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Open AccessArticle

Mechanical Properties, Microstructure, and Chloride Content of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Paste Made with Sea Water

Division of Architecture and Urban Design, Institute of Urban Science, Incheon National University, 119 Academy-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 22012, Korea
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Materials 2020, 13(6), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061467
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructures and Durability of Cement-Based Materials)
The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of sea water as a feasible alternative to produce alkali-activated fly ash material. The alkali-activated fly ash binder was fabricated by employing conventional pure water, tap water, and sea water based alkali activating solution. The characteristics of alkali-activated materials were examined by employing compressive strength, mercury intrusion porosimetry, XRD, FT-IR, and 29Si NMR along with ion chromatography for chloride immobilization. The results provided new insights demonstrating that sea water can be effectively used to produce alkali activated fly ash material. The presence of chloride in sea water contributed to increase compressive strength, refine microstructure, and mineralogical characteristics. Furthermore, a higher degree of polymerization on the sea water-based sample was observed by FT-IR and 29Si NMR analysis. However, the higher amount of free chloride ion even after immobilization in sea water-based alkali-activated material, should be considered before application in reinforced structural elements. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea water; alkali-activated material; fly ash; chloride; microstructure sea water; alkali-activated material; fly ash; chloride; microstructure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siddique, S.; Jang, J.G. Mechanical Properties, Microstructure, and Chloride Content of Alkali-Activated Fly Ash Paste Made with Sea Water. Materials 2020, 13, 1467.

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