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Materials, Volume 13, Issue 6 (March-2 2020) – 221 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Here, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CNT-N) were synthesized using exfoliated graphitic carbon [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of One-Dimensional Ivshin–Pence Shape Memory Alloy Constitutive Model for Sensitivity and Uncertainty
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061482 - 24 Mar 2020
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Abstract
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are classified as smart materials due to their capacity to display shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity with changing temperature and loading conditions. The thermomechanical behavior of SMAs has been simulated by several constitutive models that adopted microscopic thermodynamic or [...] Read more.
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are classified as smart materials due to their capacity to display shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity with changing temperature and loading conditions. The thermomechanical behavior of SMAs has been simulated by several constitutive models that adopted microscopic thermodynamic or macroscopic phenomenological approaches. The Ivshin–Pence model is one of the most popular SMA macroscopic phenomenological constitutive models. The construction of the model requires involvement of parameters that possess inherent uncertainty. Under varying operating temperatures and loading conditions, the uncertainty in these parameters propagates and, therefore, affects the predictive power of the model. The propagation of uncertainty while using this model in real-life applications can result in performance discrepancies or failure at extreme conditions. In this study, we employed a probabilistic approach to perform the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the Ivshin–Pence model. Sobol and extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (eFAST) methods were used to perform the sensitivity analysis for simulated isothermal loading/unloading at various operating temperatures. It is evident that the model’s prediction of the SMA stress–strain curves varies due to the change in operating temperature and loading condition. The average and stress-dependent sensitivity indices present the most influential parameters at several temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Printing of ABS Barium Ferrite Composites
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061481 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 622
Abstract
In this work, a process for the realization of new polymer matrix composites with nanosized barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) as ferrimagnetic filler, acryl butadiene styrene (ABS) as polymer matrix and an extrusion-based method, namely fused filament fabrication (FFF), as 3D [...] Read more.
In this work, a process for the realization of new polymer matrix composites with nanosized barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) as ferrimagnetic filler, acryl butadiene styrene (ABS) as polymer matrix and an extrusion-based method, namely fused filament fabrication (FFF), as 3D printing method will be described comprehensively. The whole process consists of the individual steps material compounding, rheological testing, filament extrusion, 3D-printing via FFF and finally a widespread specimen characterization regarding to appearance, mechanical properties like tensile and bending behavior as well as the aspired magnetic properties. Increasing ferrite amounts up to 40 vol.% (equal 76 wt.%) cause a reduction of the ultimate stress and an increase of the magnetic polarization as well as of the energy product (BH)max in comparison to the pure polymer matrix. In addition, an extensive discussion of typical printing defects and their consequences on the device properties will be undertaken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of a Corrosion Inhibitor on the Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Containing Sea Sand and Seawater
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061480 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 390
Abstract
Concrete made with sea sand and seawater is rich in chlorine ions which are the main factors that induce corrosion of the reinforcement. In this study, an innovative method to rehabilitate reinforcement is presented; the concentrations of chloride ions and the corrosion inhibitor [...] Read more.
Concrete made with sea sand and seawater is rich in chlorine ions which are the main factors that induce corrosion of the reinforcement. In this study, an innovative method to rehabilitate reinforcement is presented; the concentrations of chloride ions and the corrosion inhibitor in concrete were measured. Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) was applied as a control experiment via using saturated Ca(OH)2 solution as an external electrolyte. Bidirectional electromigration (BIEM)technology combined with the corrosion inhibitor could not only remove the chloride ions but also protect the steel bar in concrete, and animidazoline inhibitor mixed in concrete is more effective than thetriethylenetetramine inhibitor due to the specific molecular structure. It was found that the optimum ratio of N/Cl reached the maximum value 3.3, when the concentration of inhibitor was 1. Meanwhile, the experimental results also revealed that the corrosion inhibitor and chloride ion concentrations reached necessary levels on the surface of the steel, and the corrosion inhibitor migrated effectively. Overall, the contents of imidazoline and triethylenetetramine inhibitor in seawater concrete are0.75% and 1%, respectively. The results demonstrate that the addition of the corrosion inhibitor and the application of bidirectional electromigration would effectively improve the durability of reinforced concrete containing sea sand and seawater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Resistance Characteristics of SMA Actuator Based on the Variable Speed Phase Transformation Constitutive Model
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061479 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 438
Abstract
The shape memory alloy (SMA)-based actuators have been increasingly used in different domains, such as automotive, aerospace, robotic and biomedical applications, for their unique properties. However, the precision control of such SMA-based actuators is still a problem. Most traditional control methods use the [...] Read more.
