Next Issue
Volume 30, August
Previous Issue
Volume 30, June
 
 

Curr. Oncol., Volume 30, Issue 7 (July 2023) – 70 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The 5-year survival rate after curative resection is almost 80%; however, it is still less than satisfactory for metastatic CRC (mCRC). The combination approach including surgery, chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy is a promising strategy due to its synergistic anticancer effect. Moreover, circulating tumor DNA is a promising tool to stratify the post-operative risk of recurrence. Furthermore, multiple new drugs that potentially target undruggable genes, including KRAS, have been developed. In this review, we discuss the current management of patients with mCRC and future perspectives in the light of a combination therapeutic strategy. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
16 pages, 1848 KiB  
Article
Can STEreotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Improve the Prognosis of Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer? Long-Term Clinical Outcomes, Toxicity and Prognostic Factors on 142 Patients (STEP Study)
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 7073-7088; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070513 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Aim: The gold standard of care for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the integrated treatment of surgery and chemotherapy (ChT), but about 50% of patients present with unresectable disease. Our study evaluated the efficacy in terms of local control, survival and safety of stereotactic body [...] Read more.
Aim: The gold standard of care for pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the integrated treatment of surgery and chemotherapy (ChT), but about 50% of patients present with unresectable disease. Our study evaluated the efficacy in terms of local control, survival and safety of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Methods: A retrospective study (STEP study) analyzed patients with LAPC treated with a dose of 45 Gy in 6 fractions. Local control (LC), distant progression free survival (DPFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity were analyzed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 142 patients were evaluated. Seventy-six patients (53.5%) received induction ChT before SBRT. The median follow-up was 11 months. One-, 2- and 3-year LC rate was 81.9%, 69.1% and 58.5%. Median DPFS was 6.03 months; 1- and 2-year DPFS rate was 19.9% and 4.5%. Median OS was 11.6 months and 1-, 2- and 3-year OS rates were 45.4%, 16.1%, and 9.8%. At univariate analysis, performed by the log-rank test, age < 70 years (p = 0.037), pre-SBRT ChT (p = 0.004) and post-SBRT ChT (p = 0.019) were associated with better OS. No patients experienced G3 toxicity. Conclusion: SBRT represents an effective and safe therapeutic option in the multimodal treatment of patients with LAPC in terms of increased LC. When SBRT was sequentially integrated with ChT, the treatment proved to be promising in terms of OS as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Radiotherapy and Prognosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2888 KiB  
Article
Are Canadian Women Prepared for the Transition to Primary HPV Testing in Cervical Screening? A National Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 7055-7072; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070512 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1639
Abstract
As Canadian provinces and territories prepare to transition to HPV-based primary screening for cervical cancer, failure to identify and address potential barriers to screening could hinder program implementation. We examined screening-eligible Canadians’ attitudes towards and knowledge of cervical screening. A nationally representative sample [...] Read more.
As Canadian provinces and territories prepare to transition to HPV-based primary screening for cervical cancer, failure to identify and address potential barriers to screening could hinder program implementation. We examined screening-eligible Canadians’ attitudes towards and knowledge of cervical screening. A nationally representative sample of screening-eligible Canadians (N = 3724) completed a web-based survey in the summer of 2022. Oversampling ensured that half of the sample were underscreened for cervical cancer (>3 years since previous screening or never screened). The participants completed validated scales of cervical cancer, HPV, and HPV test knowledge and HPV test and self-sampling attitudes and beliefs. Between-group differences (underscreened vs. adequately screened) were calculated for scales and items using independent sample t-tests or chi-square tests. The underscreened participants (n = 1871) demonstrated significantly lower knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV test. The adequately screened participants (n = 1853) scored higher on the Confidence and Worries subscales of the HPV Test Attitudes and Beliefs Scale. The underscreened participants scored higher on the Personal Barriers and Social Norms subscales. The underscreened participants also endorsed greater Autonomy conferred by self-sampling. Our findings suggest important differential patterns of knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs between the underscreened and adequately screened Canadians. These findings highlight the need to develop targeted communication strategies and promote patient-centered, tailored approaches in cervical screening programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 1395 KiB  
Article
The Prognostic Value of Serum Biomarkers for Survival of Children with Osteosarcoma of the Extremities
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 7043-7054; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070511 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Background: Osteosarcoma is a highly aggressive malignant bone tumor that affects mainly adolescents and young adults. We analyzed serum biomarkers for their prognostic significance in children with osteosarcoma. Methods: In this retrospective study, we investigated the prognostic factors in 210 children who were [...] Read more.
Background: Osteosarcoma is a highly aggressive malignant bone tumor that affects mainly adolescents and young adults. We analyzed serum biomarkers for their prognostic significance in children with osteosarcoma. Methods: In this retrospective study, we investigated the prognostic factors in 210 children who were treated for appendicular osteosarcoma, including patient age and sex, tumor site and size (≥8 cm or <8 cm), presence of metastasis, chemotherapy-induced tumor necrosis, serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP), C-reactive protein, serum hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), leukocyte counts, platelet count, and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio. Results: A multivariate Cox regression model showed that high level of AP [HR of 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.94], poor chemotherapy-induced tumor necrosis [HR of 2.40; 95% CI, 1.41 to 4.08] and presence of metastases at presentation [HR of 3.71; 95% CI, 2.19 to 6.29] were associated with poor prognosis at 5 years (p < 0.05). Inadequate surgical margins [HR 11.28; 95% CI, 1.37 to 92.79] and high levels of ESR [HR 3.58; 95% CI, 1.29 to 9.98] showed a greater risk of local recurrence at 5 years follow-up (p < 0.05). Conclusions: AP and ESR can identify osteosarcoma-diagnosed children with a greater risk of death and local recurrence, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bone and Soft Tissue Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1748 KiB  
Article
Twenty Years of Advancements in a Radiotherapy Facility: Clinical Protocols, Technology, and Management
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 7031-7042; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070510 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Background: Hypo-fractionation can be an effective strategy to lower costs and save time, increasing patient access to advanced radiation therapy. To demonstrate this potential in practice within the context of temporal evolution, a twenty-year analysis of a representative radiation therapy facility from 2003 [...] Read more.
