Special Issue "Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) for Engineering Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Masoud Motavalli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Structural Engineering Laboratory, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
Tel. +41 58 765 4116
Interests: application of advanced materials (such as fiber-reinforced polymer composites and shape memory alloys in civil engineering); structural rehabilitation and repair; seismic retrofitting; large and full scale laboratory and field experiments
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Christoph Czaderski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Structural Engineering Laboratory, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
Interests: strengthening of reinforced concrete with CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers), prestressed CFRP, and shape Memory Alloys (SMA) for usage in building industry
Prof. Dr. Moslem Shahverdi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Structural Engineering Laboratory, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
Interests: shape memory alloys, fatigue and fracture mechanics, composite materials, solid mechanics, reinforced concrete, lightweight structures, numerical simulations, and field experiments

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Materials is dedicated to “Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) for Engineering Applications”. We are expecting to receive papers dealing with cutting-edge issues on research and application of SMAs in structural engineering. The topics of the Special Issue include, but are not limited to:

  1. Alloy designing of SMAs for structural engineering including:
    1. Nickel-titanium-based SMAs
    2. Copper-based SMAs
    3. Iron-based SMAs
    4. Aluminum-based SMAs
  2. Applications of SMAs for structural engineering using:
    1. Damping capacity of SMAs
    2. Superelasticity of SMAs
  3. Applications in structural engineering using shape memory effect of SMAs for tensioning applications as:
    1. Coupling, Fastener
    2. Tendon
    3. Concrete reinforcement
    4. Near surface mounted reinforcement
    5. Short fibers
  4. Actuator applications of SMAs in structural engineering
  5. Active vibration control in structural engineering using SMAs
  6. Hybrid composites of shape memory alloys and polymers for structural engineering
  7. SMAs as sensors for health monitoring of structural engineering
  8. Modeling of the SMAs applications in structural engineering including
    1. Material constitutive models
    2. Structural behavior models
    3. Long term behavior models

Prof. Dr. Masoud Motavalli
Dr. Christoph Czaderski
Prof. Dr. Moslem Shahverdi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • shape memory alloys (SMAs)
  • shape memory effect (SME)
  • superelasticity
  • modeling
  • alloy design
  • structural engineering
  • civil engineering
  • smart materials
  • external strengthening
  • structural rehabilitation
  • constitutive models
  • long term behavior