The shape memory alloy (SMA)-based actuators have been increasingly used in different domains, such as automotive, aerospace, robotic and biomedical applications, for their unique properties. However, the precision control of such SMA-based actuators is still a problem. Most traditional control methods use the force/displacement signals of the actuator as feedback signals, which may increase the volume and weight of the entire system due to the additional force/displacement sensors. The resistance of the SMA, as an inherent property of the actuator, is a dependent variable which varies in accordance with its macroscopic strain or stress. It can be obtained by the voltage and the current imposed on the SMA with no additional measuring devices. Therefore, using the resistance of the SMA as feedback in the closed-loop control is quite promising for lightweight SMA-driven systems. This paper investigates the resistance characteristics of the SMA actuator in its actuation process. Three factors, i.e., the resistivity, the length, and the cross-sectional area, which affect the change of resistance were analyzed. The mechanical and electrical parameters of SMA were obtained using experiments. Numerical simulations were performed by using the resistance characteristic model. The simulation results reveal the change rules of the resistance corresponding to the strain of SMA and demonstrate the possibility of using the resistance for feedback control of SMA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) for Engineering Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Cyclic-Dependent Damage Evolution in Self-Healing Woven SiC/[Si-B-C] Ceramic-Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061478 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Cycle-dependent damage evolution in self-healing, 2.5D woven Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[Si-B-C] and 2D woven Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[SiC-B4C] ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) at 600 and 1200 °C was investigated. The cycle-dependent damage parameters of internal friction, dissipated energy, Kachanov’s damage parameter, and broken fiber [...] Read more.
Cycle-dependent damage evolution in self-healing, 2.5D woven Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[Si-B-C] and 2D woven Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[SiC-B4C] ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) at 600 and 1200 °C was investigated. The cycle-dependent damage parameters of internal friction, dissipated energy, Kachanov’s damage parameter, and broken fiber fraction were obtained to describe damage development in self-healing CMCs. The relationships between cycle-dependent damage parameters and multiple fatigue damage mechanisms were established. The experimental fatigue damage development of self-healing Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[Si-B-C] and Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[SiC-B4C] composites was predicted for different temperatures, peak stresses, and loading frequencies. The cycle-dependent damage evolution of self-healing Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[Si-B-C] and Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[SiC-B4C] composites depends on temperature, testing environment, peak stress, and loading frequency. For the Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[Si-B-C] composite, temperature is a governing parameter for the fatigue process. At an elevated temperature of 600 °C in an air atmosphere, the internal frictional parameter of Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[Si-B-C] composite decreases first and then increases with applied cycle number; however, at an elevated temperature of 1200 °C in an air atmosphere, the internal frictional parameter of Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[Si-B-C] composite decreases with applied cycle number, and the interface shear stress at 1200 °C is much lower than that at 600 °C. For Hi-NicalonTM SiC/[SiC-B4C] composite at 1200 °C, loading frequency is a governing parameter for the fatigue process. The degradation rate of interface shear stress is much higher at the loading frequency of 0.1 Hz than that at the loading frequency of 1 Hz. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Filler Loading on the Mechanical Properties of Flowable Resin Composites
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061477 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 384
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the percent of inorganic filler by weight (wt. %) and by volume (vol. %) of 11 flowable resin composites (FRCs) and their mechanical properties. To establish the correlation, the quantity of inorganic [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the percent of inorganic filler by weight (wt. %) and by volume (vol. %) of 11 flowable resin composites (FRCs) and their mechanical properties. To establish the correlation, the quantity of inorganic filler was determined by combustion and shape/size analyzed by SEM images. The compressive strength (CS), flexural strength (FS), and flexural modulus (FM) were determined. The CS values were between 182.87-310.38 MPa, the FS values ranged between 59.59 and 96.95 MPa, and the FM values were between 2.34 and 6.23 GPa. The percentage of inorganic filler registered values situated between 52.25 and 69.64 wt. % and 35.35 and 53.50 vol. %. There was a very good correlation between CS, FS, and FM vs. the inorganic filler by wt. % and vol. %. (R2 = 0.8899–0.9483). The highest regression was obtained for the FM values vs. vol. %. SEM images of the tested FRCs showed hybrid inorganic filler for Filtek Supreme XT (A3) and StarFlow (A2) and a homogeneous type of inorganic filler for the other investigated materials. All of the FS values were above 50 MPa, the ISO 4049/2019 limit for FRCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies for Sustainable Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of the Deionized Water on Making High Aspect Ratio Holes in the Inconel 718 Alloy with the Use of Electrical Discharge Drilling
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061476 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
Nickel-based superalloys are being increasingly applied to manufacture components in the aviation industry. The materials are classified as difficult-to-machine using conventional methods. Nowadays, manufacturing techniques are needed to drill high aspect ratio holes of above 20:1 (depth-to-diameter ratio) in these materials. One of [...] Read more.