Background: Hypo-fractionation can be an effective strategy to lower costs and save time, increasing patient access to advanced radiation therapy. To demonstrate this potential in practice within the context of temporal evolution, a twenty-year analysis of a representative radiation therapy facility from 2003 to 2022 was conducted. This analysis utilized comprehensive data to quantitatively evaluate the connections between advanced clinical protocols and technological improvements. The findings provide valuable insights to the management team, helping them ensure the delivery of high-quality treatments in a sustainable manner. Methods: Several parameters related to treatment technique, patient positioning, dose prescription, fractionation, equipment technology content, machine workload and throughput, therapy times and patients access counts were extracted from departmental database and analyzed on a yearly basis by means of linear regression. Results: Patients increased by 121 ± 6 new per year (NPY). Since 2010, the incidence of hypo-fractionation protocols grew thanks to increasing Linac technology. In seven years, both the average number of fractions and daily machine workload decreased by −0.84 ± 0.12 fractions/year and −1.61 ± 0.35 patients/year, respectively. The implementation of advanced dose delivery techniques, image guidance and high dose rate beams for high fraction doses, currently systematically used, has increased the complexity and reduced daily treatment throughput since 2010 from 40 to 32 patients per 8 h work shift (WS8). Thanks to hypo-fractionation, such an efficiency drop did not affect NPY, estimating 693 ± 28 NPY/WS8, regardless of the evaluation time. Each newly installed machine was shown to add 540 NPY, while absorbing 0.78 ± 0.04 WS8. The COVID-19 pandemic brought an overall reduction of 3.7% of patients and a reduction of 0.8 fractions/patient, to mitigate patient crowding in the department. Conclusions: The evolution of therapy protocols towards hypo-fractionation was supported by the use of proper technology. The characteristics of this process were quantified considering time progression and organizational aspects. This strategy optimized resources while enabling broader access to advanced radiation therapy. To truly value the benefit of hypo-fractionation, a reimbursement policy should focus on the patient rather than individual treatment fractionation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 590 KiB  
Review
The Role of Sublobar Resection for the Surgical Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 7019-7030; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070509 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Lung cancer is the most common cancer killer in the world. The standard of care for surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer has been lobectomy. Recent studies have identified that sublobar resection has non-inferior survival rates compared to lobectomy, however. Sublobar resection [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is the most common cancer killer in the world. The standard of care for surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer has been lobectomy. Recent studies have identified that sublobar resection has non-inferior survival rates compared to lobectomy, however. Sublobar resection may increase the number of patients who can tolerate surgery and reduce postoperative pulmonary decline. Sublobar resection appears to have equivalent results to surgery in patients with small, peripheral tumors and no lymph node disease. As the utilization of segmentectomy increases, there may be some centers that perform this operation more than other centers. Care must be taken to ensure that all patients have access to this modality. Future investigations should focus on examining the outcomes from segmentectomy as it is applied more widely. When employed on a broad scale, morbidity and survival rates should be monitored. As segmentectomy is performed more frequently, patients may experience improved postoperative quality of life while maintaining the same oncologic benefit. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 600 KiB  
Article
30-Min Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Influences Airway Ion Transport—An In Vitro Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 7007-7018; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070508 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
Introduction: Smoking is one of the most important causes of cancer in humans. However, it has not been proven how long exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to induce cancerogenesis. Cigarette smoke can cause changes in ion and water transport and the maintenance [...] Read more.
Introduction: Smoking is one of the most important causes of cancer in humans. However, it has not been proven how long exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to induce cancerogenesis. Cigarette smoke can cause changes in ion and water transport and the maintenance of mucociliary transport. The conducted research concerned the assessment of changes in ion transport in rabbit tracheal specimens after 30 min of exposure to cigarette smoke. Materials and Methods: A modified Ussing chamber was used to measure the transepithelial electrical potential under stationary conditions (PD) and during mechanical stimulation (PDmin), and the transepithelial electrical resistance (R) in control and cigarette smoke-exposed tracheal fragments. Results: Significant changes in PD (−2.53 vs. −3.92 mV) and PDmin (−2.74 vs. −0.39 mV) were noted for the samples exposed to smoke, which can be associated with a rise in reactivity after applying a mechanical stimulus. In addition, the measured R (108 vs. 136 Ω/cm2) indicated no changes in the vitality of the samples, but an increase in their permeability to ions in the experimental conditions. Conclusions: A single 30-min exposure to cigarette smoke has been shown to be associated with increased permeability of the tracheal epithelium to ions and thus to substances emitted during smoking, which might be sufficient to create the possibility of initiating procarcinogenic processes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 807 KiB  
Review
Ampullary Cancer: Histological Subtypes, Markers, and Clinical Behaviour—State of the Art and Perspectives
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6996-7006; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070507 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1731
Abstract
There are different cancers in the peri-ampullary region, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), duodenum cancers (DCs), and ampullary adenocarcinoma (AAC). Here, significant morphological–molecular characterizations should be necessary for the distinction of primary tumours and classifications of their subtypes of cancers. The sub classification [...] Read more.
