subsequently reanalyzed. However, when adherent patients were selected, with a rapid rate of progression and a long-term follow up, more recent meta-analysis and RCTs suggest that these diets can reduce the loss of the glomerular filtration rate in addition to the beneficial effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors. The current evidence suggests that KAs supplemented LPD diets should be included as part of the clinical recommendations for both the nutritional prevention and metabolic management of CKD. More research is needed to examine the effectiveness of KAs especially on uremic toxins. A reflection about the dose and composition of the KAs supplement, the cost-effective features, and their indication to reduce the frequency of dialysis needs to be completed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Dietary Patterns and Renal Health Outcomes in the General Population: A Review Focusing on Prospective Studies
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081877 - 13 Aug 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Healthy dietary patterns may promote kidney health and prevent adverse renal outcomes. Although reviews have summarized the findings from studies on dietary patterns for chronic kidney disease (CKD) management, less is known about dietary patterns for maintaining kidney health prior to CKD development. [...] Read more.
Healthy dietary patterns may promote kidney health and prevent adverse renal outcomes. Although reviews have summarized the findings from studies on dietary patterns for chronic kidney disease (CKD) management, less is known about dietary patterns for maintaining kidney health prior to CKD development. The current review summarized the results from observational studies from March 2009 to March 2019 investigating associations between dietary patterns and renal outcomes in the general population. The main renal outcome assessed was CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). A total of twenty-six research articles met the inclusion criteria. Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets were significantly associated with a decreased risk of CKD in the majority of the studies. Furthermore, a posteriori “unhealthy” dietary patterns were associated with an increased risk of CKD. In conclusion, the findings from this review suggest that adherence to DASH and Mediterranean dietary patterns may be useful in promoting kidney health and preventing CKD in the general population. More studies, in particular among minorities, are warranted to investigate the role of diet, a potentially modifiable factor, in promoting kidney health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Coffee Intake and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061274 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Many studies have explored the relationship between coffee—one of the most commonly consumed beverages today—and obesity. Despite inconsistent results, the relationship has not been systematically summarized. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis by compiling data from 12 epidemiologic studies identified from PubMed and Embase [...] Read more.
Many studies have explored the relationship between coffee—one of the most commonly consumed beverages today—and obesity. Despite inconsistent results, the relationship has not been systematically summarized. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis by compiling data from 12 epidemiologic studies identified from PubMed and Embase through February 2019. The included studies assessed obesity by body mass index (BMI, a measure of overall adiposity) or waist circumference (WC, a measure of central adiposity); analyzed the measure as a continuous outcome or binary outcome. Using random effects model, weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained for continuous outcomes; summary relative risk (RR) and 95% CI for the highest vs. lowest categories of coffee intake were estimated for binary outcome. For BMI, WMD was −0.08 (95% CI −0.14, −0.02); RR was 1.49 (95% CI 0.97, 2.29). For WC, WMD was −0.27 (95% CI −0.51, −0.02) and RR was 1.07 (95% CI 0.84, 1.36). In subgroup analysis by sex, evidence for an inverse association was more evident in men, specifically for continuous outcome, with WMD −0.05 (95% CI −0.09, −0.02) for BMI and −0.21 (95% CI −0.35, −0.08) for WC. Our meta-analysis suggests that higher coffee intake might be modestly associated with reduced adiposity, particularly in men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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Other

Open AccessCommentary
Potential Adverse Public Health Effects Afforded by the Ingestion of Dietary Lipid Oxidation Product Toxins: Significance of Fried Food Sources
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040974 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Exposure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich culinary oils (COs) to high temperature frying practices generates high concentrations of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (LOPs) via oxygen-fueled, recycling peroxidative bursts. These toxins, including aldehydes and epoxy-fatty acids, readily penetrate into fried foods and [...] Read more.
Exposure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich culinary oils (COs) to high temperature frying practices generates high concentrations of cytotoxic and genotoxic lipid oxidation products (LOPs) via oxygen-fueled, recycling peroxidative bursts. These toxins, including aldehydes and epoxy-fatty acids, readily penetrate into fried foods and hence are available for human consumption; therefore, they may pose substantial health hazards. Although previous reports have claimed health benefits offered by the use of PUFA-laden COs for frying purposes, these may be erroneous in view of their failure to consider the negating adverse public health threats presented by food-transferable LOPs therein. When absorbed from the gastrointestinal (GI) system into the systemic circulation, such LOPs may significantly contribute to enhanced risks of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs), e.g. , cancer, along with cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Herein, we provide a comprehensive rationale relating to the public health threats posed by the dietary ingestion of LOPs in fried foods. We begin with an introduction to sequential lipid peroxidation processes, describing the noxious effects of LOP toxins generated therefrom. We continue to discuss GI system interactions, the metabolism and biotransformation of primary lipid hydroperoxide LOPs and their secondary products, and the toxicological properties of these agents, prior to providing a narrative on chemically-reactive, secondary aldehydic LOPs available for human ingestion. In view of a range of previous studies focused on their deleterious health effects in animal and cellular model systems, some emphasis is placed on the physiological fate of the more prevalent and toxic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. We conclude with a description of targeted nutritional and interventional strategies, whilst highlighting the urgent and unmet clinical need for nutritional and epidemiological trials probing relationships between the incidence of NCDs, and the frequency and estimated quantities of dietary LOP intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Nutrition in Chronic Disease)
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