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Open AccessArticle

Electro-Oxidation–Plasma Treatment for Azo Dye Carmoisine (Acid Red 14) in an Aqueous Solution

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Centro Conjunto de Investigación de Química Sustentable CCIQS, UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca Atlacomulco, km 14.5, C.P. Toluca 50200, Estado de México, Mexico
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Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Colón intersección Paseo Tollocan S/N, Toluca 50120, Estado de México, Mexico
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Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
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Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Campus El Cerrillo, Carretera Toluca - Ixtlahuaca Km 15.5, Piedras Blancas, Toluca 50200, Estado de México, Mexico
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061463 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 9 December 2019 / Accepted: 30 December 2019 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment-Friendly Electrochemical Processes)
Currently, azo dye Carmoisine is an additive that is widely used in the food processing industry sector. However, limited biodegradability in the environment has become a major concern regarding the removal of azo dye. In this study, the degradation of azo dye Carmoisine (acid red 14) in an aqueous solution was studied by using a sequenced process of electro-oxidation–plasma at atmospheric pressure (EO–PAP). Both the efficiency and effectiveness of the process were compared individually. To ascertain the behavior of azo dye Carmoisine over the degradation process, the variations in its physical characteristics were analyzed with a voltage–current relationship, optical emission spectra (OES) and temperature. On the other hand, chemical variables were analyzed by finding out pH, electrical conductivity, absorbance (UV/VIS Spectrophotometry), chemical oxygen demand (COD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), energy consumption and cost. The sequenced process (EO–PAP) increased degradation efficiency, reaching 100% for azo dye Carmoisine (acid red 14) in 60 min. It was observed that the introduction of small quantities of iron metal ions (Fe2+/Fe3+) as catalysts into the plasma process and the hydrogen peroxide formed in plasma electrical discharge led to the formation of larger amounts of hydroxyl radicals, thus promoting a better performance in the degradation of azo dye. This sequenced process increased the decolorization process. View Full-Text
Keywords: azo dye Carmoisine; advanced oxidation process; sequenced process; degradation; electro-oxidation; plasma at atmospheric pressure azo dye Carmoisine; advanced oxidation process; sequenced process; degradation; electro-oxidation; plasma at atmospheric pressure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barrera, H.; Cruz-Olivares, J.; Frontana-Uribe, B.A.; Gómez-Díaz, A.; Reyes-Romero, P.G.; Barrera-Diaz, C.E. Electro-Oxidation–Plasma Treatment for Azo Dye Carmoisine (Acid Red 14) in an Aqueous Solution. Materials 2020, 13, 1463.

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