There are different cancers in the peri-ampullary region, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), duodenum cancers (DCs), and ampullary adenocarcinoma (AAC). Here, significant morphological–molecular characterizations should be necessary for the distinction of primary tumours and classifications of their subtypes of cancers. The sub classification of AACs might include up to five different variants, according to different points of view, concerning the prevalence of the two more-cellular components found in the ampulla. In particular, regarding the AACs, the most important subtypes are represented by the intestinal (INT) and the pancreato-biliary (PB) ones. The subtyping of AACs is essential for diagnosis, and their identifications have been impacting clinical management responses to treatments and overall survival (os) after surgery. Pb is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Otherwise, the criteria, through which are possible to attribute its subtype classification, are not well established. A triage of immune markers represented by CK7, CK20, and CDX-2 seem to represent the best compromise in order to split the cohort of AAC patients in the INT and PB groups. The test of choice for the sub-classification of AACs is represented by the immuno-histochemical approach, in which its molecular classification acquires its diagnostic, predictive, and prognostic value for both the INT and PB patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 285 KiB  
Conference Report
Resilience at Work among Healthcare Professionals in Oncology during and beyond the Pandemic: Report from A Deliberative Multi-Stakeholder Reflexive Symposium
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6986-6995; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070506 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1151
Abstract
The chronic distress faced by healthcare professionals (HCPs) in oncology was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, heightening the need to improve their resilience. The Entretiens Jacques Cartier symposium provided an opportunity for participants from France and Quebec to share perspectives on resilience at [...] Read more.
The chronic distress faced by healthcare professionals (HCPs) in oncology was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, heightening the need to improve their resilience. The Entretiens Jacques Cartier symposium provided an opportunity for participants from France and Quebec to share perspectives on resilience at work and discuss interventions at individual and organizational levels to support HCP health and well-being. Fifty-eight stakeholders were invited to the symposium, including HCPs, government decision-makers, researchers, and patient representatives. The symposium began with presentations on the nature of professional resilience at work in oncology and promising interventions developed in France and Quebec. Participants were then engaged in deliberation on how evidence and experiential knowledge could contribute to workplace strategies to strengthen resilience. Small-group reflexive sessions using the photovoice method, and an intersectoral roundtable, elicited the expression and deliberation of multiple perspectives on the nature and building blocks of resilience. Four main themes emerged from the discussions: (1) that resilience remains a muddy concept and can be associated pejoratively with “happycracy”; (2) that resilience must contend with bounded autonomy and captors; (3) that it relies on a sense of coherence at work; and (4) that patients play a role in improving HCP resilience. Stakeholders from healthcare systems in different countries view resilience at work as a means of equipping teams to handle chronic and punctual stresses in cancer care. The symposium emphasized the importance of better defining what resilience at work means and pursuing explorations of multicomponent interventions to support oncology HCPs and the patients they care for. The themes raised by participants at the symposium suggest pathways for furthering this exploration. Full article
10 pages, 725 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effectiveness and Safety of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in the Treatment of Oligoprogressive Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6976-6985; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070505 - 21 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1740
Abstract
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a technique to treat oligoprogressive sites among patients with breast cancer who are otherwise doing well on systemic therapy. This study systematically reviewed the efficacy and safety of SBRT in the setting of oligoprogressive breast cancer. [...] Read more.
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a technique to treat oligoprogressive sites among patients with breast cancer who are otherwise doing well on systemic therapy. This study systematically reviewed the efficacy and safety of SBRT in the setting of oligoprogressive breast cancer. A literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE database. Studies regarding SBRT and oligoprogressive breast cancer were included. Key outcomes of interest were toxicity, local control, progression, and overall survival. From 863 references, five retrospective single-center cohort studies were identified. All studies included patients with both oligometastatic and oligoprogressive disease; 112 patients with oligoprogressive breast cancer were identified across these studies. Patient age ranged from 22 to 84, with a median of 55 years of age. Most patients had hormone-receptor-positive and HER2-negative disease. SBRT doses varied from 24 to 60 Gy in 1–10 fractions based on the location/size of the lesion. Forty toxicity events were reported, of which the majority (n = 25, 62.5%) were grade 1–2 events. Among 15 patients who received SBRT concurrently with a CDK4/6 inhibitor, 37.5% of patients experienced grade 3–5 toxicities. Progression-free and overall survival ranged from 17 to 57% and 62 to 91%, respectively. There are limited data on the role of SBRT in oligoprogressive breast cancer, and prospective evaluation of this strategy is awaited to inform its safety and efficacy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1054 KiB  
Review
Quality of Life in Cancer Patients: The Modern Psycho-Oncologic Approach for Romania—A Review
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6964-6975; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070504 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Quality of life (QOL) is an important indicator of human satisfaction and well-being. QOL is significantly and persistently affected for patients after a cancer diagnosis. Despite some evidence suggesting that psycho-oncologic interventions can provide lasting benefits, the inclusion of such interventions in cancer [...] Read more.
Quality of life (QOL) is an important indicator of human satisfaction and well-being. QOL is significantly and persistently affected for patients after a cancer diagnosis. Despite some evidence suggesting that psycho-oncologic interventions can provide lasting benefits, the inclusion of such interventions in cancer therapy is not universal. This article provides an overview of the known approaches to the evaluation of QOL in cancer patients and various interventions for improving patients’ outcomes, with a focus on the eastern European regional and specific Romanian context. With a mortality rate above and cancer care performance below the EU average and unequally distributed, Romania urgently needs a national coordination program, which is discussed in our review, highlighting the main psychological tools needed for the assessment and the challenges involved in implementing the program. In the end, we suggest some directions for the future development of the psycho-oncologic approach in the context of social considerations, policy, and the unexpected financial challenges the nation provides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality of Life and Side Effects Management in Cancer Treatment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

92 pages, 565 KiB  
Conference Report
Abstract Proceedings of the 38th Annual Canadian Association of Psychosocial Oncology (CAPO) Conference, June 2023
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6872-6963; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070503 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
On behalf of the Canadian Association of Psychosocial Oncology, we are pleased to present the Abstracts from the 2023 Annual Conference, titled “Co-designing Psychosocial Oncology: Optimizing Outcomes for All”. The conference was held in Montreal from 20 June 2023 to 22 June 2023. [...] Read more.