Nickel-based superalloys are being increasingly applied to manufacture components in the aviation industry. The materials are classified as difficult-to-machine using conventional methods. Nowadays, manufacturing techniques are needed to drill high aspect ratio holes of above 20:1 (depth-to-diameter ratio) in these materials. One of the most effective methods of making high-aspect-ratio holes is electrical discharge drilling (EDD). While drilling high aspect ratio holes, a crucial issue is the flushing of the gap area and the evacuation of the erosion products. The use of deionized water as the dielectric fluid in the EDD offers a considerable potential. This paper includes an analysis of the influence of the machining parameters (pulse time, current amplitude and discharge voltage) on the process performance (drilling speed, linear tool wear, taper angle, hole’s aspect ratio, side gap thickness), during the EDD with the use of deionized water in the Inconel 718 alloy. The obtained through holes were subjected to the extended analysis. The impact of the initial working fluid temperature and pressure on the conditions of the flow through the electrode channel was also subjected to the analysis. The deionized water properties were changed by applying an initial temperature. Based on the results of an analysis of the previous research, the EDD of the through holes was performed for a pre-set initial temperature (~313.15 °K) and initial pressure of the working fluid (8 MPa) and selected process parameters. An analysis of the results indicates increasing of hole’s aspect ratio by about 15% (above 30), decreasing the side gap thickness by about 40% and enhanced surface integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micromanufacturing of Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Parameters for 1D Photonic Crystals with Isotropic and Anisotropic Magnetic Inclusions: Coherent Wave Homogenization Theory
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061475 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 324
Abstract
A homogenization theory that can go beyond the regime of long wavelengths is proposed, namely, a theory that is still valid for vectors of waves near the edge of the first zone of Brillouin. In this paper, we consider that the displacement vector [...] Read more.
A homogenization theory that can go beyond the regime of long wavelengths is proposed, namely, a theory that is still valid for vectors of waves near the edge of the first zone of Brillouin. In this paper, we consider that the displacement vector and the magnetic induction fields have averages in the volume of the cell associated with the values of the electric and magnetic fields in the edges of the cell, so they satisfy Maxwell’s equations. Applying Fourier formalism, explicit expressions were obtained for the case of a photonic crystal with arbitrary periodicity. In the case of one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals, the expressions for the tensor of the effective bianisotropic response (effective permittivity, permeability and crossed magneto-electric tensors) are remarkably simplified. Specifically, the effective permittivity and permeability tensors are calculated for the case of 1D photonic crystals with isotropic and anisotropic magnetic inclusions. Through a numerical calculation, the dependence of these effective tensors upon the filling fraction of the magnetic inclusion is shown and analyzed. Our results show good correspondence with the approach solution of Rytov’s effective medium. The derived formulas can be very useful for the design of anisotropic systems with specific optical properties that exhibit metamaterial behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fuel Cell Electrode Characterization Using Neutron Scattering
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061474 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 378
Abstract
Electrochemical energy conversion and storage is key for the use of regenerative energies at large scale. A thorough understanding of the individual components, such as the ion conducting membrane and the electrode layers, can be obtained with scattering techniques on atomic to molecular [...] Read more.
Electrochemical energy conversion and storage is key for the use of regenerative energies at large scale. A thorough understanding of the individual components, such as the ion conducting membrane and the electrode layers, can be obtained with scattering techniques on atomic to molecular length scales. The largely heterogeneous electrode layers of High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells are studied in this work with small- and wide-angle neutron scattering at the same time with the iMATERIA diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at J-PARC, opening a view on structural properties on atomic to mesoscopic length scales. Recent results on the proton mobility from the same samples measured with backscattering spectroscopy are put into relation with the structural findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Nanostructured Materials for Energy Conversion)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Rare Earth Ce on Deep Stamping Properties of High-Strength Interstitial-Free Steel Containing Phosphorus
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061473 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 363
Abstract
The influence of rare earth Ce on the deep stamping property of high-strength interstitial-free (IF) steel containing phosphorus was analyzed. After adding 120 kg ferrocerium alloy (Ce content is 10%) in the steel, the inclusion statistics and the two-dimensional morphology of the samples [...] Read more.
The influence of rare earth Ce on the deep stamping property of high-strength interstitial-free (IF) steel containing phosphorus was analyzed. After adding 120 kg ferrocerium alloy (Ce content is 10%) in the steel, the inclusion statistics and the two-dimensional morphology of the samples in the direction of 1/4 thickness of slab and each rolling process were observed and compared by scanning electron microscope (SEM). After the samples in each rolling process were treated by acid leaching, the three-dimensional morphology and components of the second phase precipitates were observed by SEM and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The microstructure of the sample was observed by optical microscope, and the grain size was compared. Meanwhile, the content and strength of the favorable texture were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the mechanical properties of the product were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) The combination of rare earth Ce with activity O and S in steel had lower Gibbs free energy, and it was easy to generate CeAlO3, Ce2O2S, and Ce2O3. The inclusions size was obviously reduced, but the number of inclusions was increased after adding rare earth. The morphology of inclusions changed from chain and strip to spherical. The size of rare earth inclusions was mostly about 2–5 μm, distributed and dispersed, and their elastic modulus was close to that of steel matrix, which was conducive to improving the structure continuity of steel. (2) The rare earth compound had a high melting point. As a heterogeneous nucleation point, the nucleation rate was increased and the solidification structure was refined. The grade of grain size of products was increased by 1.5 grades, which is helpful to improve the strength and plasticity of metal. (3) Rare earth Ce can inhibit the segregation of P element at the grain boundary and the precipitation of Fe(Nb+Ti)P phase. It can effectively increase the solid solution amount of P element in steel, improve the solid solution strengthening effect of P element in high-strength IF steel, and obtain a large proportion of {111} favorable texture, which is conducive to improving the stamping formability index r90 value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Relationship between Nano-Morphology Parameters and Properties of Bitumen during the Ageing Process
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061472 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Thermo-oxidative ageing is one of the main factors affecting bitumen performance. At present, the research on bitumen ageing has entered the micro stage. The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between nano-morphology parameters and properties of bitumen of bitumen during [...] Read more.