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Study on the Mechanical Properties of Bionic Protection and Self-Recovery Structures
Materials 2020, 13(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020389 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
A novel protective structure, based on shrimp chela structure and the shape of odontodactylus scyllarus, has been shown to improve impact resistance and energy absorption. A finite element model of NiTi alloy with shape memory was constructed based on the basic principles of [...] Read more.
A novel protective structure, based on shrimp chela structure and the shape of odontodactylus scyllarus, has been shown to improve impact resistance and energy absorption. A finite element model of NiTi alloy with shape memory was constructed based on the basic principles of structural bionics. The protective structure utilizes NiTi alloy as the matrix, a material with many advantages including excellent compression energy absorption, reusability after unloading, and long life. The mechanical properties of the single-layer model were obtained by static crushing experiments and numerical simulations. Building upon the idea of the monolayer bionic structure design, a two-layer structure is also conceived. Both single-layer and double-layer structures have excellent compression energy absorption and self-recovery capabilities. Compared with the single-layer structure, the double-layer structure showed larger compression deformation and exhibited better energy absorption capacity. These results have important academic and practical significance for improving the impact resistance of protective armor. Our study makes it possible to repair automatic rebounds under the action of pressure load and improves the endurance and material utilization rate of other protective structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) for Engineering Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Active Adjustment of Surface Accuracy for a Large Cable-Net Structure by Shape Memory Alloy
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162619 - 16 Aug 2019
Abstract
The high surface accuracy design of a cable-net antenna structure under the disturbance of the extremely harsh space environment requires the antenna to have good in-orbit adjustment ability for surface accuracy. A shape memory cable-net (SMC) structure is proposed in this paper and [...] Read more.
The high surface accuracy design of a cable-net antenna structure under the disturbance of the extremely harsh space environment requires the antenna to have good in-orbit adjustment ability for surface accuracy. A shape memory cable-net (SMC) structure is proposed in this paper and believed to be able to improve the in-orbit surface accuracy of the cable-net antenna. Firstly, the incremental stiffness equation of a one-dimensional bar element of the shape memory alloy (SMA) to express the relationship between the force, temperature and deformation was effectively constructed. Secondly, the finite element model of the SMC antenna structure incorporated the incremental stiffness equation of a SMA was established. Thirdly, a shape active adjustment procedure of surface accuracy based on the optimization method was presented. Finally, a numerical example of the shape memory cable net structure applied to the parabolic reflectors of space antennas was analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) for Engineering Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Thermal Cycling Effect on Transformation Temperatures of Different Transformation Sequences in TiNi-Based Shape Memory Alloys
Materials 2019, 12(16), 2512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12162512 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In TiNi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs), the effects of thermal cycling on the transformation peak temperatures of B2 ↔ B19′, B2 ↔ R, B2 ↔ B19, B2 ↔ R ↔ B19′, and B2 ↔ B19 ↔ B19′ one-stage and two-stage transformations have been [...] Read more.
In TiNi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs), the effects of thermal cycling on the transformation peak temperatures of B2 ↔ B19′, B2 ↔ R, B2 ↔ B19, B2 ↔ R ↔ B19′, and B2 ↔ B19 ↔ B19′ one-stage and two-stage transformations have been investigated and compared. Experimental results of the differential scanning calorimeter and hardness tests indicate that the alloy’s intrinsic hardness and the shear strain, s, associated with martensitic transformation, are two important factors, due to their relation to the ease of introducing dislocations during cycling. The temperature decrease by cycling for one-stage transformation was in the order of B2 ↔ B19′ > B2 ↔ B19 > B2 ↔ R according to the orders of magnitude of their s values. This phenomenon also affected the suppression of B19 ↔ B19′ and R ↔ B19′ transformation peak temperatures in two-stage transformation. Both Ti50Ni48Fe2 and Ti48.7Ni51.3 SMAs aged at 450 °C for 4 h exhibited B2 ↔ R ↔ B19′ transformation, but the hardness of the latter was much higher than that of the former due to the precipitation hardening of the Ti3Ni4 precipitates. This causesd the decrease of the R ↔ B19′ transformation peak temperature in the Ti50Ni48Fe2 SMA to be much higher than that in Ti48.7Ni51.3 SMAs aged at 450 °C for 4 h, which directly affected the sequential B2 ↔ R transformation of Ti50Ni48Fe2 SMA in the next thermal cycle and decreased this transformation peak temperature. The Ti48Ni52 SMA aged at 600 °C for 150 h underwent B2 ↔ B19′ transformation and then B2 → R → B19′/B19′ → B2 transformation as the cycle number increased, in which the B2 ↔ R transformation peak temperature raised slightly by cycling. This characteristic is uncommon and may have resulted from the strain field around the thermal-cycled dislocations favoring the formation of the R-phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) for Engineering Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Externally Mounted Sequentially Activated Iron-Based Shape Memory Alloys
Materials 2019, 12(3), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030345 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Iron based shape memory alloys (Fe-SMA) have recently been used as active flexural strengthening material for reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Fe-SMAs are characterized by a shape memory effect (SME) which allows the recovery of previously induced plastic deformations through heating. If these deformations [...] Read more.
Iron based shape memory alloys (Fe-SMA) have recently been used as active flexural strengthening material for reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Fe-SMAs are characterized by a shape memory effect (SME) which allows the recovery of previously induced plastic deformations through heating. If these deformations are restrained a recovery stress is generated by the SME. This recovery stress can be used to prestress a SMA applied as a strengthening material. This paper investigates the performance and the load deformation behavior of RC beams strengthened with mechanical end anchored unbonded Fe-SMA strips activated by sequentially infrared heating. The performance of a single loop loaded and a double loop loaded SMA strengthened RC beam are compared to an un-strengthened beam and a reference beam strengthened with commercially available structural steel. In these tests the SMA strengthened beam had the highest cracking load and the highest ultimate load. It is shown that the serviceability behavior of a concrete beam can be improved by a second thermal activation. The sequential heating procedure causes different temperature and stress states during activation along the SMA strip that have not been researched previously. The possible effect of this different temperature and stress states on metal lattice phase transformation is modeled and discussed. Moreover the role of the martensitic transformation during the cooling process on leveling the inhomogeneity of phase state in the overheated section is pointed out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) for Engineering Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
The Analysis of Superelasticity and Microstructural Evolution in NiTi Single Crystals by Molecular Dynamics
Materials 2019, 12(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010057 - 24 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Superelasticity in shape memory alloys is an important feature for actuators and medical devices. However, the function of the devices is typically limited by mechanical bandwidth and fatigue, which are dominated by the microstructures. Thus, in order to correlate the mechanical response and [...] Read more.
Superelasticity in shape memory alloys is an important feature for actuators and medical devices. However, the function of the devices is typically limited by mechanical bandwidth and fatigue, which are dominated by the microstructures. Thus, in order to correlate the mechanical response and the microstructures, the microstructural evolution in NiTi single crystals under the compression, tensile, and shearing tests is simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) in the current study. Then, the martensite variant identification method, which identifies the crystal variants/phases of each lattice based on the transformation matrix, is used to post-process the MD results. The results with the detailed information of variants and phases reveal many features that have good agreement with those reported in the literature, such as X-interfaces and the transitional orthorhombic phase between the austenite and monoclinic phases. A new twin structure consisting of diamond and wedge-shaped patterns is also discovered. The macroscopic behavior, such as stress-strain curves and the total energy profile, is linked with the distribution of dislocation and twin patterns. The results suggest that the loading cases of shear and compression allow a low critical strain for the onset of martensitic transformation and a better superelasticity behavior. Therefore, the two loading cases are suitable to apply to the NiTi actuators. The current work is expected to provide insight into the mechanical responses and design guideline for NiTi shape memory alloy actuators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) for Engineering Applications)
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