On behalf of the Canadian Association of Psychosocial Oncology, we are pleased to present the Abstracts from the 2023 Annual Conference, titled “Co-designing Psychosocial Oncology: Optimizing Outcomes for All”. The conference was held in Montreal from 20 June 2023 to 22 June 2023. This conference brought together key stakeholders including multidisciplinary professionals from nursing, psychology, psychiatry, social work, spiritual care, nutrition, medicine, rehabilitation medicine, occupational health and radiation therapy for both adult and pediatric populations. Participants included clinicians, researchers, educators in cancer care, community-based organizations and patient representatives. Patients, caregivers and family members presented abstracts that spoke to their role in managing cancer experiences and care. Over one hundred (100) abstracts were selected for presentation as symposia, 20-min oral presentations, 10-min oral presentations, 90-min workshops and poster presentations. We congratulate all the presenters on their research work and contribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychosocial Oncology)
10 pages, 266 KiB  
Review
Prospective Clinical Trials to Advance the Study of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Toxicity
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6862-6871; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070502 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1631
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a class of drug that produces durable and sustained anti-tumour responses in a wide variety of malignancies. The exponential rise in their use has been mirrored by a rise in immune-related adverse events (IrAEs). Knowledge of such toxicities, [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a class of drug that produces durable and sustained anti-tumour responses in a wide variety of malignancies. The exponential rise in their use has been mirrored by a rise in immune-related adverse events (IrAEs). Knowledge of such toxicities, as well as effective management algorithms for these toxicities, is essential to optimize clinical efficacy and safety. Currently, the guidelines for management of the IrAEs are based largely on retrospective studies and case series. In this article, we review the current landscape of clinical trials investigating the management of IrAEs with an aim to develop standardised, randomised controlled trial-based management algorithms for ICI-related toxicities. Full article
3 pages, 191 KiB  
Editorial
Psychosocial Oncology: Optimizing Outcomes through Interdisciplinary Care in Head and Neck Oncology
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6859-6861; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070501 - 19 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas arise from the mucosal epithelium of the oral cavity (lips, buccal mucosa, anterior tongue, hard palate, floor of mouth, and retromolar trigone), nasopharynx, oropharynx (tonsils, base of tongue, soft palate, uvula, and posterior pharyngeal wall), hypopharynx, and [...] Read more.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas arise from the mucosal epithelium of the oral cavity (lips, buccal mucosa, anterior tongue, hard palate, floor of mouth, and retromolar trigone), nasopharynx, oropharynx (tonsils, base of tongue, soft palate, uvula, and posterior pharyngeal wall), hypopharynx, and larynx [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Effects of Head and Neck Cancer)
21 pages, 756 KiB  
Review
Cancer Pain Management: A Narrative Review of Current Concepts, Strategies, and Techniques
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6838-6858; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070500 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5067
Abstract
Pain is frequently reported during cancer disease, and it still remains poorly controlled in 40% of patients. Recent developments in oncology have helped to better control pain. Targeted treatments may cure cancer disease and significantly increase survival. Therefore, a novel population of patients [...] Read more.
Pain is frequently reported during cancer disease, and it still remains poorly controlled in 40% of patients. Recent developments in oncology have helped to better control pain. Targeted treatments may cure cancer disease and significantly increase survival. Therefore, a novel population of patients (cancer survivors) has emerged, also enduring chronic pain (27.6% moderate to severe pain). The present review discusses the different options currently available to manage pain in (former) cancer patients in light of progress made in the last decade. Major progress in the field includes the recent development of a chronic cancer pain taxonomy now included in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) and the update of the WHO analgesic ladder. Until recently, cancer pain management has mostly relied on pharmacotherapy, with opioids being considered as the mainstay. The opioids crisis has prompted the reassessment of opioids use in cancer patients and survivors. This review focuses on the current utilization of opioids, the neuropathic pain component often neglected, and the techniques and non-pharmacological strategies available which help to personalize patient treatment. Cancer pain management is now closer to the management of chronic non-cancer pain, i.e., “an integrative and supportive pain care” aiming to improve patient’s quality of life. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 414 KiB  
Review
Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma—A Critical Review of Randomised Trials
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6820-6837; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070499 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is rising as one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Patients often present with advanced disease, limiting curative treatment options and therefore making management of the disease difficult. Systemic chemotherapy has been an established part of the standard treatment [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer is rising as one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Patients often present with advanced disease, limiting curative treatment options and therefore making management of the disease difficult. Systemic chemotherapy has been an established part of the standard treatment in patients with both locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer. In contrast, the use of radiotherapy has no clear defined role in the treatment of these patients. With the evolving imaging and radiation techniques, radiation could become a plausible intervention. In this review, we give an overview over the available data regarding radiotherapy, chemoradiation, and stereotactic body radiation therapy. We performed a systematic search of Embase and the PubMed database, focusing on studies involving locally advanced pancreatic cancer (or non-resectable pancreatic cancer) and radiotherapy without any limitation for the time of publication. We included randomised controlled trials involving patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer, including radiotherapy, chemoradiation, or stereotactic body radiation therapy. The included articles represented mainly small patient groups and had a high heterogeneity regarding radiation delivery and modality. This review presents conflicting results concerning the addition of radiation and modality in the treatment regimen. Further research is needed to improve outcomes and define the role of radiation therapy in pancreatic cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 319 KiB  
Review
Molecular Mechanisms of Cutaneous Immune-Related Adverse Events (irAEs) Induced by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6805-6819; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070498 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1582
Abstract
Over the past few decades, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as promising therapeutic options for the treatment of various cancers. These novel treatments effectively target key mediators of immune checkpoint pathways. Currently, ICIs primarily consist of monoclonal antibodies that specifically block cytotoxic [...] Read more.