Thermo-oxidative ageing is one of the main factors affecting bitumen performance. At present, the research on bitumen ageing has entered the micro stage. The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between nano-morphology parameters and properties of bitumen of bitumen during the ageing process. To this end, bitumen with different ageing degrees was prepared in this paper, and Atomic force microscopy samples with different cooling rates were prepared. The relationship between ageing degree of bitumen and nano-morphology parameters was analyzed. A functional relationship model between nano-morphology parameters and properties of bitumen was established. The results show that the percentage of bee-like structure area ( P bee like ), maximum amplitude ( H max ) and roughness ( R q ) increased with the increase of ageing degree. the percentage of bee-like structure area, the maximum amplitude and the roughness increase with the increase of cooling rate. With the increase of the percentage of bee-like structure area, the maximum amplitude and the roughness, the viscosity of bitumen at 60 °C increases, penetration decreases, and softening point increases. There is a nonlinear relationship between the nano-morphology parameters and properties of bitumen. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Growth and Characterization of Cu2Zn1−xFexSnS4 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061471 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Photovoltaics is a promising technology to produce sustainable energy, thanks to the high amount of energy emitted by the sun. One way of having solar cells with low production costs is to apply thin-film technology and with earth-abundant raw materials. A keen interest [...] Read more.
Photovoltaics is a promising technology to produce sustainable energy, thanks to the high amount of energy emitted by the sun. One way of having solar cells with low production costs is to apply thin-film technology and with earth-abundant raw materials. A keen interest is arising in kesterite compounds, which are chalcogenides composed of abundant and non-toxic elements. They have already achieved excellent performance at the laboratory level. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of mixed chalcogenides based on copper, zinc, iron, and tin. Solutions have been studied with different zinc and iron ratios. The distortion of the elementary cell of kesterite increases with the addition of iron until a phase transition to stannite occurs. The process of synthesis and deposition proposed herein is cheap and straightforward, based on the sol-gel technique. These thin films are particularly attractive for use in cheap and easily processable solar cells. The synthesized layers have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis absorption, and Raman, X-ray photoelectron, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Optoelectronic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Extending Absorption Edge through the Hybrid Resonator-Based Absorber with Wideband and Near-Perfect Absorption in Visible Region
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061470 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Metamaterial absorber with the unexpected capability for harvesting electromagnetic energy has been regarded as a potential route for various applications, including chemical/biological sensing, cloaking and photovoltaic applications. In this study, we presented the simple absorber design made with Al/SiO2/Al sandwich structures [...] Read more.
Metamaterial absorber with the unexpected capability for harvesting electromagnetic energy has been regarded as a potential route for various applications, including chemical/biological sensing, cloaking and photovoltaic applications. In this study, we presented the simple absorber design made with Al/SiO2/Al sandwich structures through the involvement of hybrid dual-resonators that could allow the wideband light absorption covered from 450 nm to 600 nm with average absorptivity above 95%. Examinations of excited electric field, magnetic field and total magnitude of electric field in three-dimensional space at resonances were performed to clarify the origin of resonant behaviors. In addition, an equivalent inductance–capacitance circuit model was proposed that could qualitatively explore the geometry-dependent absorption characteristics by modulating the constitutive parameters of hybrid resonators. As a result, the designed light absorber might enable to be practically applied for various optical-management and photovoltaic applications, and even offered the tunability for other desired frequency regions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Phase-Selective Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Iron(III) Aminoterephthalate MOFs
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061469 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Iron(III) aminoterephthalate Metal-Organic Frameworks (Fe-BDC-NH2 MOFs) have been demonstrated to show potential for relevant industrial and societal applications (i.e., catalysis, drug delivery, gas sorption). Nevertheless, further analysis is required in order to achieve their commercial production. In this work, a systematic synthetic [...] Read more.
Iron(III) aminoterephthalate Metal-Organic Frameworks (Fe-BDC-NH2 MOFs) have been demonstrated to show potential for relevant industrial and societal applications (i.e., catalysis, drug delivery, gas sorption). Nevertheless, further analysis is required in order to achieve their commercial production. In this work, a systematic synthetic strategy has been followed, carrying out microwave (MW) assisted hydro/solvothermal reactions to rapidly evaluate the influence of different reaction parameters (e.g., time, temperature, concentration, reaction media) on the formation of the benchmarked MIL-101-NH2, MIL-88B-NH2, MIL-53-NH2 and MIL-68-NH2 solids. Characterization of the obtained solids by powder X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to identify trends to the contribution of the evaluated parameters, such as the relevance of the concentration of precursors and the impact of the reaction medium on phase crystallization. Furthermore, we presented here for the first time the MW assisted synthesis of MIL-53-NH2 in water. In addition, pure MIL-101-NH2 was also produced in water while MIL-88-NH2 was the predominant phase obtained in ethanol. Pure phases were produced with high space-time yields, unveiling the potential of MW synthesis for MOF industrialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Organic Framework Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Requirements and Variability Affecting the Durability of Bonded Joints
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061468 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 399
Abstract
This paper firstly reveals that when assessing if a bonded joint meets the certification requirements inherent in MIL-STD-1530D and the US Joint Services Standard JSSG2006 it is necessary to ensure that: (a) There is no yielding at all in the adhesive layer at [...] Read more.