Over the past few decades, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as promising therapeutic options for the treatment of various cancers. These novel treatments effectively target key mediators of immune checkpoint pathways. Currently, ICIs primarily consist of monoclonal antibodies that specifically block cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG-3). Despite the notable efficacy of ICIs in cancer treatment, they can also trigger immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which present as autoimmune-like or inflammatory conditions. IrAEs have the potential to affect multiple organ systems, with cutaneous toxicities being the most commonly observed. Although cutaneous irAEs are typically of low-grade severity and can usually be managed effectively, there are cases where severe irAEs can become life-threatening. Therefore, early recognition and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying cutaneous irAEs are crucial for improving clinical outcomes in cancer patients. However, the precise pathogenesis of cutaneous irAEs remains unclear. This review focuses on the skin manifestations induced by ICIs, the prognosis related to cutaneous irAEs, and the exploration of potential mechanisms involved in cutaneous irAEs. Full article
19 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
Implementation of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Under- or Never-Screened Women in Ontario, Canada: Understanding the Acceptability of HPV Self-Sampling
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6786-6804; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070497 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1457
Abstract
With appropriate screening, cervical cancer can be prevented. In Ontario, Canada, some groups of women have low screening rates. South Asian, Middle Eastern and North African women are particularly at risk of under-screening. Currently, cytology-based screening is used in Ontario, although the growing [...] Read more.
With appropriate screening, cervical cancer can be prevented. In Ontario, Canada, some groups of women have low screening rates. South Asian, Middle Eastern and North African women are particularly at risk of under-screening. Currently, cytology-based screening is used in Ontario, although the growing evidence and adoption of HPV testing for cervical screening has encouraged many jurisdictions around the world to move towards HPV testing, with the option of self-sampling. We conducted an intervention beginning in June 2018, where we recruited over 100 under- or never-screened (UNS) women who identify as South or West Asian, Middle Eastern or North African from the Greater Toronto Area, to understand the uptake and acceptability of HPV self-sampling as an alternative to a Pap test. Participants self-selected if they tried the kit or not and completed both quantitative and qualitative research activities. This paper focuses on the qualitative arm of the study, where follow-ups and five focus groups were conducted with those who tried the kit (three groups) and those who did not (two groups), as well as eight key informant interviews with community champions and others who were involved in our recruitment. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide our data collection and analysis. Major themes around convenience, privacy and comfort came from the data as important drivers of the uptake of the intervention. The role of community champions and peers in engaging and educating UNS women, as well as having self-confidence to collect the sample, also came out as factors impacting uptake and plans for continued use. Overall, the intervention showed that HPV self-sampling is an acceptable alternative to a Pap test for some but not all UNS women in Ontario. Full article
15 pages, 1101 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Impact of the Urgent Cancer Care Clinic on Emergency Department Visits, Primary Care Clinician Visits, and Hospitalizations in Winnipeg, Manitoba
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6771-6785; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070496 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1086
Abstract
The urgent cancer care (UCC) clinic at CancerCare Manitoba (CCMB) opened in 2013 to provide care to individuals diagnosed with cancer and serious blood disorders experiencing complications from the underlying disorder or its treatment. This study examined the impact of the UCC clinic [...] Read more.
The urgent cancer care (UCC) clinic at CancerCare Manitoba (CCMB) opened in 2013 to provide care to individuals diagnosed with cancer and serious blood disorders experiencing complications from the underlying disorder or its treatment. This study examined the impact of the UCC clinic on other health care utilization in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. An interrupted time series study design was used to compare the rates of emergency department (ED) visits, primary care clinician (PCC) visits, and hospitalizations from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2015. Rates of ED visits were also stratified by ED location, severity, and cancer type. We found a 6% (95% CI 1.00–1.13, p-value = 0.0389) increase in PCC visits, a 7% (95% CI 0.99–1.15, p-value = 0.0737) increase in hospitalizations, a 4% (95% CI 0.86–1.08, p-value = 0.5053) decrease in the rate of ED visits, and a 3% (95% CI 0.92–1.17, p-value = 0.5778) increase in the rate of ED visits during the UCC clinic hours after the UCC clinic opened. The implementation of the UCC clinic had minimal impact on health care utilization. Future work should examine the impact of the UCC clinic on other aspects of healthcare utilization (e.g., number of tests ordered and time spent waiting in CCMB’s main clinics) and patient quality of life and patient and health care provider experience. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 1779 KiB  
Review
The New Ice Age of Musculoskeletal Intervention: Role of Percutaneous Cryoablation in Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6744-6770; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070495 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1807
Abstract
In the rapidly evolving field of interventional oncology, minimally invasive methods, including CT-guided cryoablation, play an increasingly important role in tumor treatment, notably in bone and soft tissue cancers. Cryoablation works using compressed gas-filled probes to freeze tumor cells to temperatures below −20 [...] Read more.
In the rapidly evolving field of interventional oncology, minimally invasive methods, including CT-guided cryoablation, play an increasingly important role in tumor treatment, notably in bone and soft tissue cancers. Cryoablation works using compressed gas-filled probes to freeze tumor cells to temperatures below −20 °C, exploiting the Joule–Thompson effect. This cooling causes cell destruction by forming intracellular ice crystals and disrupting blood flow through endothelial cell damage, leading to local ischemia and devascularization. Coupling this with CT technology enables precise tumor targeting, preserving healthy surrounding tissues and decreasing postoperative complications. This review reports the most important literature on CT-guided cryoablation’s application in musculoskeletal oncology, including sarcoma, bone metastases, and bone and soft tissue benign primary tumors, reporting on the success rate, recurrence rate, complications, and technical aspects to maximize success for cryoablation in the musculoskeletal system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bone and Soft Tissue Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 704 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Use of Contrast-Enhanced Sonography for Therapy Monitoring of Metastatic Lymph Nodes: A Systematic Review
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6734-6743; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070494 - 16 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Metastatic cervical lymph nodes are a frequent finding in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). If a non-surgical approach is primarily chosen, a therapy response evaluation of the primary tumor and the affected lymph nodes is necessary in the follow-up. Supplementary contrast-enhanced [...] Read more.
Metastatic cervical lymph nodes are a frequent finding in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). If a non-surgical approach is primarily chosen, a therapy response evaluation of the primary tumor and the affected lymph nodes is necessary in the follow-up. Supplementary contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can be used to precisely visualize the microcirculation of the target lesion in the neck, whereby malignant and benign findings differ in their uptake behavior. The same applies to many other solid tumors. For various tumor entities, it has already been shown that therapy monitoring is possible through regular contrast-enhanced sonography of the primary tumor or the affected lymph nodes. Thus, in some cases, maybe in the future, a change in therapy strategy can be achieved at an early stage in the case of non-response or, in the case of therapy success, a de-escalation of subsequent (surgical) measures can be achieved. In this paper, a systematic review of the available studies and a discussion of the potential of therapy monitoring by means of CEUS in HNSCC are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 643 KiB  
Article
Fear of Cancer Recurrence and Coping Strategies among Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Qualitative Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6720-6733; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070493 - 16 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Background: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), as a commonly reported problem among prostate cancer survivors, has not been fully understood. This study aimed to explore the experience of FCR and relevant coping strategies among Iranian prostate cancer survivors. Methods: Qualitative research was conducted [...] Read more.
Background: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), as a commonly reported problem among prostate cancer survivors, has not been fully understood. This study aimed to explore the experience of FCR and relevant coping strategies among Iranian prostate cancer survivors. Methods: Qualitative research was conducted on 13 men who completed treatments for prostate cancer in the last 24 months. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and in-depth semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Conventional content analysis was used for data analysis. Results: Data analysis led to the emergence of three themes. “Living with insecurity” describes the participants’ experiences regarding what triggers FCR with two categories, including “fear of incomplete cure” and “fear of cancer return.” In addition, “struggling to cope” with two categories, including “psychological strategies” and “spiritual coping,” presents coping strategies used by the participants for reducing FCR. Furthermore, “trying to prevent cancer recurrence” with two categories, “seeking health” and “lifestyle modification,” indicates coping strategies used by the participants to prevent cancer recurrence. Conclusions: Healthcare providers need to consider the cultural characteristics of prostate cancer survivors when assessing their FCR, encourage them to disclose their concerns and fears, and provide tailored interventions in order to reduce FCR among them. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 7087 KiB  
Case Report
Radiation-Induced Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6708-6719; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070492 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1530
Abstract
Background: Radiation therapy (RT) is a mainstay for the treatment of head and neck (HN) cancers, with 80% of patients receiving such treatment. Radiation-induced malignancies represent a life-threatening long-term effect of RT, with an incidence of 0.5% to 15%. Case Description: After 13 [...] Read more.
Background: Radiation therapy (RT) is a mainstay for the treatment of head and neck (HN) cancers, with 80% of patients receiving such treatment. Radiation-induced malignancies represent a life-threatening long-term effect of RT, with an incidence of 0.5% to 15%. Case Description: After 13 years, a 33-year-old woman treated with chemo-radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma developed a locally advanced, radiation-induced, p16-negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at the base of the tongue. Chemo/immunotherapy was administered as a first-line treatment. Given the optimal response and the feasibility of surgery, after three cycles, the patient underwent a total glossectomy, bilateral neck dissection, and reconstruction with a thoraco-dorsal free flap. A histological examination found SCC with a residual cancer burden of 70% and free margins. Discussion: The mechanisms responsible for carcinogenesis after RT are still not completely clear. Diagnosis may be challenging due to the previous treatment; growth patterns are unusual, and lymphotropism is lower. Prognosis is usually poor since surgical resectability is often not achievable. Conclusions: Radiation-induced malignancies are difficult to treat. Patient management should always be discussed at a multidisciplinary level. Future research is needed to assess whether the promising results of clinical studies with pre-operative immunotherapy in locally advanced HN SCC patients may be translated into radiation-induced cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Head and Neck Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 816 KiB  
Case Report
Desensitization Protocol for Cemiplimab-Related Infusion Reaction in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6699-6707; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070491 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1296
Abstract
Background: The landscape of systemic therapies for advanced non-melanoma skin cancers has been revolutionized by the advent of immunotherapy. Cemiplimab is the only immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) approved by the European Medicine Agency for recurrent/metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Its excellent efficacy [...] Read more.