This paper firstly reveals that when assessing if a bonded joint meets the certification requirements inherent in MIL-STD-1530D and the US Joint Services Standard JSSG2006 it is necessary to ensure that: (a) There is no yielding at all in the adhesive layer at 115% of design limit load (DLL), and (b) that the joint must be able to withstand design ultimate load (DUL). Secondly, it is revealed that fatigue crack growth in both nano-reinforced epoxies, and structural adhesives can be captured using the Hartman–Schijve crack growth equation, and that the scatter in crack growth in adhesives can be modelled by allowing for variability in the fatigue threshold. Thirdly, a methodology was established for estimating a valid upper-bound curve, for cohesive failure in the adhesive, which encompasses all the experimental data and provides a conservative fatigue crack growth curve. Finally, it is shown that this upper-bound curve can be used to (a) compare and characterise structural adhesives, (b) determine/assess a “no growth” design (if required), (c) assess if a disbond in an in-service aircraft will grow and (d) to design and life in-service adhesively-bonded joints in accordance with the slow-growth approach contained in the United States Air Force (USAF) certification standard MIL-STD-1530D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Characterization of Adhesive Joints and Adhesives)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Properties, Microstructure, and Chloride Content of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Paste Made with Sea Water
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061467 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 420
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of sea water as a feasible alternative to produce alkali-activated fly ash material. The alkali-activated fly ash binder was fabricated by employing conventional pure water, tap water, and sea water based alkali [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of sea water as a feasible alternative to produce alkali-activated fly ash material. The alkali-activated fly ash binder was fabricated by employing conventional pure water, tap water, and sea water based alkali activating solution. The characteristics of alkali-activated materials were examined by employing compressive strength, mercury intrusion porosimetry, XRD, FT-IR, and 29Si NMR along with ion chromatography for chloride immobilization. The results provided new insights demonstrating that sea water can be effectively used to produce alkali activated fly ash material. The presence of chloride in sea water contributed to increase compressive strength, refine microstructure, and mineralogical characteristics. Furthermore, a higher degree of polymerization on the sea water-based sample was observed by FT-IR and 29Si NMR analysis. However, the higher amount of free chloride ion even after immobilization in sea water-based alkali-activated material, should be considered before application in reinforced structural elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructures and Durability of Cement-Based Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Organics on Heavy Metal-Contaminated River Sediment Treated with Electro-Osmosis and Solidification/Stabilization Methods
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061466 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
This study focuses on the treatment of heavy metal ions and achieving enhancement of river sediment, which is rich in organics. Fulvic acid was used as the main representative of organics in which to study the transfer of Cu2+, Zn2+ [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the treatment of heavy metal ions and achieving enhancement of river sediment, which is rich in organics. Fulvic acid was used as the main representative of organics in which to study the transfer of Cu2+, Zn2+ ions in the electroosmotic system, in both the absence and presence of organics. In addition, the effects of the experiment parameters (i.e., voltages, displacement, and water content), heavy metal ion content (0.19% and 0.38%, respectively), and the concentration of organics (1.5%, 3%, and 4.5%) acting on migration of ions and physiochemical properties of sediment, before and after electro-osmosis treatment were investigated. Mineral composition of the soil and its microscopic characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the 4.5% fulvic acid added in the sediment can enhance the migration ability of Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions through complexation, and simultaneously effectively reduce the formation of colloids with the average reductions of Cu2+ ions and Zn2+ ions being 28 and 11 mg/kg, respectively. While the dewatering capacity of the sediment with higher fulvic acid content is weaker, fulvic acid can effectively reduce the corrosion of the electrode during the electro-osmosis process, due to the film formed on the metal surface. Moreover, the fulvic acid in the organics can be combined with the aluminum and calcium produced by the hydration of the cement, delaying the hydration of the cement, while simultaneously decomposing the hydration product and hindering the hardening of the cement, thereby affecting and destroying the formation of the sediment’s structure and its strength. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sound Absorption Performance of the Poplar Seed Fiber/PCL Composite Materials
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1465; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061465 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Composite materials were prepared by the hot pressing method using poplar seed fibers and polycaprolactone (PCL) as the raw materials to solve the problems related to the recycling of waste fibers. The effects of mass fraction of poplar seed fibers, the volume density, [...] Read more.
Composite materials were prepared by the hot pressing method using poplar seed fibers and polycaprolactone (PCL) as the raw materials to solve the problems related to the recycling of waste fibers. The effects of mass fraction of poplar seed fibers, the volume density, and thickness on the sound absorption performance of the resulting composite materials were studied. The sound absorption coefficient curves of the composite material were obtained by the acoustic impedance transfer function method. The sound absorption coefficient of the composite material that was prepared under the optimal process conditions was higher than 0.7, and the effective sound absorption frequency band was wide. According to the box counting dimension method, which is based on the fractal theory, the fractal dimensions of the composite materials were calculated while using the Matlab program. The relationships between the fractal dimensions and the volume densities, mass fractions of poplar seed fibers, and thicknesses of the composite materials were also analyzed. Subsequently, the quantitative relationship between the fractal dimension and the sound absorption property parameters of the composite material was established in order to provide a theoretical basis for the design of the sound absorption composite material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Strain Fatigue Life of HRB400 Steel Based on Meso-Deformation Inhomogeneity
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061464 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 356
Abstract
The relationship between strain fatigue life and evolution of meso-deformation inhomogeneity was studied, through the cyclic process of numerical simulation of crystal plasticity compared with the fatigue test of steel hot-rolled ribbed-steel bar 400 (HRB400). The statistical characterization parameters at grain level, including [...] Read more.
The relationship between strain fatigue life and evolution of meso-deformation inhomogeneity was studied, through the cyclic process of numerical simulation of crystal plasticity compared with the fatigue test of steel hot-rolled ribbed-steel bar 400 (HRB400). The statistical characterization parameters at grain level, including the standard deviation of the dot product of longitudinal stress and strain, the product of the macro stress and the standard deviation of the longitudinal strain, and the product of the macro stress ratio and the standard deviation of the longitudinal strain, were proposed and respectively applied to measure the meso-deformation inhomogeneity of materials. These parameters take the effect of peak stress into account, distinct from the pure strain statistical parameters. The numerical results demonstrate that the low-cycle fatigue life curves of materials are predictable using the new parameters as FIPs (fatigue indicator parameters), and the predictions are more rational than by utilizing the FIPs without considering the peak stress effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Electro-Oxidation–Plasma Treatment for Azo Dye Carmoisine (Acid Red 14) in an Aqueous Solution
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061463 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 412
Abstract
Currently, azo dye Carmoisine is an additive that is widely used in the food processing industry sector. However, limited biodegradability in the environment has become a major concern regarding the removal of azo dye. In this study, the degradation of azo dye Carmoisine [...] Read more.
Currently, azo dye Carmoisine is an additive that is widely used in the food processing industry sector. However, limited biodegradability in the environment has become a major concern regarding the removal of azo dye. In this study, the degradation of azo dye Carmoisine (acid red 14) in an aqueous solution was studied by using a sequenced process of electro-oxidation–plasma at atmospheric pressure (EO–PAP). Both the efficiency and effectiveness of the process were compared individually. To ascertain the behavior of azo dye Carmoisine over the degradation process, the variations in its physical characteristics were analyzed with a voltage–current relationship, optical emission spectra (OES) and temperature. On the other hand, chemical variables were analyzed by finding out pH, electrical conductivity, absorbance (UV/VIS Spectrophotometry), chemical oxygen demand (COD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), energy consumption and cost. The sequenced process (EO–PAP) increased degradation efficiency, reaching 100% for azo dye Carmoisine (acid red 14) in 60 min. It was observed that the introduction of small quantities of iron metal ions (Fe2+/Fe3+) as catalysts into the plasma process and the hydrogen peroxide formed in plasma electrical discharge led to the formation of larger amounts of hydroxyl radicals, thus promoting a better performance in the degradation of azo dye. This sequenced process increased the decolorization process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Electrochemical Processes)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Formation of Amorphous Networks on the Structure and Hydration Characteristics of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061462 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 357
Abstract
The slag obtained in the process of pig iron smelting has been widely used, but the variational hydration activity always is a significant factor affecting its quality. In this experiment, the laboratory simulated slag was prepared by adjusting the chemical composition and cooling [...] Read more.
The slag obtained in the process of pig iron smelting has been widely used, but the variational hydration activity always is a significant factor affecting its quality. In this experiment, the laboratory simulated slag was prepared by adjusting the chemical composition and cooling method. The experiment primary characterized the structure and hydration process with different types of slag by using MAS NMR, XRD, compressive strength, ICP, SEM, and hydration heat, then obtained the influence of the composition of the network former S/A (the mass ratio of SiO2 and Al2O3 in chemical composition) and amorphous phase content on its structure and hydration activity. The result shows that lowering the S/A value can reduce the degree of vitreous polymerization in the slag; reducing the S/A value of the slag can make the slag hydration time advance, and consequently, the cumulative exotherm increases, the liquid phase Ca/Si and Al/Si ionic ratio increases, and the hydration product changes from C–S–H gel to C–A–S–H gel, which ultimately leads to an increase in compressive strength. In the high S/A value slag, the formation of the trace crystal phase of gehlenite is beneficial to reduce the degree of polymerization of the amorphous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Construction and Building Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Influences of Stearic Acid Coating and Recycled PET Microfibers on the Enhanced Properties of Composite Materials
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061461 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 415
Abstract
This study aims to produce novel composite artificial marble materials by bulk molding compound processes, and improve their thermal and mechanical properties. We employed stearic acid as an efficient surface modifying agent for CaCO3 particles, and for the first time, a pretreated, [...] Read more.