Background: The landscape of systemic therapies for advanced non-melanoma skin cancers has been revolutionized by the advent of immunotherapy. Cemiplimab is the only immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) approved by the European Medicine Agency for recurrent/metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Its excellent efficacy outcomes are achieved due to its good tolerability profile. The drug-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a well-known issue in oncology, but it is rarely reported in respect to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Cemiplimab is among the agents with the best infusion tolerability profiles. Clinical practice guidelines in this field are lacking. Results: We report on the successful management of a severe infusion reaction induced by Cemiplimab in a patient with cSCC based on a desensitization protocol, which led to adequate treatment delivery and prolonged clinical benefit. A review of the available literature on HSR rates and its management with ICIs, and on drug desensitization (DD) protocols and their efficacy, was conducted to highlight the limited knowledge on this topic and its importance. Conclusion: Our experience highlights the need for a DD protocol in order to improve the treatment of HSRs, particularly when elicited by an immunotherapy agent, preventing treatment discontinuation and preserving its efficacy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 10247 KiB  
Article
Imaging Spectrum of the Developing Glioblastoma: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6682-6698; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070490 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 973
Abstract
Glioblastoma (GBM) has the typical radiological appearance (TRA) of a centrally necrotic, peripherally enhancing tumor with surrounding edema. The objective of this study was to determine whether the developing GBM displays a spectrum of imaging changes detectable on routine clinical imaging prior to [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma (GBM) has the typical radiological appearance (TRA) of a centrally necrotic, peripherally enhancing tumor with surrounding edema. The objective of this study was to determine whether the developing GBM displays a spectrum of imaging changes detectable on routine clinical imaging prior to TRA GBM. Patients with pre-operative imaging diagnosed with GBM (1 January 2014–31 March 2022) were identified from a neuroscience center. The imaging was reviewed by an experienced neuroradiologist. Imaging patterns preceding TRA GBM were analyzed. A total of 76 out of 555 (14%) patients had imaging preceding TRA GBM, 57 had solitary lesions, and 19 had multiple lesions (total = 84 lesions). Here, 83% of the lesions had cortical or cortical/subcortical locations. The earliest imaging features for 84 lesions were T2 hyperintensity/CT low density (n = 18), CT hyperdensity (n = 51), and T2 iso-intensity (n = 15). Lesions initially showing T2 hyperintensity/CT low density later showed T2 iso-intensity. When CT and MRI were available, all CT hyperdense lesions showed T2 iso-intensity, reduced diffusivity, and the following enhancement patterns: nodular 35%, solid 29%, none 26%, and patchy peripheral 10%. The mean time to develop TRA GBM from T2 hyperintensity was 140 days and from CT hyperdensity was 69 days. This research suggests that the developing GBM shows a spectrum of imaging features, progressing through T2 hyperintensity to CT hyperdensity, T2 iso-intensity, reduced diffusivity, and variable enhancement to TRA GBM. Red flags for non-TRA GBM lesions are cortical/subcortical CT hyperdense/T2 iso-intense/low ADC. Future research correlating this imaging spectrum with pathophysiology may provide insight into GBM growth patterns. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 459 KiB  
Systematic Review
Breast Reconstruction Use and Impact on Surgical and Oncologic Outcomes Amongst Inflammatory Breast Cancer Patients—A Systematic Review
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6666-6681; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070489 - 13 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1277
Abstract
Breast reconstruction is generally discouraged in women with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) due to concerns with recurrence and poor long-term survival. We aim to determine contemporary trends and predictors of breast reconstruction and its impact on oncologic outcomes among women with IBC. A [...] Read more.
Breast reconstruction is generally discouraged in women with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) due to concerns with recurrence and poor long-term survival. We aim to determine contemporary trends and predictors of breast reconstruction and its impact on oncologic outcomes among women with IBC. A systematic literature review for all studies published up to 15 September 2022 was conducted via MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies comparing women diagnosed with IBC undergoing a mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction were evaluated. The initial search yielded 225 studies, of which nine retrospective cohort studies, reporting 2781 cases of breast reconstruction in 29,058 women with IBC, were included. In the past two decades, immediate reconstruction rates have doubled. Younger age, higher income (>USD 25,000), private insurance, metropolitan residence, and bilateral mastectomy were associated with immediate reconstruction. No significant difference was found in overall survival, breast cancer-specific survival or recurrence rates between women undergoing versus not undergoing (immediate or delayed) reconstruction. There is a paucity of data on delayed breast reconstruction following IBC. Immediate breast reconstruction may be a consideration for select patients with IBC, although prospective data is needed to clarify its safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Surgical Treatment of Breast Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1989 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Effect of Statins on the Incidence and Prognosis of Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6648-6665; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070488 - 12 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2153
Abstract
Background: Statins are widely used due to their ability to lower plasma cholesterol and offer protection from the effects of atherosclerosis. However, their role in urology and specifically bladder cancer remains unclear. We aimed to systematically address this issue in the literature and [...] Read more.
Background: Statins are widely used due to their ability to lower plasma cholesterol and offer protection from the effects of atherosclerosis. However, their role in urology and specifically bladder cancer remains unclear. We aimed to systematically address this issue in the literature and determine any possible effects of statin therapy on bladder cancer. Methods: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and Cochrane Library databases for records up to 26 March 2023, for studies evaluating the effects of statins on urinary bladder cancer (UBC). We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohorts, and case-control studies that were conducted on the adult population. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42023407795. Results: Database searches returned 2251 reports, and after thorough investigation and assessment for eligibility, 32 reports were included in the analysis. Of them, 4 were RCTs, 6 were case-control studies, and 22 were cohort studies. Our qualitative analysis demonstrated no association between statin administration and UBC local control, recurrence, survival, or mortality, or between statin administration and bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy effectiveness. A meta-analysis of 10 trials revealed a non-significant reduction of 11% in UBC risk among users compared with non-users in RCTs (RR: 0.89, 95% CI 0.68–1.16, p = 0.37) and a non-significant increase of 32% of UBC risk among statin users compared with non-users in the analysis of the cohort studies (RR: 1.32, 95% CI 0.76–2.30, p = 0.33). Conclusions: Our results provide strong evidence to support the neutral effect of statins on UBC local control, recurrence, survival, and mortality, and on BCG immunotherapy. Our meta-analysis revealed a non-significant effect on UBC risk among statin users when compared with non-users, indicating no statin effect on UBC incidence and overall prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Genitourinary Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 320 KiB  
Review
Aggressive Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Review
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6634-6647; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070487 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Non-melanoma skin cancer of the head and neck (NMSCHN) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and its incidence is growing at a significant rate. It has been found to be aggressive in its spread and has the capacity to metastasize to [...] Read more.