This study aims to produce novel composite artificial marble materials by bulk molding compound processes, and improve their thermal and mechanical properties. We employed stearic acid as an efficient surface modifying agent for CaCO3 particles, and for the first time, a pretreated, recycled, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers mat is used to reinforce the artificial marble materials. The innovative aspects of the study are the surface treatment of CaCO3 particles by stearic acid. Stearic acid forms a monolayer shell, coating the CaCO3 particles, which enhances the compatibility between the CaCO3 particles and the matrix of the composite. The morphology of the composites, observed by scanning electron microscopy, revealed that the CaCO3 phase was homogeneously dispersed in the epoxy matrix under the support of stearic acid. A single layer of a recycled PET fibers mat was pretreated and designed in the core of the composite. As expected, these results indicated that the fibers could enhance flexural properties, and impact strength along with thermal stability for the composites. This combination of a pretreated, recycled, PET fibers mat and epoxy/CaCO3-stearic acid could produce novel artificial marble materials for construction applications able to meet environmental requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Composites)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Falck, R. et al. Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Additively Manufactured Aluminum 2024-T3/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Hybrid Joints by AddJoining Technique. Materials 2019, 12, 864
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061460 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 386
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to the paper [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Experimental Investigation of Fatigue Debonding Growth in FRP–Concrete Interface
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061459 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 328
Abstract
An externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) plate (or sheet) is now widely used in strengthening bending members due to its outstanding properties, such as a high strength to weight ratio, easy operating, corrosion and fatigue resistance. However, the concrete member strengthened by [...] Read more.
An externally bonded fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) plate (or sheet) is now widely used in strengthening bending members due to its outstanding properties, such as a high strength to weight ratio, easy operating, corrosion and fatigue resistance. However, the concrete member strengthened by this technology may have a problem with the adhesion between FRP and concrete. This kind of debonding failure can be broadly classified into two modes: (a) plate end debonding at or near the plate end, and (b) intermediate crack-induced debonding (intermediate crack-induced (IC) debonding) near the loading point. The IC debonding, unlike the plate end debonding, still needs a large amount of investigation work, especially for the interface under fatigue load. In this paper, ten single shear pull-out tests were carried out under a static or fatigue load. Different load ranges and load levels were considered, and the debonding growth process was carefully recorded. The experimental results indicate that the load range is one of the main parameters, which determines the debonding growth rate. Moreover, the load level can also play an important role when loaded with the same load range. Finally, a new prediction model of the fatigue debonding growth rate was proposed, and has an excellent agreement with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers)
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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial-Special Issue “Macromolecular Self-Assembly Materials: From Modeling to Advanced Applications”
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1458; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061458 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 291
Abstract
Materials self-assembly represents a key strategy for the design and fabrication of nanostructured systems and has become a fundamental approach for the construction of advanced nanomaterials [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Synergistic Effects of Graphene/Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Coating on the Interfacial and Mechanical Properties of Fiber Composites
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061457 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 349
Abstract
In this study, the graphene nanoplates (GnPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are simultaneous deposited on carbon fiber (CF) surface by fiber sizing method. The synergistic effect between GnPs and CNTs in increasing the interfacial and mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforcement epoxy composites [...] Read more.
In this study, the graphene nanoplates (GnPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are simultaneous deposited on carbon fiber (CF) surface by fiber sizing method. The synergistic effect between GnPs and CNTs in increasing the interfacial and mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforcement epoxy composites (CFRP) is investigated. The fracture surfaces of the CFRP composites indicated that GnPs/CNTs hybrid coating exhibited the best interfacial and mechanical performance in all coating sample. The interlaminar shear strength of GnPs/CNTs hybrid coated CFRP composites was 90% higher than non-coated CF composites. The flexural and tensile strength of CFRP composites with GnPs/CNTs hybrid coating have an improvement of 52% and 70%, respectively, compared to non-coated CF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pneumatically-Actuated Acoustic Metamaterials Based on Helmholtz Resonators
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061456 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 373
Abstract
Metamaterials are periodic structures which offer physical properties not found in nature. Particularly, acoustic metamaterials can manipulate sound and elastic waves both spatially and spectrally in unpreceded ways. Acoustic metamaterials can generate arbitrary acoustic bandgaps by scattering sound waves, which is a superior [...] Read more.
Metamaterials are periodic structures which offer physical properties not found in nature. Particularly, acoustic metamaterials can manipulate sound and elastic waves both spatially and spectrally in unpreceded ways. Acoustic metamaterials can generate arbitrary acoustic bandgaps by scattering sound waves, which is a superior property for insulation properties. In this study, one dimension of the resonators (depth of cavity) was altered by means of a pneumatic actuation system. To this end, metamaterial slabs were additively manufactured and connected to a proportional pressure control unit. The noise reduction performance of active acoustic metamaterials in closed- and open-space configurations was measured in different control conditions. The pneumatic actuation system was used to vary the pressure behind pistons inside each cell of the metamaterial, and as a result to vary the cavity depth of each unit cell. Two pressures were considered, P = 0.05 bar, which led to higher depth of the cavities, and P = 0.15 bar, which resulted in lower depth of cavities. The results showed that by changing the pressure from P = 0.05 (high cavity depth) to P = 0.15 (low cavity depth), the acoustic bandgap can be shifted from a frequency band of 150–350 Hz to a frequency band of 300–600 Hz. The pneumatically-actuated acoustical metamaterial gave a peak attenuation of 20 dB (at 500 Hz) in the closed system and 15 dB (at 500 Hz) in the open system. A step forward would be to tune different unit cells of the metamaterial with different pressure levels (and therefore different cavity depths) in order to target a broader range of frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Designing and Manufacturing Hard and Soft Mechanical Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Magnetic Properties and Chemical Composition of Non-Oriented Electrical Steels Cut through Different Technologies
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061455 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Due to worldwide regulations on electric motor manufacturing, the energy efficiency of these devices has to be constantly improved. A solution may reside in the fact that high quality materials and adequate cutting technologies should be carefully chosen. The magnetic properties of non-oriented [...] Read more.
Due to worldwide regulations on electric motor manufacturing, the energy efficiency of these devices has to be constantly improved. A solution may reside in the fact that high quality materials and adequate cutting technologies should be carefully chosen. The magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels are affected by the cutting methods, through induced plastic, and thermal stresses. There is also an important correlation between chemical composition and different magnetic properties. In this paper, we analyze different industrial grades of non-oriented electrical steels, used in electrical machines’ core manufacturing as M800-65A, M800-50A, M400-65A, M400-50A, M300-35A, and NO20. The influence of the cutting methods on the normal magnetization curve, total energy loss and its components, and relative magnetic permeability is investigated in alternating currents using a laboratory single sheet tester. The chemical composition and grain size influence are analyzed and correlated with the magnetic properties. Special attention is devoted to the influence of the increased cutting perimeter on the energy losses and to the way it relates to each chemical alloy constituent. The final decision in what concerns the choice of the proper magnetic material and the specific cutting technology for the motor magnetic cores is imposed by the desired efficiency class and the specific industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural and Magnetic Properties of FePd Thin Film Synthesized by Electrodeposition Method
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061454 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Bimetallic nanomaterials in the form of thin film constituted by magnetic and noble elements show promising properties in different application fields such as catalysts and magnetic driven applications. In order to tailor the chemical and physical properties of these alloys to meet the [...] Read more.
Bimetallic nanomaterials in the form of thin film constituted by magnetic and noble elements show promising properties in different application fields such as catalysts and magnetic driven applications. In order to tailor the chemical and physical properties of these alloys to meet the applications requirements, it is of great importance scientific interest to study the interplay between properties and morphology, surface properties, microstructure, spatial confinement and magnetic features. In this manuscript, FePd thin films are prepared by electrodeposition which is a versatile and widely used technique. Compositional, morphological, surface and magnetic properties are described as a function of deposition time (i.e., film thickness). Chemical etching in hydrochloric acid was used to enhance the surface roughness and help decoupling crystalline grains with direct consequences on to the magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction, SEM/AFM images, contact angle and magnetic measurements have been carried out with the aim of providing a comprehensive characterisation of the fundamental properties of these bimetallic thin films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessReview
The New Technologies Developed from Laser Shock Processing
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061453 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Laser shock processing (LSP) is an advanced material surface hardening technology that can significantly improve mechanical properties and extend service life by using the stress effect generated by laser-induced plasma shock waves, which has been increasingly applied in the processing fields of metallic [...] Read more.
Laser shock processing (LSP) is an advanced material surface hardening technology that can significantly improve mechanical properties and extend service life by using the stress effect generated by laser-induced plasma shock waves, which has been increasingly applied in the processing fields of metallic materials and alloys. With the rapidly development of modern industry, many new technologies developed from LSP have emerged, which broadens the application of LSP and enriches its technical theory. In this work, the technical theory of LSP was summarized, which consists of the fundamental principle of LSP and the laser-induced plasma shock wave. The new technologies, developed from LSP, are introduced in detail from the aspect of laser shock forming (LSF), warm laser shock processing (WLSP), laser shock marking (LSM) and laser shock imprinting (LSI). The common feature of LSP and these new technologies developed from LSP is the utilization of the laser-generated stress effects rather than the laser thermal effect. LSF is utilized to modify the curvature of metal sheet through the laser-induced high dynamic loading. The material strength and the stability of residual stress and micro-structures by WLSP treatment are higher than that by LSP treatment, due to WLSP combining the advantages of LSP, dynamic strain aging (DSA) and dynamic precipitation (DP). LSM is an effective method to obtain the visualized marks on the surface of metallic materials or alloys, and its critical aspect is the preparation of the absorbing layer with a designed shape and suitable thickness. At the high strain rates induced by LSP, LSI has the ability to complete the direct imprinting over the large-scale ultrasmooth complex 3D nanostructures arrays on the surface of crystalline metals. This work has important reference value and guiding significance for researchers to further understand the LSP theory and the new technologies developed from LSP. Full article
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