Non-melanoma skin cancer of the head and neck (NMSCHN) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and its incidence is growing at a significant rate. It has been found to be aggressive in its spread and has the capacity to metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) has a considerably high mortality rate. It has remarkable characteristics: diameter >2 cm, depth >5 mm, high recurrence, perineural invasion, and locoregional metastases. Aggressive cSCC lesions most commonly metastasize to the parotid gland. Also, immunocompromised patients have a higher risk of developing this aggressive cancer along with the worst prognostic outcomes. It is very important to discuss and assess the risk factors, prognostic factors, and outcomes of patients with cSCC, which will give clinicians future directives for making modifications to their treatment plans. The successful treatment of aggressive cSCC of the head and neck includes early detection and diagnosis, surgery alone or adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy as required. Multimodal therapy options should be considered by clinicians for better outcomes of aggressive cSCC of the head and neck. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

11 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Frailty on Palliative Care Receipt, Emergency Room Visits and Hospital Deaths in Cancer Patients: A Registry-Based Study
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6623-6633; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070486 - 11 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Background. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status is used in decision-making to identify fragile patients, despite the development of new and possibly more reliable measures. This study aimed to examine the impact of frailty on end-of-life healthcare utilization in deceased cancer patients. [...] Read more.
Background. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status is used in decision-making to identify fragile patients, despite the development of new and possibly more reliable measures. This study aimed to examine the impact of frailty on end-of-life healthcare utilization in deceased cancer patients. Method. Hospital Frailty Risk Scores (HFRS) were calculated based on 109 weighted International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnoses, and HFRS was related to (a) receipt of specialized palliative care, (b) unplanned emergency room (ER) visits during the last month of life, and (c) acute hospital deaths. Results. A total of 20,431 deceased cancer patients in ordinary accommodations were studied (nursing home residents were excluded). Frailty, as defined by the HFRS, was more common in men than in women (42% vs. 38%, p < 0.001) and in people residing in less affluent residential areas (42% vs. 39%, p < 0.001). Patients with frailty were older (74.1 years vs. 70.4 years, p < 0.001). They received specialized palliative care (SPC) less often (76% vs. 81%, p < 0.001) but had more unplanned ER visits (50% vs. 35%, p < 0.001), and died more often in acute hospital settings (22% vs. 15%, p < 0.001). In multiple logistic regression models, the odds ratio (OR) was higher for frail people concerning ER visits (OR 1.81 (1.71–1.92), p < 0.001) and hospital deaths (OR 1.66 (1.51–1.81), p < 0.001), also in adjusted models, when controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic status at the area level, and for receipt of SPC. Conclusion. Frailty, as measured by the HFRS, significantly affects end-of-life cancer patients and should be considered in oncologic decision-making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Palliative Care and Supportive Medicine in Cancer)
14 pages, 691 KiB  
Review
Anti-Glycolytic Drugs in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Systemic and Locoregional Options
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6609-6622; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070485 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Locoregional therapies, including transarterial embolization (TAE: bland embolization), chemoembolization (TACE), and radioembolization, have demonstrated survival benefits when treating patients with unresectable HCC. TAE and TACE [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Locoregional therapies, including transarterial embolization (TAE: bland embolization), chemoembolization (TACE), and radioembolization, have demonstrated survival benefits when treating patients with unresectable HCC. TAE and TACE occlude the tumor’s arterial supply, causing hypoxia and nutritional deprivation and ultimately resulting in tumor necrosis. Embolization blocks the aerobic metabolic pathway. However, tumors, including HCC, use the “Warburg effect” and survive hypoxia from embolization. An adaptation to hypoxia through the Warburg effect, which was first described in 1956, is when the cancer cells switch to glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen. Hence, this is also known as aerobic glycolysis. In this article, the adaptation mechanisms of HCC, including glycolysis, are discussed, and anti-glycolytic treatments, including systemic and locoregional options that have been previously reported or have the potential to be utilized in the treatment of HCC, are reviewed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1889 KiB  
Article
Health Technology Reassessment: Addressing Uncertainty in Economic Evaluations of Oncology Drugs at Time of Reimbursement Using Long-Term Clinical Trial Data
Curr. Oncol. 2023, 30(7), 6596-6608; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol30070484 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The evidence base to support reimbursement decision making for oncology drugs is often based on short-term follow-up trial data, and attempts to address this uncertainty are not typically undertaken once a reimbursement decision is made. To address this gap, we sought to conduct [...] Read more.
The evidence base to support reimbursement decision making for oncology drugs is often based on short-term follow-up trial data, and attempts to address this uncertainty are not typically undertaken once a reimbursement decision is made. To address this gap, we sought to conduct a reassessment of an oncology drug (pembrolizumab) for patients with advanced melanoma which was approved based on interim data with a median 7.9 months of follow-up and for which long-term data have since been published. We developed a three-health-state partitioned survival model based on the phase 3 KEYNOTE-006 clinical trial data using patient-level data reconstruction techniques based on an interim analysis. We used a standard survival analysis and parametric curve fitting techniques to extrapolate beyond the trial follow-up time, and the model structure and inputs were derived from the literature. Five-year long-term follow-up data from the trial were then used to re-evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab for treatment of advanced melanoma. The best fitting parametric curves and corresponding survival extrapolations for reconstructed interim data and long-term data reconstructed from KEYNOTE-006 were different. An analysis of the 5 year long-term follow-up data generated a base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) that was 28% higher than the ICER based on interim trial data. Our findings suggest that there may be a trade-off between certainty and the ICER. Conducting health technology re-assessments of certain oncology products on the basis of longer-term data availability, especially for those health technology adoption decisions made based on immature clinical data, may be of value to decision makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Economic Burden of Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop