Topic Editors

Tumor Genomics Unit, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy
Istituto Nazionale Tumori, IRCCS Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples, Italy

Cancer Biology and Therapy

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
Viewed by
162075

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite significant treatment improvements having been achieved with the advent of targeted and immune checkpoint inhibitor-based therapies, cancer still remains one of the first causes of death worldwide. Recent data suggest that resistance to targeted therapies as well as worse response to chemo-immunotherapy may be predicted by specific genetic backgrounds. Furthermore, tumor aggressiveness and resistance to treatments are not only driven by tumor-cell-intrinsic features, but also by the fine-tuned cross-talk with the tumor microenvironment (TME—i.e., fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune system cells). Interestingly, tumor microenvironment (TME) cross-talk may be mediated by direct contact, or by molecule or extracellular vesicle secretion, further increasing cancer biology complexity.

Therefore, this Topic will consider articles on all types of research on the biology of cancer and on the interconnection of tumor cells with the TME, with special attention on features related to aggressiveness, dissemination and resistance to specific treatments. This Topic will consider research on all types of cancers, in an effort to find commonalities that may link different tumors.

Additionally, submission of research on the impact of the “tumor macroenvironment” (microbiota, diet, physical exercise, etc.) on tumor biology will also be welcome.

Dr. Massimo Moro
Dr. Luca Falzone
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • cancer biology
  • resistance to treatment
  • resistance mutations
  • tumor microenvironment
  • secretome
  • extracellular vesicles
  • immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • targeted therapy

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomedicines
biomedicines
4.7 3.7 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600
Reports
reports
0.9 - 2018 20.6 Days CHF 1400
Current Issues in Molecular Biology
cimb
3.1 2.4 1999 13.5 Days CHF 2200
BioMed
biomed
- - 2021 27 Days CHF 1000
Diagnostics
diagnostics
3.6 3.6 2011 20.7 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (60 papers)

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19 pages, 7117 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Melanoma Gene Expression Signatures at the Single-Cell Level Uncovers 45-Gene Signature Related to Prognosis
by Mohamed Nabil Bakr, Haruko Takahashi and Yutaka Kikuchi
Biomedicines 2022, 10(7), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10071478 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3120
Abstract
Since the current melanoma clinicopathological staging system remains restricted to predicting survival outcomes, establishing precise prognostic targets is needed. Here, we used gene expression signature (GES) classification and Cox regression analyses to biologically characterize melanoma cells at the single-cell level and construct a [...] Read more.
Since the current melanoma clinicopathological staging system remains restricted to predicting survival outcomes, establishing precise prognostic targets is needed. Here, we used gene expression signature (GES) classification and Cox regression analyses to biologically characterize melanoma cells at the single-cell level and construct a prognosis-related gene signature for melanoma. By analyzing publicly available scRNA-seq data, we identified six distinct GESs (named: “Anti-apoptosis”, “Immune cell interactions”, “Melanogenesis”, “Ribosomal biogenesis”, “Extracellular structure organization”, and “Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)”). We verified these GESs in the bulk RNA-seq data of patients with skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Four GESs (“Immune cell interactions”, “Melanogenesis”, “Ribosomal biogenesis”, and “Extracellular structure organization”) were significantly correlated with prognosis (p = 1.08 × 10−5, p = 0.042, p = 0.001, and p = 0.031, respectively). We identified a prognostic signature of melanoma composed of 45 genes (MPS_45). MPS_45 was validated in TCGA-SKCM (HR = 1.82, p = 9.08 × 10−6) and three other melanoma datasets (GSE65904: HR = 1.73, p = 0.006; GSE19234: HR = 3.83, p = 0.002; and GSE53118: HR = 1.85, p = 0.037). MPS_45 was independently associated with survival (p = 0.002) and was proved to have a high potential for predicting prognosis in melanoma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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15 pages, 3688 KiB  
Article
Circulating Lymphocytes Reflect the Local Immune Response in Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma
by Johanna Waidhauser, Pia Nerlinger, Florian Sommer, Sebastian Wolf, Stefan Eser, Phillip Löhr, Andreas Rank and Bruno Märkl
Diagnostics 2022, 12(6), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12061408 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1902
Abstract
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) correlate with the number and size of the surrounding lymph nodes in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and reflect the quality of the antitumor immune response. In this prospective study, we analyzed whether this response correlated with the circulating lymphocytes [...] Read more.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) correlate with the number and size of the surrounding lymph nodes in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and reflect the quality of the antitumor immune response. In this prospective study, we analyzed whether this response correlated with the circulating lymphocytes in peripheral blood (PB). In 47 patients with newly diagnosed CRC, flow cytometry was performed to analyze the B cells, T cells, NK cells, and a variety of their subsets in PB. The results were correlated with TILs in the resected tumor and with the number and size of the surrounding lymph nodes in nodal negative (N- patients (LN5: number of lymph nodes measuring ≥5 mm) and the metastasis-to-lymph node size ratio (MSR) in nodal positive patients (N+). Differences between the number of TILs could be seen between N+ and N- patients, dependent on the LN5 and MSR categories, with higher values in N- cases and in patients with a higher LN5 category or a lower MSR. Additionally, higher values of various circulating lymphocyte subgroups were observed in these patients. For the total PB lymphocytes, CD8 cells, and some of their subgroups, a positive correlation with the TILs was found. This study shows that circulating lymphocytes—in particular, cytotoxic T cells—correlate with the local antitumor immune response displayed by TILs and lymph node activation. Our findings indicate that local and generalized antitumor immune responses are concordant with their different components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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10 pages, 6416 KiB  
Article
Association between Nuclear Morphometry Parameters and Gleason Grade in Patients with Prostatic Cancer
by Kamil Malshy, Gilad E. Amiel, Dov Hershkovitz, Edmond Sabo and Azik Hoffman
Diagnostics 2022, 12(6), 1356; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12061356 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Objective: Gleason scoring system remains the pathological method of choice for prostate cancer (Pca) grading. However, this method of tumor tissue architectural structure grading is still affected by subjective assessment and might succumb to several disadvantages, mainly inter-observer variability. These limitations might be [...] Read more.
Objective: Gleason scoring system remains the pathological method of choice for prostate cancer (Pca) grading. However, this method of tumor tissue architectural structure grading is still affected by subjective assessment and might succumb to several disadvantages, mainly inter-observer variability. These limitations might be diminished by determining characteristic cellular heterogeneity parameters which might improve Gleason scoring homogeneity. One of the quantitative tools of tumor assessment is the morphometric characterization of tumor cell nuclei. We aimed to test the relationship between various morphometric measures and the Gleason score assigned to different prostate cancer samples. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 60 prostate biopsy samples performed at a tertiary uro-oncology center. Each slide was assigned a Gleason grade according to the International Society of Urological Pathology contemporary grading system by a single experienced uro-pathologist. Samples were assigned into groups from grades 3 to 5. Next, the samples were digitally scanned (×400 magnification) and sampled on a computer using Image-Pro-Plus software©. Manual segmentation of approximately 100 selected tumor cells per sample was performed, and a computerized measurement of 54 predetermined morphometric properties of each cell nuclei was recorded. These characteristics were used to compare the pathological group grades assigned to each specimen. Results: Initially, of the 54 morphometric parameters evaluated, 38 were predictive of Gleason grade (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, 7 independent parameters were found to be discriminative of different Pca grades: minimum radius shape, intensity—minimal gray level, intensity—maximal gray level, character—gray level (green), character—gray level (blue), chromatin color, fractal dimension, and chromatin texture. A formula to predict the presence of Gleason grade 3 vs. grades 4 or 5 was developed (97.2% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Discussion: The suggested morphometry method based on seven selected parameters is highly sensitive and specific in predicting Gleason score ≥ 4. Since discriminating Gleason score 3 from ≥4 is essential for proper treatment selection, this method might be beneficial in addition to standard pathological tissue analysis in reducing variability among pathologists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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20 pages, 2415 KiB  
Article
The Effect of α-Mangostin and Cisplatin on Ovarian Cancer Cells and the Microenvironment
by Paulina Borzdziłowska and Ilona Bednarek
Biomedicines 2022, 10(5), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10051116 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3425
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is one of the cancers that, unfortunately, is detected at a late stage of development. The current use of treatment has many side effects. Notably, up to 20% of patients show cisplatin resistance. We assess the effects of cisplatin and/or α-mangostin, [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is one of the cancers that, unfortunately, is detected at a late stage of development. The current use of treatment has many side effects. Notably, up to 20% of patients show cisplatin resistance. We assess the effects of cisplatin and/or α-mangostin, a natural plant derivative, on ovarian cancer cells and on the cancer cell microenvironment. The effect of cisplatin and/or α-mangostin on the following cells of ovarian cancer lines: A2780, TOV-21G, and SKOV-3 was verified using the XTT cytotoxicity assay. The separate and combined effects of tested drugs on ovarian cancer cell viability were assessed. We assessed the influence of chemotherapeutic agents on the possibility of modulating the microenvironment. For this purpose, we isolated exosomes from drug-treated and untreated ovarian cancer cells. We estimated the differences in the amounts of exosomes released from cancer cells (NTA technique). We also examined the effects of isolated exosome fractions on normal human cells (NHDF human fibroblast line). In the present study, we demonstrate that treatment of A2780, SKOV-3, and TOV-21G cells with α-mangostin in combination with cisplatin can allow a reduction in cisplatin concentration while maintaining the same cytotoxic effect. Ovarian cancer cells release a variable number of exosomes into the microenvironment when exposed to α-mangostin and/or cisplatin. However, it is important to note that the cargo carried by exosomes released from drug-treated cells may be significantly different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 1028 KiB  
Article
The Role of the Microbiome in Gastroentero-Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (GEP-NENs)
by Amr Mohamed, Sylvia L. Asa, Thomas McCormick, Hilmi Al-Shakhshir, Arvind Dasari, Retuerto Mauricio, Iman Salem, Lee M. Ocuin, David Bajor, Richard T. Lee, J. Eva Selfridge, Arash Kardan, Zhenghong Lee, Norbert Avril, Shelby Kopp, Jordan M. Winter, Jeffrey M. Hardacre, John B. Ammori and Mahmoud A. Ghannoum
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(5), 2015-2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44050136 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2748
Abstract
Gut microbiome balance plays a key role in human health and maintains gut barrier integrity. Dysbiosis, referring to impaired gut microbiome, is linked to a variety of diseases, including cancers, through modulation of the inflammatory process. Most studies concentrated on adenocarcinoma of different [...] Read more.
Gut microbiome balance plays a key role in human health and maintains gut barrier integrity. Dysbiosis, referring to impaired gut microbiome, is linked to a variety of diseases, including cancers, through modulation of the inflammatory process. Most studies concentrated on adenocarcinoma of different sites with very limited information on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). In this study, we have analyzed the gut microbiome (both fungal and bacterial communities) in patients with metastatic GEP-NENs. Fecal samples were collected and compared with matched healthy control samples using logistic regression distances utilizing R package MatchIt (version 4.2.0, Daniel E. Ho, Stanford, CA, USA). We examined differences in microbiome profiles between GEP-NENs and control samples using small subunit (SSU) rRNA (16S), ITS1, ITS4 genomic regions for their ability to accurately characterize bacterial and fungal communities. We correlated the results with different behavioral and dietary habits, and tumor features including differentiation, grade, primary site, and therapeutic response. All tests are two-sided and p-values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Gut samples of 34 patients (12 males, 22 females, median age 64 years) with metastatic GEP-NENs (22 small bowel, 10 pancreatic, 1 gall bladder, and 1 unknown primary) were analyzed. Twenty-nine patients had well differentiated GEP-neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), (G1 = 14, G2 = 12, G3 = 3) and five patients had poorly differentiated GEP-neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NECs). Patients with GEP-NENs had significantly decreased bacterial species and increased fungi (notably Candida species, Ascomycota, and species belonging to saccharomycetes) compared to controls. Patients with GEP-NECs had significantly enriched populations of specific bacteria and fungi (such as Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacteroides fragilis and Trichosporon asahii) compared to those with GEP-NETs (p = 0.048, 0.0022 and 0.034, respectively). In addition, higher grade GEP-NETs were associated with significantly higher Bacteroides fragilis (p = 0.022), and Eggerthella lenta (p = 0.00018) species compared to lower grade tumors. There were substantial differences associated with dietary habits and therapeutic responses. This is the first study to analyze the role of the microbiome environment in patients with GEP-NENs. There were significant differences between GEP-NETs and GEP-NECs, supporting the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of these two distinct entities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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10 pages, 560 KiB  
Article
Clinical Features and Immunophenotypes of Double-Hit Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
by Cheng-Han Wu, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Chieh-Lin Jerry Teng, Yu-Hsuan Shih, Yu-Chen Su, Ren-Ching Wang and Tsung-Chih Chen
Diagnostics 2022, 12(5), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051106 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Double-hit (DH) genetics induces a reduction in the complete remission (CR) and, consequently, in poor overall survival (OS) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Unfortunately, DH identification is time-consuming. Here, we retrospectively reviewed 92 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients, stratified them into the [...] Read more.
Double-hit (DH) genetics induces a reduction in the complete remission (CR) and, consequently, in poor overall survival (OS) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Unfortunately, DH identification is time-consuming. Here, we retrospectively reviewed 92 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients, stratified them into the DH (n = 14) and non-DH groups (n = 78), and compared their clinical features and outcomes. The results revealed that the DH group had a higher percentage of bulky disease than the non-DH group (64.3% vs. 28.2%; p = 0.013). More patients in the DH group tested positive for double expresser (DE) (50.0% vs. 21.8%; p = 0.044). The three-year OS rates of patients with and without DH were 33.3% and 52.2%, respectively (p = 0.016). Importantly, advance stage and multiple comorbidities were correlated with a high mortality rate in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, by combining DE and the bulky disease, a specificity of 89.7% for DH prediction was achieved. In summary, DH genetics, not DE immunopositivity, could be a factor for an inferior OS in DLBCL. A combination of bulky disease and a positive DE immunophenotype could facilitate DH genetics prediction in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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11 pages, 1204 KiB  
Article
Expression and Prognostic Implication of PD-L1 in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma with Variant Histology (Squamous Differentiation or Micropapillary) Undergoing Radical Cystectomy
by Jae-Hoon Chung, Chung-Un Lee, Dong-Hyeon Lee and Wan Song
Biomedicines 2022, 10(4), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040910 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
The expression and prognostic role of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) on tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) has not been determined in urothelial carcinoma (UC) with variant histology. We retrospectively reviewed 90 patients (44 with micropapillary variant of UC (MPUC) and 46 with UC with [...] Read more.
The expression and prognostic role of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) on tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) has not been determined in urothelial carcinoma (UC) with variant histology. We retrospectively reviewed 90 patients (44 with micropapillary variant of UC (MPUC) and 46 with UC with squamous differentiation (UCSD)) who underwent radical cystectomy between January 2013 and December 2019. The expression of PD-L1 in TICs was measured using the VENTANA (SP-142) immunohistochemistry assay and dichotomized using a 5% cutoff value (positive ≥ 5%). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to estimate recurrence-free survival (RFS), and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors predicting tumor recurrence. Overall, positive PD-L1 expression in TICs was confirmed in 50 of 90 (55.6%) patients (40.1% (18/44) of MPUC and 69.9% (32/46) of UCSD). RFS was significantly shorter in patients with positive PD-L1 expression in TICs than in those with negative PD-L1 expression both in MPUC (p = 0.005) and UCSD (p = 0.046). Positive PD-L1 expression in TICs was significantly associated with an increased risk of tumor recurrence in both MPUC (HR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.323–2.672; p = 0.017) and UCSD (HR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.162–2.780; p = 0.032). In conclusion, positive PD-L1 expression in TICs was significantly associated with poorer RFS in both MPUC and UCSD patients. Our results support the use of adjuvant immunotherapy in these patients if they test positive for PD-L1 in their TICs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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10 pages, 1986 KiB  
Article
CRISPR/Cas9 Screening for Identification of Genes Required for the Growth of Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma Cells
by Ayako Kawabata, Tomoatsu Hayashi, Yoko Akasu-Nagayoshi, Ai Yamada, Naomi Shimizu, Naoko Yokota, Ryuichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Aikou Okamoto and Tetsu Akiyama
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(4), 1587-1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44040108 - 07 Apr 2022
Viewed by 3001
Abstract
Epithelial ovarian cancer is classified into four major histological subtypes: serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) responds poorly to conventional chemotherapies and shows poor prognosis. Thus, there is a need to develop new drugs for the treatment of [...] Read more.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is classified into four major histological subtypes: serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous. Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) responds poorly to conventional chemotherapies and shows poor prognosis. Thus, there is a need to develop new drugs for the treatment of OCCC. In this study, we performed CRISPR/Cas9 screens against OCCC cell lines and identified candidate genes important for their proliferation. We found that quite different genes are required for the growth of ARID1A and PIK3CA mutant and wild-type OCCC cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, we found that the epigenetic regulator KDM2A and the translation regulator PAIP1 may play important roles in the growth of ARID1A and PIK3CA mutant, but not wild-type, OCCC cells. The results of our CRISPR/Cas9 screening may be useful in elucidating the molecular mechanism of OCCC tumorigenesis and in developing OCCC-targeted drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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13 pages, 4071 KiB  
Article
A Small Molecule Promoting Neural Differentiation Suppresses Cancer Stem Cells in Colorectal Cancer
by Jung Kyu Choi, Ihn-Sil Kwak, Sae-Bom Yoon, Heeyeong Cho and Byoung-San Moon
Biomedicines 2022, 10(4), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040859 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a tumor cell subpopulation that drives tumor progression and metastasis, leading to a poor overall survival of patients. In colorectal cancer (CRC), the hyper-activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by a mutation of both adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and K-Ras [...] Read more.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a tumor cell subpopulation that drives tumor progression and metastasis, leading to a poor overall survival of patients. In colorectal cancer (CRC), the hyper-activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by a mutation of both adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and K-Ras increases the size of the CSC population. We previously showed that CPD0857 inactivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling by promoting the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin and Ras proteins, thereby decreasing proliferation and increasing the apoptosis of CRC lines. CPD0857 also decreased the growth and invasiveness of CRC cells harboring mutant K-Ras resistant to EGFR mAb therapy. Here, we show that CPD0857 treatment decreases proliferation and increases the neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). CDP0857 effectively reduced the expression of CSC markers and suppressed self-renewal capacity. CPD0857 treatment also inhibited the proliferation and expression of CSC markers in D-K-Ras MT cells carrying K-Ras, APC and PI3K mutations, indicating the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling. Moreover, CPD0857-treated xenograft mice showed a regression of tumor growth and decreased numbers of CSCs in tumors. We conclude that CPD0857 could serve as the basis of a drug development strategy targeting CSCs activated through Wnt/β-catenin-Ras MAPK-PI3K/AKT signaling in CRCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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17 pages, 1342 KiB  
Review
Next Generation Sequencing and Molecular Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer—An Opportunity for Targeted Therapy
by Laura M. Harbin, Holly H. Gallion, Derek B. Allison and Jill M. Kolesar
Diagnostics 2022, 12(4), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12040842 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3570
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of all gynecologic malignancies claiming the lives of nearly 14,000 women in the United States annually. Despite therapeutic advances, the ovarian cancer mortality rate has remained stagnant since the 1980’s. The molecular heterogeneity of ovarian cancers suggest they [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of all gynecologic malignancies claiming the lives of nearly 14,000 women in the United States annually. Despite therapeutic advances, the ovarian cancer mortality rate has remained stagnant since the 1980’s. The molecular heterogeneity of ovarian cancers suggest they may be more effectively treated via precision medicine. Current guidelines recommend germline and somatic testing for all new epithelial ovarian cancer diagnoses to assist providers in identifying candidates for targeted therapies. Next generation sequencing (NGS) identifies targetable, driver, and novel mutations used to guide treatment decisions. Performing NGS is standard of care in many other malignancies, but for ovarian cancer the use of NGS in daily practice is still emerging. This review discusses the targetable genetic mutations and role of NGS and molecular biomarker testing in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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13 pages, 1068 KiB  
Article
Analytic and Clinical Validation of a Pan-Cancer NGS Liquid Biopsy Test for the Detection of Copy Number Amplifications, Fusions and Exon Skipping Variants
by Audrey Audetat, Chérie Tschida, Sarah Kreston, Adam Stephen, Brittany D’Alessio, Madeline Bondy, Leisa Jackson, Hestia Mellert, Niki Givens, Ubaradka G. Sathyanarayana and Gary A. Pestano
Diagnostics 2022, 12(3), 729; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12030729 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2835
Abstract
Liquid biopsies are an integral part of the diagnosis of cancer. Here, we have extended previous validation studies of a new targeted NGS panel to include the detection of copy number amplifications (CNAs), fusions, and exon skipping variants. Detection of these gene classes [...] Read more.
Liquid biopsies are an integral part of the diagnosis of cancer. Here, we have extended previous validation studies of a new targeted NGS panel to include the detection of copy number amplifications (CNAs), fusions, and exon skipping variants. Detection of these gene classes included specimens from clinical and healthy donors and cell lines (fusions: ROS1, EML4-ALK, NTRK1; exon skipping: MET exon 14; CNAs: HER2, CDK6, EGFR, MYC, and MET). The limit of detection (LOD) for fusion/skipping was 42 copies (QC threshold was three copies) and was verified using three additional fusion/skipping variants. LOD for CNAs was 1.40-fold-change (QC threshold = 1.15-fold change) and was verified with three additional CNAs. In repeatability and intermediate precision (within lab) studies, all fusion/skipping variants were detected in all runs and all days of testing (n = 18/18; 100%); average CV for repeatability was 20.5% (range 8.7–34.8%), and for intermediate precision it was 20.8% (range 15.7–30.5%). For CNAs, 28/29 (96.6%) copy gains were detected. For CNAs, the average CV was 1.85% (range 0% to 5.49%) for repeatability and 6.59% (range 1.65% to 9.22%) for intermediate precision. The test panel meets the criteria for being highly sensitive and specific and extends its utility for the serial detection of clinically relevant variants in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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15 pages, 4030 KiB  
Article
High-Throughput Drug Library Screening in Primary KMT2A-Rearranged Infant ALL Cells Favors the Identification of Drug Candidates That Activate P53 Signaling
by Priscilla Wander, Susan T. C. J. M. Arentsen-Peters, Kirsten S. Vrenken, Sandra Mimoso Pinhanҫos, Bianca Koopmans, M. Emmy M. Dolman, Luke Jones, Patricia Garrido Castro, Pauline Schneider, Mark Kerstjens, Jan J. Molenaar, Rob Pieters, Christian Michel Zwaan and Ronald W. Stam
Biomedicines 2022, 10(3), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030638 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2554
Abstract
KMT2A-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants (<1 year of age) represents an aggressive type of childhood leukemia characterized by a poor clinical outcome with a survival chance of <50%. Implementing novel therapeutic approaches for these patients is a slow-paced and costly [...] Read more.
KMT2A-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants (<1 year of age) represents an aggressive type of childhood leukemia characterized by a poor clinical outcome with a survival chance of <50%. Implementing novel therapeutic approaches for these patients is a slow-paced and costly process. Here, we utilized a drug-repurposing strategy to identify potent drugs that could expeditiously be translated into clinical applications. We performed high-throughput screens of various drug libraries, comprising 4191 different (mostly FDA-approved) compounds in primary KMT2A-rearranged infant ALL patient samples (n = 2). The most effective drugs were then tested on non-leukemic whole bone marrow samples (n = 2) to select drugs with a favorable therapeutic index for bone marrow toxicity. The identified agents frequently belonged to several recurrent drug classes, including BCL-2, histone deacetylase, topoisomerase, microtubule, and MDM2/p53 inhibitors, as well as cardiac glycosides and corticosteroids. The in vitro efficacy of these drug classes was successfully validated in additional primary KMT2A-rearranged infant ALL samples (n = 7) and KMT2A-rearranged ALL cell line models (n = 5). Based on literature studies, most of the identified drugs remarkably appeared to lead to activation of p53 signaling. In line with this notion, subsequent experiments showed that forced expression of wild-type p53 in KMT2A-rearranged ALL cells rapidly led to apoptosis induction. We conclude that KMT2A-rearranged infant ALL cells are vulnerable to p53 activation, and that drug-induced p53 activation may represent an essential condition for successful treatment results. Moreover, the present study provides an attractive collection of approved drugs that are highly effective against KMT2A-rearranged infant ALL cells while showing far less toxicity towards non-leukemic bone marrow, urging further (pre)clinical testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 4513 KiB  
Article
Macrophage Infiltration Correlates with Genomic Instability in Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma
by Suzana Hančić, Paula Gršković, Slavko Gašparov, Slobodanka Ostojić Kolonić, Mara Dominis and Petra Korać
Biomedicines 2022, 10(3), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030579 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a biologically diverse group of lymphoid tumors, which accounts for 1% of all de novo neoplasms in the world’s population. It is divided into two main groups: the more common classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and the less common nodular [...] Read more.
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a biologically diverse group of lymphoid tumors, which accounts for 1% of all de novo neoplasms in the world’s population. It is divided into two main groups: the more common classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and the less common nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL). cHL is further divided into four subtypes, which differ in morphology and the contents of tumor microenvironment. Macrophages are one of the components of tumor microenvironment known to contribute to creating an immunosuppressive microenvironment, which inhibits the activity of cells expressing granzyme B against tumor cells, even when tumor cells are infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Our research aimed to explore the association between the specific contents of tumor microenvironment and the genetic anomalies in tumor cells. The presence and the relative percentage of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and macrophages was detected by immunohistochemical staining of the antigens specific for certain cell populations. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to detect anomalies in the genome of tumor cells and in situ hybridization was used to detect the presence of EBV. Our results show an association between the number of CD163+ macrophages and the number of TP53 copies or BCL6 gene translocation. Patients who had a higher number of CD163+ macrophages infiltrating tumor tissue and three or higher number of copies of TP53 showed poorer survival. We conclude that the presence of macrophages may contribute to genetic instability in cHL, which drives the progression of cHL and decreases survival of the patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 1648 KiB  
Article
The Expression of the Senescence-Associated Biomarker Lamin B1 in Human Breast Cancer
by Tareq Saleh, Ahmad Alhesa, Mohammed El-Sadoni, Nisreen Abu Shahin, Elham Alsharaiah, Sofian Al Shboul, Heyam Awad, Sarah Bloukh, Mahmoud Al-Balas, Mohammad Alsalem, Bilal Azab and Tariq N. Aladily
Diagnostics 2022, 12(3), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12030609 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3296
Abstract
Senescence is a major response to cancer chemotherapy and has been linked to unfavorable therapy outcomes. Lamin B1 is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a pivotal role in chromatin stability. Downregulation of lamin B1 represents an established biomarker for cellular [...] Read more.
Senescence is a major response to cancer chemotherapy and has been linked to unfavorable therapy outcomes. Lamin B1 is a component of the nuclear lamina that plays a pivotal role in chromatin stability. Downregulation of lamin B1 represents an established biomarker for cellular senescence. However, the protein expression level of lamin B1 in malignant tissue, particularly of the breast, has not been previously described. In this work, we investigated lamin B1 protein expression in normal breast epithelium, malignant breast tissue (including adjacent non-malignant tissue) and in malignant tissue exposed to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in three patient groups (n = 15, n = 87, and n = 43, respectively). Our results indicate that lamin B1 mean positive expression was 93% in normal breast epithelium and 88% in malignant breast cells, but significantly decreased (mean: 55%, p < 0.001) in malignant breast tissue after exposure to NAC, suggestive of senescence induction. No significant association between lamin B1 expression and other clinicopathological characteristics or survival of breast cancer patients was recorded. To our knowledge, this is the first report that established the baseline protein expression level of lamin B1 in normal and malignant breast tissue, and its reduction following exposure to chemotherapy. In conclusion, lamin B1 downregulation can be used reliably as a component of multiple biomarker batteries to identify therapy-induced senescence (TIS) in clinical cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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15 pages, 42867 KiB  
Article
CCL5 Deficiency Enhanced Cryo–Thermal-Triggered Long-Term Anti-Tumor Immunity in 4T1 Murine Breast Cancer
by Yue Lou, Shengguo Jia, Ping Liu and Lisa X. Xu
Biomedicines 2022, 10(3), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030559 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2445
Abstract
Breast cancer remains one of the most common solid tumors. Tumor immunosuppressive factors mainly hinder the control of tumors. We previously developed an innovative cryo–thermal therapy that was shown to significantly suppress distal metastasis and improve long-term survival in murine B16F10 melanoma and [...] Read more.
Breast cancer remains one of the most common solid tumors. Tumor immunosuppressive factors mainly hinder the control of tumors. We previously developed an innovative cryo–thermal therapy that was shown to significantly suppress distal metastasis and improve long-term survival in murine B16F10 melanoma and 4T1 mammary carcinoma models. However, the effect of cryo–thermal therapy on the 4T1 model was not excellent. CCL5 has been reported to help the progression of breast cancer, so in this study, CCL5−/− was used to explore the role of host-derived CCL5 after cryo–thermal therapy. CCL5−/− could not completely resist tumor development, but it significantly improved survival rates when combined with cryo–thermal therapy. Mechanically, CCL5−/− mildly decreases the percentage of MDSCs, increases DC maturation and macrophage’s inflammatory function at an early stage after tumor inoculation, and later up-regulate the level of Th1 and down-regulate the level of Tregs. When combined with cryo–thermal therapy, CCL5−/− dramatically down-regulated the proportion of MDSCs and induced full M1 macrophage polarization, which further promoted Th1 differentiation and the cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells. Our results indicated that CCL5−/− contributed to cryo–thermal-triggered, long-lasting anti-tumor memory immunity. The combination of cryo–thermal therapy and CCL5 blockades might extend the survival rates of patients with aggressive breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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13 pages, 37866 KiB  
Article
Nordentatin Inhibits Neuroblastoma Cell Proliferation and Migration through Regulation of GSK-3 Pathway
by Chantana Boonyarat, Panatchakorn Boonput, Nantakorn Tongloh, Rawiwun Kaewamatawong, Suchada Chaiwiwatrakul, Chavi Yenjai and Pornthip Waiwut
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(3), 1062-1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44030070 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2480
Abstract
Cancer is caused by abnormal cell changes leading to uncontrolled cell growth. The specific characteristics of cancer cells, including the loss of apoptotic control and the ability to migrate into and invade the surrounding tissue, result in cancer cell metastasis to other parts [...] Read more.
Cancer is caused by abnormal cell changes leading to uncontrolled cell growth. The specific characteristics of cancer cells, including the loss of apoptotic control and the ability to migrate into and invade the surrounding tissue, result in cancer cell metastasis to other parts of the body. Therefore, the inhibition of the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells are the principal goals in the treatment of cancer. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of nordentatin, a coumarin derivative isolated from Clausena harmandiana, regarding the proliferation and migration of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Nordentatin at a concentration of 100 µM showed cell cytotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y that was significantly different from that of the control group (p < 0.01) at 24, 48, and 72 h. Moreover, nordentatin inhibited SH-SY5Y proliferation by inhibiting the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1, leading to the cleavage of caspase-3 and resulting in the inhibition of a migratory protein, MMP-9, through the GSK-3 pathway (compared with cells treated with a GSK inhibitor). These results suggest that nordentatin inhibited the proliferation and migration of neuroblastoma cells through the GSK-3 pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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26 pages, 1181 KiB  
Review
Is Tissue Still the Issue? The Promise of Liquid Biopsy in Uveal Melanoma
by Daniël P. de Bruyn, Aaron B. Beasley, Robert M. Verdijk, Natasha M. van Poppelen, Dion Paridaens, Ronald O. B. de Keizer, Nicole C. Naus, Elin S. Gray, Annelies de Klein, Erwin Brosens and Emine Kiliç
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020506 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the second most frequent type of melanoma. Therapeutic options for UM favor minimally invasive techniques such as irradiation for vision preservation. As a consequence, no tumor material is obtained. Without available tissue, molecular analyses for gene expression, mutation or [...] Read more.
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the second most frequent type of melanoma. Therapeutic options for UM favor minimally invasive techniques such as irradiation for vision preservation. As a consequence, no tumor material is obtained. Without available tissue, molecular analyses for gene expression, mutation or copy number analysis cannot be performed. Thus, proper patient stratification is impossible and patients’ uncertainty about their prognosis rises. Minimally invasive techniques have been studied for prognostication in UM. Blood-based biomarker analysis has become more common in recent years; however, no clinically standardized protocol exists. This review summarizes insights in biomarker analysis, addressing new insights in circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, extracellular vesicles, proteomics, and metabolomics. Additionally, medical imaging can play a significant role in staging, surveillance, and prognostication of UM and is addressed in this review. We propose that combining multiple minimally invasive modalities using tumor biomarkers should be the way forward and warrant more attention in the coming years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 3860 KiB  
Article
Proteasome-Mediated Regulation of GATA2 Expression and Androgen Receptor Transcription in Benign Prostate Epithelial Cells
by Waqas Azeem, Jan Roger Olsen, Margrete Reime Hellem, Yaping Hua, Kristo Marvyin, Xisong Ke, Anne Margrete Øyan and Karl-Henning Kalland
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020473 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1815
Abstract
GATA2 has been shown to be an important transcription factor together with androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells. Less is known about GATA2 in benign prostate epithelial cells. We have investigated if GATA2 exogenous expression in prostate epithelial basal-like cells could induce [...] Read more.
GATA2 has been shown to be an important transcription factor together with androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cancer cells. Less is known about GATA2 in benign prostate epithelial cells. We have investigated if GATA2 exogenous expression in prostate epithelial basal-like cells could induce AR transcription or luminal differentiation. Prostate epithelial basal-like (transit amplifying) cells were transduced with lentiviral vector expressing GATA2. Luminal differentiation markers were assessed by RT-qPCR, Western blot and global gene expression microarrays. We utilized our previously established AR and androgen-dependent fluorescence reporter assay to investigate AR activity at the single-cell level. Exogenous GATA2 protein was rapidly and proteasome-dependently degraded. GATA2 protein expression was rescued by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and partly by mutating the target site of the E3 ligase FBXW7. Moreover, MG132-mediated proteasome inhibition induced AR mRNA and additional luminal marker gene transcription in the prostate transit amplifying cells. Different types of intrinsic mechanisms restricted GATA2 expression in the transit amplifying cells. The appearance of AR mRNA and additional luminal marker gene expression changes following proteasome inhibition suggests control of essential cofactor(s) of AR mRNA expression and luminal differentiation at this proteolytic level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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20 pages, 30852 KiB  
Article
Identifying Mitotic Kinesins as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer Using Bioinformatic Analyses
by Hailun Liu, Chen Chen, Tanja Fehm, Zhongping Cheng and Hans Neubauer
Diagnostics 2022, 12(2), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12020470 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Ovarian cancer (OC) is characterized by late-stage presentation, chemoresistance, and poor survival. Evaluating the prognosis of OC patients via effective biomarkers is essential to manage OC progression and to improve survival; however, it has been barely established. Here, we intend to identify differentially [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer (OC) is characterized by late-stage presentation, chemoresistance, and poor survival. Evaluating the prognosis of OC patients via effective biomarkers is essential to manage OC progression and to improve survival; however, it has been barely established. Here, we intend to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) as potential prognostic biomarkers of OC via bioinformatic analyses. Initially, a total of thirteen DEGs were extracted from different public databases as candidates. The expression of KIF20A, one of the DEGs, was correlated with a worse outcome of OC patients. The functional correlation of the DEGs with mitosis and the prognostic value of KIF20A imply a high correlation between mitotic kinesins (KIFs) and OC development. Finally, we found that KIF20A, together with the other nine mitotic KIFs (4A, 11, 14, 15, 18A, 18B, 23, C1, and2C) were upregulated and activated in OC tissues. Among the ten, seven overexpressed mitotic KIFs (11, 14, 18B, 20A, 23, and C1) were correlated with unfavorable clinical prognosis. Moreover, KIF20A and KIF23 overexpression was associated with worse prognosis in OC patients treated with platinum/taxol chemotherapy, while OCs overexpressing mitotic KIFs (11, 15, 18B, and C1) were resistant to MAPK pathway inhibitors. In conclusion, worse outcomes of OC patients were correlated with overexpression of several mitotic KIFs, which may serve both as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for OC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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24 pages, 4668 KiB  
Review
Cell and Tissue Nanomechanics: From Early Development to Carcinogenesis
by Mikhail E. Shmelev, Sergei I. Titov, Andrei S. Belousov, Vladislav M. Farniev, Valeriia M. Zhmenia, Daria V. Lanskikh, Alina O. Penkova and Vadim V. Kumeiko
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020345 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3144
Abstract
Cell and tissue nanomechanics, being inspired by progress in high-resolution physical mapping, has recently burst into biomedical research, discovering not only new characteristics of normal and diseased tissues, but also unveiling previously unknown mechanisms of pathological processes. Some parallels can be drawn between [...] Read more.
Cell and tissue nanomechanics, being inspired by progress in high-resolution physical mapping, has recently burst into biomedical research, discovering not only new characteristics of normal and diseased tissues, but also unveiling previously unknown mechanisms of pathological processes. Some parallels can be drawn between early development and carcinogenesis. Early embryogenesis, up to the blastocyst stage, requires a soft microenvironment and internal mechanical signals induced by the contractility of the cortical actomyosin cytoskeleton, stimulating quick cell divisions. During further development from the blastocyst implantation to placenta formation, decidua stiffness is increased ten-fold when compared to non-pregnant endometrium. Organogenesis is mediated by mechanosignaling inspired by intercellular junction formation with the involvement of mechanotransduction from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Carcinogenesis dramatically changes the mechanical properties of cells and their microenvironment, generally reproducing the structural properties and molecular organization of embryonic tissues, but with a higher stiffness of the ECM and higher cellular softness and fluidity. These changes are associated with the complete rearrangement of the entire tissue skeleton involving the ECM, cytoskeleton, and the nuclear scaffold, all integrated with each other in a joint network. The important changes occur in the cancer stem-cell niche responsible for tumor promotion and metastatic growth. We expect that the promising concept based on the natural selection of cancer cells fixing the most invasive phenotypes and genotypes by reciprocal regulation through ECM-mediated nanomechanical feedback loop can be exploited to create new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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13 pages, 3340 KiB  
Article
Intracranial Meningioma in Elderly Patients. Retrospective Multicentric Risk and Surgical Factors Study of Morbidity and Mortality
by Daniele Armocida, Umberto Aldo Arcidiacono, Mauro Palmieri, Alessandro Pesce, Fabio Cofano, Veronica Picotti, Maurizio Salvati, Giancarlo D’Andrea, Diego Garbossa, Antonio Santoro and Alessandro Frati
Diagnostics 2022, 12(2), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12020351 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2166
Abstract
With the increasing life expectancy, a large number of intracranial meningiomas (IM) have been identified in elderly patients. There is no general consensus regarding the management for IMs nor studies regarding the outcome of older patients undergoing meningioma surgery. We aimed to determine [...] Read more.
With the increasing life expectancy, a large number of intracranial meningiomas (IM) have been identified in elderly patients. There is no general consensus regarding the management for IMs nor studies regarding the outcome of older patients undergoing meningioma surgery. We aimed to determine whether preoperative variables and postoperative clinical outcomes differ between age groups after meningioma surgery. We analyzed data from all patients who had undergone IM surgery from our departments. The final cohort consisted of 340 patients affected by IM with ASA class I-II: 188 in the young group (<65) and 152 in the elderly. The two subgroups did not present significant differences concerning biological characteristics of tumor, localization, diameters, lesion and edema volumes and surgical radicality. Despite these comparable data, elderly presented with a significantly lower Karnofsky Performance status value on admission and remained consistently lower during the follow-up. We establish instead that there is no intrinsic correlation to the presence of IM and no significant increased risk of complications or recurrence in elderly patients, but rather only an increased risk of reduced performance status with mortality related to the comorbidity of the patient, primarily cardiovascular disease, and an intrinsic frailty of the aged population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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13 pages, 1395 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Non-Relapsed and Relapsed Adult Type Granulosa Cell Tumors Suggests Stable Transcriptomes during Tumor Progression
by Noora Andersson, Ulla-Maija Haltia, Anniina Färkkilä, Swee Chong Wong, Katja Eloranta, David B. Wilson, Leila Unkila-Kallio, Marjut Pihlajoki, Antti Kyrönlahti and Markku Heikinheimo
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(2), 686-698; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44020048 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2933
Abstract
Adult-type granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is a rare ovarian malignancy characterized by slow growth and hormonal activity. The prognosis of AGCT is generally favorable, but one-third of patients with low-stage disease experience a late relapse, and over half of them die of AGCT. [...] Read more.
Adult-type granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is a rare ovarian malignancy characterized by slow growth and hormonal activity. The prognosis of AGCT is generally favorable, but one-third of patients with low-stage disease experience a late relapse, and over half of them die of AGCT. To identify markers that would distinguish patients at risk for relapse, we performed Lexogen QuantSeq 3′ mRNA sequencing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded, archival AGCT tissue samples tested positive for the pathognomonic Forkhead Box L2 (FOXL2) mutation. We compared the transcriptomic profiles of 14 non-relapsed archival primary AGCTs (follow-up time 17–26 years after diagnosis) with 13 relapsed primary AGCTs (follow-up time 1.7–18 years) and eight relapsed tumors (follow-up time 2.8–18.9 years). Non-relapsed and relapsed primary AGCTs had similar transcriptomic profiles. In relapsed tumors three genes were differentially expressed: plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (PLVAP) was upregulated (p = 0.01), whereas argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1) (p = 0.01) and perilipin 4 (PLIN4) (p = 0.02) were downregulated. PLVAP upregulation was validated using tissue microarray RNA in situ hybridization. In our patient cohort with extremely long follow-up, we observed similar gene expression patterns in both primary AGCT groups, suggesting that relapse is not driven by transcriptomic changes. These results reinforce earlier findings that molecular markers do not predict AGCT behavior or risk of relapse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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21 pages, 1894 KiB  
Review
Cooperation between Angiogenesis, Vasculogenesis, Chemotaxis, and Coagulation in Breast Cancer Metastases Development: Pathophysiological Point of View
by Elżbieta Zarychta and Barbara Ruszkowska-Ciastek
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020300 - 27 Jan 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4878
Abstract
With almost 2.3 million new cases and 685 thousand fatal events in 2020 alone, breast cancer remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Despite the increasing prevalence of the disease in recent years, the number of deaths [...] Read more.
With almost 2.3 million new cases and 685 thousand fatal events in 2020 alone, breast cancer remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Despite the increasing prevalence of the disease in recent years, the number of deaths has dropped—this is mostly the result of better diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities, allowing to recognize and treat breast cancer earlier and more efficiently. However, metastatic disease still remains a therapeutic challenge. As mechanisms of tumor spread are being explored, new drugs can be implemented in clinical practice, improving the outcomes in patients with advanced disease. Formation of metastases is a complex process, which involves activation of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, chemotaxis, and coagulation. The actions, which occur during metastatic spread are interrelated and complementary. This review summarizes their importance and mutual connections in formation of secondary tumors in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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13 pages, 1651 KiB  
Article
Genes Involved in Immune Reinduction May Constitute Biomarkers of Response for Metastatic Melanoma Patients Treated with Targeted Therapy
by Miguel-Angel Berciano-Guerrero, Rocío Lavado-Valenzuela, Aurelio Moya, Luis delaCruz-Merino, Fátima Toscano, Javier Valdivia, Victoria Castellón, Fernando Henao-Carrasco, Pilar Sancho, Juan-Luis Onieva-Zafra, Ismael Navas-Delgado, Antonio Rueda-Dominguez, Elisabeth Perez-Ruiz and Emilio Alba
Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10020284 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
Targeted therapy in metastatic melanoma often achieves a major tumour regression response and significant long-term survival via the release of antigens that reinduce immunocompetence. The biomarkers thus activated may guide the prediction of response, but this association and its mechanism have yet to [...] Read more.
Targeted therapy in metastatic melanoma often achieves a major tumour regression response and significant long-term survival via the release of antigens that reinduce immunocompetence. The biomarkers thus activated may guide the prediction of response, but this association and its mechanism have yet to be established. Blood samples were collected from nineteen consecutive patients with metastatic melanoma before, during, and after treatment with targeted therapy. Differential gene expression analysis was performed, which identified the genes involved in the treatment, both in the first evaluation of response and during progression. Although clinical characteristics of the patients were poorer than those obtained in pivotal studies, radiological responses were similar to those reported previously (objective response rate: 73.7%). In the first tumour assessment, the expression of some genes increased (CXCL-10, SERPING1, PDL1, and PDL2), while that of others decreased (ARG1, IL18R1, IL18RAP, IL1R1, ILR2, FLT3, SLC11A1, CD163, and S100A12). The analysis of gene expression in blood shows that some are activated and others inhibited by targeted therapy. This response pattern may provide biomarkers of the immune reinduction response, which could be used to study potential combination treatments. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to validate these results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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9 pages, 1294 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of Recombinant Human TSH as a Preparation for Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Distant Metastases from Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Comparison of Long-Term Survival Outcomes with Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal
by Hsi-Chen Tsai, Kung-Chu Ho, Shih-Hsin Chen, Jing-Ren Tseng, Lan-Yan Yang, Kun-Ju Lin, Ju-Chin Cheng and Miaw-Jene Liou
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010221 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
Background: this study was designed to compare the long-term survival outcomes of patients prepared for radioiodine (RAI) therapy using either thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) or recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation, by specifically focusing on cases with distant metastases from papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). [...] Read more.
Background: this study was designed to compare the long-term survival outcomes of patients prepared for radioiodine (RAI) therapy using either thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) or recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) stimulation, by specifically focusing on cases with distant metastases from papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 88 patients with distant metastases from PTC. Fifty-one and thirty-seven patients were prepared for RAI treatment by either THW or rhTSH stimulation, respectively. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results: The 10-year DSS rates of patients prepared for RAI therapy using either THW or rhTSH stimulation were 62.2% and 73.3%, respectively. Using multivariate analysis, RAI-avid metastases (p = 0.025) and preparation with rhTSH (p = 0.041) were identified as independent prognostic factors for PFS. Notably, PFS in the group of patients with RAI-avid metastases and preparation with rhTSH was significantly better than that in the other groups (p = 0.025). Conclusions: Preparation for RAI therapy using rhTSH stimulation is not inferior to THW preparation in terms of long-term survival outcomes experienced by patients with PTC and distant metastasis. Patients with RAI-avid metastases and preparation with rhTSH had the most favorable PFS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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8 pages, 2144 KiB  
Article
Immunohistochemical Expression Patterns of CD45RO, p105/p50, JAK3, TOX, and IL-17 in Early-Stage Mycosis Fungoides
by Tariq N. Aladily, Tasnim Abushunar, Ahmad Alhesa, Raneen Alrawi, Noor Almaani and Maram Abdaljaleel
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010220 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
The morphologic changes in early-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) might overlap with benign inflammatory dermatitis (BID). Previous studies have described altered expression patterns of several proteins in MF, but their diagnostic significance is uncertain. This study aims at examining the frequency of expression of [...] Read more.
The morphologic changes in early-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) might overlap with benign inflammatory dermatitis (BID). Previous studies have described altered expression patterns of several proteins in MF, but their diagnostic significance is uncertain. This study aims at examining the frequency of expression of CD45RO, NFkB-p105/p50, JAK3, TOX, and IL-17 proteins by immunohistochemistry. The cohorts included 21 patients of early-stage MF and 19 with benign BID as a control group. CD45RO was positive in all patients of MF and BID. NFkB-p105/p50 showed normal cytoplasmic staining, indicating an inactive status in all patients of both groups. JAK3 was positive in 3 (14%) MF and in 17 (89%) BID patients (p = 0.003). TOX was expressed in 19 (90%) and 13 (68%) patients of MF and BID, respectively (p = 0.120). IL-17 was detected in 13 (62%) MF and in 7 (37%) BID patients (p = 0.056). Co-expression of TOX and IL-17 was seen in 11 (52%) MF patients but in only 3 (16%) BID patients, which was statistically significant (p = 0.021). We conclude that a double expression of TOX and IL-17 may support the diagnosis of MF in the right clinicopathologic setting, while none of the immunohistochemical stains alone provided a significant discrimination between MF and BID. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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21 pages, 2111 KiB  
Review
Cancer Immunotherapy with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors-Biomarkers of Response and Toxicity; Current Limitations and Future Promise
by Brian Healey Bird, Ken Nally, Karine Ronan, Gerard Clarke, Sylvie Amu, Ana S. Almeida, Richard Flavin and Stephen Finn
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010124 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5646
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that are used to treat over one in three cancer patients. While they have changed the natural history of disease, prolonging life and preserving quality of life, they are highly active in less than 40% of patients, [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies that are used to treat over one in three cancer patients. While they have changed the natural history of disease, prolonging life and preserving quality of life, they are highly active in less than 40% of patients, even in the most responsive malignancies such as melanoma, and cause significant autoimmune side effects. Licenced biomarkers include tumour Programmed Death Ligand 1 expression by immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability, and tumour mutational burden, none of which are particularly sensitive or specific. Emerging tumour and immune tissue biomarkers such as novel immunohistochemistry scores, tumour, stromal and immune cell gene expression profiling, and liquid biomarkers such as systemic inflammatory markers, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, circulating immune cells, cytokines and DNA are discussed in this review. We also examine the influence of the faecal microbiome on treatment outcome and its use as a biomarker of response and toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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12 pages, 1678 KiB  
Article
Accuracy and Clinical Relevance of Intra-Tumoral Fusobacterium nucleatum Detection in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Tissue by Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) in Colorectal Cancer
by José Guilherme Datorre, Ana Carolina de Carvalho, Mariana Bisarro dos Reis, Monise dos Reis, Marcus Matsushita, Florinda Santos, Denise Peixoto Guimarães and Rui Manuel Reis
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010114 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
The use of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to identify and quantify low-abundance targets is a significant advantage for accurately detecting potentially oncogenic bacteria. Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) is implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis and is becoming an important prognostic biomarker. We [...] Read more.
The use of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to identify and quantify low-abundance targets is a significant advantage for accurately detecting potentially oncogenic bacteria. Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) is implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumorigenesis and is becoming an important prognostic biomarker. We evaluated the detection accuracy and clinical relevance of Fn DNA by ddPCR in a molecularly characterized, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CRC cohort previously analyzed by qPCR for Fn levels. Following a ddPCR assay optimization and an analytical evaluation, Fn DNA were measured in 139 CRC FFPE cases. The measures of accuracy for Fn status compared to the prior results generated by qPCR and the association with clinicopathological and molecular patients’ features were also evaluated. The ddPCR-based Fn assay was sensitive and specific to positive controls. Fn DNA were detected in 20.1% of cases and further classified as Fn-high and Fn-low/negative, according to the median amount of Fn DNA that were detected in all cases and associated with the patient’s worst prognosis. There was a low agreement between the Fn status determined by ddPCR and qPCR (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.210). Our findings show that ddPCR can detect and quantify Fn in FFPE tumor tissues and highlights its clinical relevance in Fn detection in a routine CRC setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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11 pages, 14082 KiB  
Article
Sarcopenia, Precardial Adipose Tissue and High Tumor Volume as Outcome Predictors in Surgically Treated Pleural Mesothelioma
by Oliver Guido Verhoek, Lisa Jungblut, Olivia Lauk, Christian Blüthgen, Isabelle Opitz, Thomas Frauenfelder and Katharina Martini
Diagnostics 2022, 12(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12010099 - 03 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Background: We evaluated the prognostic value of Sarcopenia, low precardial adipose-tissue (PAT), and high tumor-volume in the outcome of surgically-treated pleural mesothelioma (PM). Methods: From 2005 to 2020, consecutive surgically-treated PM-patients having a pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scan were retrospectively included. Sarcopenia was [...] Read more.
Background: We evaluated the prognostic value of Sarcopenia, low precardial adipose-tissue (PAT), and high tumor-volume in the outcome of surgically-treated pleural mesothelioma (PM). Methods: From 2005 to 2020, consecutive surgically-treated PM-patients having a pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scan were retrospectively included. Sarcopenia was assessed by CT-based parameters measured at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra (TH5) by excluding fatty-infiltration based on CT-attenuation. The findings were stratified for gender, and a threshold of the 33rd percentile was set to define sarcopenia. Additionally, tumor volume as well as PAT were measured. The findings were correlated with progression-free survival and long-term mortality. Results: Two-hundred-seventy-eight PM-patients (252 male; 70.2 ± 9 years) were included. The mean progression-free survival was 18.6 ± 12.2 months, and the mean survival time was 23.3 ± 24 months. Progression was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p = <0.001), tumor-stage (p = 0.001), and type of surgery (p = 0.026). Three-year mortality was associated with higher patient age (p = 0.005), presence of COPD (p < 0.001), higher tumor-stage (p = 0.015), and higher tumor-volume (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier statistics showed that sarcopenic patients have a higher three-year mortality (p = 0.002). While there was a negative correlation of progression-free survival and mortality with tumor volume (r = 0.281, p = 0.001 and r = −0.240, p < 0.001; respectively), a correlation with PAT could only be shown for epithelioid PM (p = 0.040). Conclusions: Sarcopenia as well as tumor volume are associated with long-term mortality in surgically treated PM-patients. Further, while there was a negative correlation of progression-free survival and mortality with tumor volume, a correlation with PAT could only be shown for epithelioid PM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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10 pages, 2207 KiB  
Article
Resveratrol Analog 4-Bromo-Resveratrol Inhibits Gastric Cancer Stemness through the SIRT3-c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling Pathway
by Yun-Shen Tai, Yi-Shih Ma, Chun-Lin Chen, Hsin-Yi Tsai, Chin-Chuan Tsai, Meng-Chieh Wu, Chih-Yi Chen and Ming-Wei Lin
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(1), 63-72; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb44010005 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2828
Abstract
Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for gastric cancer, but the currently available therapeutic drugs have limited efficacy. Studies have suggested that gastric cancer stem cells may play a key role in drug resistance in chemotherapy. Therefore, new agents that selectively target gastric [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for gastric cancer, but the currently available therapeutic drugs have limited efficacy. Studies have suggested that gastric cancer stem cells may play a key role in drug resistance in chemotherapy. Therefore, new agents that selectively target gastric cancer stem cells in gastric tumors are urgently required. Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) is a deacetylase that regulates mitochondrial metabolic homeostasis to maintain stemness in glioma stem cells. Targeting the mitochondrial protein SIRT3 may provide a novel therapeutic option for gastric cancer treatment. However, the mechanism by which stemness is regulated through SIRT3 inhibition in gastric cancer remains unknown. We evaluated the stemness inhibition ability of the SIRT3 inhibitor 4′-bromo-resveratrol (4-BR), an analog of resveratrol in human gastric cancer cells. Our results suggested that 4-BR inhibited gastric cancer cell stemness through the SIRT3-c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway and may aid in gastric cancer stem-cell–targeted therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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11 pages, 1143 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Clinical Outcomes between Salvage and Elective Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair in Patients with Advanced Esophageal Cancer with Aortic Invasion: A Retrospective Cohort Study
by Sian-Han Lin, Jang-Ming Lee and I-Hui Wu
Biomedicines 2021, 9(12), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121889 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) caused by esophageal cancer (EC) is a rare but life-threatening complication. However, the optimal management strategy remains undetermined. Previous cases have demonstrated that thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is effective for prophylactic management. In our study, we evaluated the management [...] Read more.
Aortoesophageal fistula (AEF) caused by esophageal cancer (EC) is a rare but life-threatening complication. However, the optimal management strategy remains undetermined. Previous cases have demonstrated that thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is effective for prophylactic management. In our study, we evaluated the management of AEF with elective TEVAR over salvage TEVAR. In our single-center retrospective cohort study, forty-seven patients with cT4M0 EC were included in this study, and we divided them into salvage (Group S) and elective (Group E) groups based on whether TEVAR was performed before the hemorrhagic AEF occurred. Our study outcomes included survival and complication rate after TEVAR. Group E showed better overall 90-day survival and aortic-event-free survival in 90-day and 180-day over Group S. More patients in Group E could receive subsequent chemoradiotherapy or esophagectomy. Significantly fewer AEF-related complications, including recurrent hemorrhagic events after TEVAR, hypoperfusion-related organ injury, and bloodstream infection, were noted in Group E. In patients with advanced EC-invading aorta, elective TEVAR offered an early overall and aortic-event-free survival benefit compared to salvage TEVAR. By reducing the AEF-related complications, elective TEVAR could provide more patients receiving subsequent curative-intent treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 3846 KiB  
Article
Supplementation of Probiotic Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum Mediates Anticancer Effect on Bladder Urothelial Cells by Regulating Butyrate-Responsive Molecular Signatures
by Yen-Chieh Wang, Wei-Chi Ku, Chih-Yi Liu, Yu-Che Cheng, Chih-Cheng Chien, Kang-Wei Chang and Chi-Jung Huang
Diagnostics 2021, 11(12), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11122270 - 04 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2755
Abstract
In bladder cancer, urothelial carcinoma is the most common histologic subtype, accounting for more than 90% of cases. Pathogenic effects due to the dysbiosis of gut microbiota are localized not only in the colon, but also in regulating bladder cancer distally. Butyrate, a [...] Read more.
In bladder cancer, urothelial carcinoma is the most common histologic subtype, accounting for more than 90% of cases. Pathogenic effects due to the dysbiosis of gut microbiota are localized not only in the colon, but also in regulating bladder cancer distally. Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by gut microbial metabolism, is mainly studied in colon diseases. Therefore, the resolution of the anti-cancer effects of butyrate-producing microbes on bladder urothelial cells and knowledge of the butyrate-responsive molecules must have clinical significance. Here, we demonstrate a correlation between urothelial cancer of the bladder and Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum. This butyrate-producing microbe or their metabolite, butyrate, mediated anti-cancer effects on bladder urothelial cells by regulating cell cycle, cell growth, apoptosis, and gene expression. For example, a tumor suppressor against urothelial cancer of the bladder, bladder cancer-associated protein, was induced in butyrate-treated HT1376 cells, a human urinary bladder cancer cell line. In conclusion, urothelial cancer of the bladder is a significant health problem. To improve the health of bladder urothelial cells, supplementation of B. pullicaecorum may be necessary and can further regulate butyrate-responsive molecular signatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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16 pages, 3473 KiB  
Article
SSCS: A Stage Supervised Subtyping System for Colorectal Cancer
by Lan Zhao and Yi Pan
Biomedicines 2021, 9(12), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121815 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is heterogeneous and deadly, and the exact cause of the disease is unknown. Recent progress indicated that CRC is not a single disease, but a group of diseases with significant heterogeneity. Three previous CRC subtyping systems: microsatellite instability (MSI), consensus [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is heterogeneous and deadly, and the exact cause of the disease is unknown. Recent progress indicated that CRC is not a single disease, but a group of diseases with significant heterogeneity. Three previous CRC subtyping systems: microsatellite instability (MSI), consensus molecular subtypes (CMS), and tumor-node-metastases (TNM) stage were evaluated for their molecular and clinical implications. Results suggested that the MSI and CMS systems are prognostic and predictive mostly in early-stage CRC. As the stage remains an influential factor for CRC subtype analysis, we developed a new subtyping system named stage supervised CRC subtypes (SSCS), in order to better stratify CRC biologically and clinically. Our subtyping system can be used to classify CRC patients into five subtypes (SSCS1-5). SSCS1 was found to have the highest frequency of MSI-H cases compared to the remaining four subtypes. SSCS2 had the most favorable prognosis, whereas the worst prognosis was seen in SSCS4. SSCS3 had cell cycle and metabolism-related gene sets upregulation, and SSCS5 subtype was enriched with amplicon-associated gene sets. Moreover, tumor-infiltrating fibroblast was found to be predictive for poor disease-free survival (DFS) only within the SSCS4 subtype. Conventional dendritic cells (cDC), on the contrary, were associated with favorable DFS in the SSCS3 subtype. Our study provides a new subtyping system SSCS, which can be used for better stratify CRC patients compared to current standards. Further exploration of the subtype-specific cell types has the potential to be novel therapies for CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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10 pages, 1080 KiB  
Article
Gene Expression Studies in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples of Cutaneous Cancer: The Need for Reference Genes
by Omar García-Pérez, Leticia Melgar-Vilaplana, Elizabeth Córdoba-Lanús and Ricardo Fernández-de-Misa
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(3), 2167-2176; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb43030151 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2483
Abstract
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples may provide crucial data regarding biomarkers for neoplasm progression. Analysis of gene expression is frequently used for this purpose. Therefore, mRNA expression needs to be normalized through comparison to reference genes. In this study, we establish which of [...] Read more.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples may provide crucial data regarding biomarkers for neoplasm progression. Analysis of gene expression is frequently used for this purpose. Therefore, mRNA expression needs to be normalized through comparison to reference genes. In this study, we establish which of the usually reported reference genes is the most reliable one in cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). ACTB, TFRC, HPRT1 and TBP expression was quantified in 123 FFPE samples (74 MM and 49 CSCC biopsies) using qPCR. Expression stability was analysed by NormFinder and Bestkeeper softwares, and the direct comparison method between means and SD. The in-silico analysis with BestKeeper indicated that HPRT1 was more stable than ACTB and TFRC in MM (1.85 vs. 2.15) and CSCC tissues (2.09 vs. 2.33). The best option to NormFinder was ACTB gene (0.56) in MM and TFRC (0.26) in CSCC. The direct comparison method showed lower SD means of ACTB expression in MM (1.17) and TFRC expression in CSCC samples (1.00). When analysing the combination of two reference genes for improving stability, NormFinder indicated HPRT1 and ACTB to be the best for MM samples, and HPRT1 and TFRC genes for CSCC. In conclusion, HPRT1 and ACTB genes in combination are the most appropriate choice for normalization in gene expression studies in MM FFPE tissue, while the combination of HPRT1 and TFRC genes are the best option in analysing CSCC FFPE samples. These may be used consistently in forthcoming studies on gene expression in both tumours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 2461 KiB  
Article
FAK Regulates VEGFR2 Expression and Promotes Angiogenesis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
by Jun-Ping Shiau, Cheng-Che Wu, Shu-Jyuan Chang, Mei-Ren Pan, Wangta Liu, Fu Ou-Yang, Fang-Ming Chen, Ming-Feng Hou, Shen-Liang Shih and Chi-Wen Luo
Biomedicines 2021, 9(12), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121789 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2804
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a significant clinical challenge because of its high vascularity and metastatic and recurrent rates. Tumor angiogenesis is considered an important mediator in the regulation of tumor cell survival and metastasis in TNBC. Angiogenesis is induced by the binding [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a significant clinical challenge because of its high vascularity and metastatic and recurrent rates. Tumor angiogenesis is considered an important mediator in the regulation of tumor cell survival and metastasis in TNBC. Angiogenesis is induced by the binding of vascular endothelial growth factor to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in regulating various cell functions in normal and cancer cells. Previous studies have focused on investigating the function of endothelial FAK in tumor cell angiogenesis. However, the association between tumor FAK and VEGFR2 in tumor angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms of this remain unclear. In this study, we used a public database and human specimens to examine the association between FAK and VEGFR2. At the same time, we verified the association between FAK and VEGFR2 through several experimental methods, such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and next-generation sequencing. In addition, we used the endothelial cell model, zebrafish, and xenograft animal models to investigate the role of FAK in TNBC angiogenesis. We found that FAK and VEGFR2 were positively correlated in patients with TNBC. VEGFR2 and several other angiogenesis-related genes were regulated by FAK. In addition, FAK regulated VEGFR2 and VEGF protein expression in TNBC cells. Functional assays showed that FAK knockdown inhibited endothelial tube formation and zebrafish angiogenesis. An animal model showed that FAK inhibitors could suppress tumor growth and tumor vascular formation. FAK promotes angiogenesis in TNBC cells by regulating VEGFR2 expression. Therefore, targeting FAK could be another antiangiogenic strategy for TNBC treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 1176 KiB  
Review
Role of Ferroptosis in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Its Implications for Therapeutic Strategies
by Han Zhang, Enxiang Zhang and Hongbo Hu
Biomedicines 2021, 9(11), 1660; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111660 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4734
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the chronic liver disease with the highest incidence throughout the world, but its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Ferroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death caused by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Abnormal iron metabolism, [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the chronic liver disease with the highest incidence throughout the world, but its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Ferroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death caused by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Abnormal iron metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid phospholipids (PUFA-PLs) can all trigger ferroptosis. Emerging evidence indicates that ferroptosis plays a critical role in the pathological progression of NAFLD. Because the liver is the main organ for iron storage and lipid metabolism, ferroptosis is an ideal target for liver diseases. Inhibiting ferroptosis may become a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NAFLD. In this article, we describe the role of ferroptosis in the progression of NAFLD and its related mechanisms. This review will highlight further directions for the treatment of NAFLD and the selection of corresponding drugs that target ferroptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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13 pages, 2179 KiB  
Article
Immunoprofiling of 4-1BB Expression Predicts Outcome in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
by Kübra Kaban, Sarah M. Greiner, Samuel Holzmayer, Claudia Tandler, Sophie Meyer, Clemens Hinterleitner, Helmut R. Salih, Melanie Märklin and Jonas S. Heitmann
Diagnostics 2021, 11(11), 2041; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11112041 - 04 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
Recent success of novel therapies has improved treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, but most of them still require several treatment regimes. To improve treatment choice, prognostic markers suitable for prediction of disease outcome are required. Several molecular/genetic markers have been established, [...] Read more.
Recent success of novel therapies has improved treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, but most of them still require several treatment regimes. To improve treatment choice, prognostic markers suitable for prediction of disease outcome are required. Several molecular/genetic markers have been established, but accessibility for the entirety of all patients is limited. We here evaluated the relevance of GITR/4-1BB as well as their ligands for the prognosis of CLL patients. Surface expression of GITR/GITRL and 4-1BB/4-1BBL was correlated with established prognostic markers. Next, we separated our patient population according to GITR/GITRL and 4-1BB/4-1BBL expression in groups with high/low expression levels and performed Kaplan-Meier analyses. Interestingly, no correlation was observed with the defined prognostic markers. Whereas no significant difference between high and low expression of GITR, GITRL and 4-1BBL was observed, high 4-1BB levels on leukemic cells were associated with significantly shorter survival. Thereby we identify 4-1BB as prognostic marker for CLL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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13 pages, 1954 KiB  
Article
Analysis of KRAS Mutation Subtype in Tissue DNA and Cell-Free DNA Using Droplet Digital PCR and the Function of Cell-Free DNA as a Recurrence Predictive Marker in Pancreatic Cancer
by Eunsung Jun, Bonhan Koo, Eo Jin Kim, Dae Wook Hwang, Jae Hoon Lee, Ki Byung Song, Woohyung Lee, Yejong Park, Sarang Hong, Yong Shin and Song Cheol Kim
Biomedicines 2021, 9(11), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111599 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
KRAS mutation is a major regulator in the tumor progression of pancreatic cancer. Here, we compared the frequency and mutation burden of KRAS mutation subtypes with paired tumor tissue and blood in patients and examined their clinical significance. DNA from tumor tissues and [...] Read more.
KRAS mutation is a major regulator in the tumor progression of pancreatic cancer. Here, we compared the frequency and mutation burden of KRAS mutation subtypes with paired tumor tissue and blood in patients and examined their clinical significance. DNA from tumor tissues and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from preoperative blood were obtained from 70 patients with pancreatic cancer. Subtypes and mutation burdens of KRAS G12D and G12V mutations were evaluated using droplet digital PCR. Comparing the presence of mutations in tissue, accumulative and simultaneous mutations of G12D or G12V were identified of 67 (95.7%), and 48 patients (68.6%). Conversely, in blood, they were only identified in 18 (25.7%) and four (5.7%) patients; respectively. Next, comparing the mutation burden in tissue, the mutation burden varied from less than 0.1 to more than five, whereas that of cfDNA in blood was mostly between one and five, as cases with a mutation burden lower than 0.1 and higher than five were rare. Finally, the presence of the G12V mutation alone in cfDNA and the combination of the G12V mutation with elevated CA 19-9 levels were associated with poor recurrence-free survival. These fundamental data on the KRAS mutation subtypes and their clinical significance could support their potential as predictive markers for postoperative recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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12 pages, 951 KiB  
Article
Pilot Study to Evaluate Serum Soluble Mesothelin-Related Peptide (SMRP) as Marker for Clinical Monitoring of Pleural Mesothelioma (PM): Correlation with Modified RECIST Score
by Federica Grosso, Matilde Mannucci, Francesca Ugo, Paola Ferro, Maurizio Cassinari, Antonella Vigani, Antonina Maria De Angelis, Sara Delfanti, Michela Lia, Roberto Guaschino, Stefano Barbero, Silvio Roncella, Ugo Giannoni, Marinella Bertolotti, Maria Pia Pistillo and Vincenzo Fontana
Diagnostics 2021, 11(11), 2015; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11112015 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2326
Abstract
A soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP) is the only FDA-approved biomarker for diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma (PM) and the most used for monitoring treatment. Radiological assessment of PM, based on modified RECIST (mRECIST) criteria, is challenging. This pilot study was designed to evaluate whether [...] Read more.
A soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP) is the only FDA-approved biomarker for diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma (PM) and the most used for monitoring treatment. Radiological assessment of PM, based on modified RECIST (mRECIST) criteria, is challenging. This pilot study was designed to evaluate whether SMRP levels correlated over time with mRECIST score. Serial serum samples from PM patients were collected and SMRP levels were measured and compared with the mRECIST score obtained through centralized CT scans by blinded review. The within-patient SMRP-mRECIST relationship over time was estimated through a normal random-effects regression approach applied to the log-transformed mRECIST score. Overall, 58 PM patients were included (46 males and 12 females) with a median age at diagnosis of 67 years (min–max = 48–79), 44 (76%) with epithelioid and 14 (24%) with non-epithelioid histology. The total number of SMRP measurements and CT scans considered for analysis was 183. There was a statistically significant correlation between SMRP and mRECIST score in the 2 cohorts considered both separately and jointly. These results, although exploratory, suggest that SMRP measurement might be considered as an adjunct to monitor PM patients in order to delay CT scans time interval, thus warranting further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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17 pages, 5058 KiB  
Article
Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Migrate toward Hormone-Insensitive Prostate Tumor Cells Expressing TGF-β via N-Cadherin
by Jinok Noh, Jinyeong Yu, Wootak Kim, Aran Park and Ki-Sook Park
Biomedicines 2021, 9(11), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111572 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1654
Abstract
The prostate tumor microenvironment plays important roles in the metastasis and hormone-insensitive re-growth of tumor cells. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are recruited into prostate tumors to facilitate tumor microenvironment formation. However, the specific intrinsic molecules mediating BM-MSCs’ migration to prostate tumors [...] Read more.
The prostate tumor microenvironment plays important roles in the metastasis and hormone-insensitive re-growth of tumor cells. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are recruited into prostate tumors to facilitate tumor microenvironment formation. However, the specific intrinsic molecules mediating BM-MSCs’ migration to prostate tumors are unknown. BM-MSCs’ migration toward a conditioned medium (CM) of hormone-insensitive (PC3 and DU145) or hormone-sensitive (LNCaP) prostate tumor cells was investigated using a three-dimensional cell migration assay and a transwell migration assay. PC3 and DU145 expressed transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), but LNCaP did not. Regardless of TGF-β expression, BM-MSCs migrated toward the CM of PC3, DU145, or LNCaP. The CM of PC3 or DU145 expressing TGF-β increased the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in BM-MSCs. Inactivation of TGF-β signaling in BM-MSCs using TGF-β type 1 receptor (TGFBR1) inhibitors, SB505124, or SB431542 did not allow BM-MSCs to migrate toward the CM. The CM of PC3 or DU145 enhanced N-cadherin expression on BM-MSCs, but the LNCaP CM did not. SB505124, SB431542, and TGFBR1 knockdown prevented an increase in N-cadherin expression. N-cadherin knockdown inhibited the collective migration of BM-MSCs toward the PC3 CM. We identified N-cadherin as a mediator of BM-MSCs’ migration toward hormone-insensitive prostate tumor cells expressing TGF-β and introduced a novel strategy for controlling and re-engineering the prostate tumor microenvironment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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7 pages, 545 KiB  
Brief Report
Using Antigen Expression of Leukemic Cells for a Fast Screening of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia by Flow Cytometry
by Vitória Ceni-Silva, Kátia Pagnano, Gislaine Duarte, Marina Pellegrini, Bruno Duarte, Konradin Metze and Irene Lorand-Metze
Diagnostics 2021, 11(11), 1988; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11111988 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 1549
Abstract
(1) Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia is curable, but bleeding complications still provoke a high early mortality. Therefore, a fast diagnosis is needed for timely starting treatment. We developed a diagnostic algorithm using flow cytometric features for discrimination between acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia is curable, but bleeding complications still provoke a high early mortality. Therefore, a fast diagnosis is needed for timely starting treatment. We developed a diagnostic algorithm using flow cytometric features for discrimination between acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and other types of acute myeloid leukemias (AML). (2) Methods: we analyzed newly diagnosed AMLs where immunophenotyping was performed at diagnosis by an 8-color protocol. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of each antigen used was assessed, and those best separating APL from other types of AML were obtained by a discriminant analysis. Phenotypic characteristics of myeloblasts of normal bone marrow were used as controls. (3) Results: 24 cases of APL and 56 cases of other primary AMLs entered the study. Among non-APL AMLs, 4 had fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) mutation, 2 had nucleophosmin (NPM1) and 10 had both mutations. SSC (p < 0.0001), HLA-DR (p < 0.0001), CD13 (p = 0.001), CD64 (p = 0.004) and CD33 (p = 0.002) were differentially expressed, but this was not the case for CD34 (50% of non-APLs had a low expression). In the discriminant analysis, the best differentiation was achieved with SSC and HLA-DR discriminating 91.25% of the patients. (4) Conclusion: MFC could differentiate APL from non-APL AML in the majority of the cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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25 pages, 1745 KiB  
Review
Comparative Cancer Cell Signaling in Muscle-Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder in Dogs and Humans
by Maria Malvina Tsamouri, Thomas M. Steele, Maria Mudryj, Michael S. Kent and Paramita M. Ghosh
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101472 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2720
Abstract
Muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) is the most common type of bladder malignancy in humans, but also in dogs that represent a naturally occurring model for this disease. Dogs are immunocompetent animals that share risk factors, pathophysiological features, clinical signs and response to chemotherapeutics [...] Read more.
Muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) is the most common type of bladder malignancy in humans, but also in dogs that represent a naturally occurring model for this disease. Dogs are immunocompetent animals that share risk factors, pathophysiological features, clinical signs and response to chemotherapeutics with human cancer patients. This review summarizes the fundamental pathways for canine MIUC initiation, progression, and metastasis, emerging therapeutic targets and mechanisms of drug resistance, and proposes new opportunities for potential prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics. Identifying similarities and differences between cancer signaling in dogs and humans is of utmost importance for the efficient translation of in vitro research to successful clinical trials for both species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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22 pages, 6365 KiB  
Article
LRP-1 Matricellular Receptor Involvement in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Tumor Angiogenesis
by Océane Campion, Jessica Thevenard Devy, Clotilde Billottet, Christophe Schneider, Nicolas Etique, Jean-William Dupuy, Anne-Aurélie Raymond, Camille Boulagnon Rombi, Marie Meunier, El-Hadi Djermoune, Elodie Lelièvre, Amandine Wahart, Camille Bour, Cathy Hachet, Stefano Cairo, Andréas Bikfalvi, Stéphane Dedieu and Jérôme Devy
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1430; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101430 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Background: LRP-1 is a multifunctional scavenger receptor belonging to the LDLR family. Due to its capacity to control pericellular levels of various growth factors and proteases, LRP-1 plays a crucial role in membrane proteome dynamics, which appears decisive for tumor progression. Methods: LRP-1 [...] Read more.
Background: LRP-1 is a multifunctional scavenger receptor belonging to the LDLR family. Due to its capacity to control pericellular levels of various growth factors and proteases, LRP-1 plays a crucial role in membrane proteome dynamics, which appears decisive for tumor progression. Methods: LRP-1 involvement in a TNBC model was assessed using an RNA interference strategy in MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo, tumorigenic and angiogenic effects of LRP-1-repressed cells were evaluated using an orthotopic xenograft model and two angiogenic assays (Matrigel® plugs, CAM). DCE-MRI, FMT, and IHC were used to complete a tumor longitudinal follow-up and obtain morphological and functional vascular information. In vitro, HUVECs’ angiogenic potential was evaluated using a tumor secretome, subjected to a proteomic analysis to highlight LRP-1-dependant signaling pathways. Results: LRP-1 repression in MDA-MB-231 tumors led to a 60% growth delay because of, inter alia, morphological and functional vascular differences, confirmed by angiogenic models. In vitro, the LRP-1-repressed cells secretome restrained HUVECs’ angiogenic capabilities. A proteomics analysis revealed that LRP-1 supports tumor growth and angiogenesis by regulating TGF-β signaling and plasminogen/plasmin system. Conclusions: LRP-1, by its wide spectrum of interactions, emerges as an important matricellular player in the control of cancer-signaling events such as angiogenesis, by supporting tumor vascular morphology and functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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13 pages, 1477 KiB  
Article
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Improved Survival of Critically Ill EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Mechanical Ventilation
by I-Hsien Lee, Ching-Yao Yang, Jin-Yuan Shih and Chong-Jen Yu
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101416 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
Background: Respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation is the major reason for lung cancer patients being admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Though molecular targeted therapies, especially epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), have largely improved the survival of oncogene-driven lung [...] Read more.
Background: Respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation is the major reason for lung cancer patients being admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Though molecular targeted therapies, especially epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), have largely improved the survival of oncogene-driven lung cancer patients, few studies have focused on the performance of TKI in such settings. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study enrolling non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who harbored sensitizing EGFR mutation and had received EGFR-TKIs as first-line cancer therapy in the ICU with mechanical ventilator use. The primary outcome was the 28-day ICU survival rate, and secondary outcomes were the rate of successful weaning from the ventilator and overall survival. Results: A total of 35 patients were included. The 28-day ICU survival rate was 77%, and the median overall survival was 67 days. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that shock status was associated with a lower 28-day ICU survival rate independently (odds ratio (OR) 0.017, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.000–0.629, p = 0.027), and that L858R mutation (L858R compared with exon 19 deletion, OR, 0.014, 95% CI 0.000–0.450, p = 0.016) and comorbidities of diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR, 0.032, 95% CI, 0.000–0.416, p = 0.014)) were independently predictive of weaning failure. The successful weaning rate was 43%, and the median of ventilator-dependent duration was 22 days (IQR, 12–29). Conclusions: For EGFR mutant lung cancer patients suffering from respiratory failure and undergoing mechanical ventilation, TKI may still be useful, especially in those with EGFR del19 mutation or without shock and DM comorbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 2208 KiB  
Article
A DNA Methylation-Based Gene Signature Can Predict Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Diagnosis
by Saioa Mendaza, David Guerrero-Setas, Iñaki Monreal-Santesteban, Ane Ulazia-Garmendia, Alicia Cordoba Iturriagagoitia, Susana De la Cruz and Esperanza Martín-Sánchez
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1394; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101394 - 04 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2081
Abstract
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer (BC) subtype and lacks targeted treatment. It is diagnosed by the absence of immunohistochemical expression of several biomarkers, but this method still displays some interlaboratory variability. DNA methylome aberrations are common in BC, [...] Read more.
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer (BC) subtype and lacks targeted treatment. It is diagnosed by the absence of immunohistochemical expression of several biomarkers, but this method still displays some interlaboratory variability. DNA methylome aberrations are common in BC, thereby methylation profiling could provide the identification of accurate TNBC diagnosis biomarkers. Here, we generated a signature of differentially methylated probes with class prediction ability between 5 non-neoplastic breast and 7 TNBC tissues (error rate = 0.083). The robustness of this signature was corroborated in larger cohorts of additional 58 non-neoplastic breast, 93 TNBC, and 150 BC samples from the Gene Expression Omnibus repository, where it yielded an error rate of 0.006. Furthermore, we validated by pyrosequencing the hypomethylation of three out of 34 selected probes (FLJ43663, PBX Homeobox 1 (PBX1), and RAS P21 protein activator 3 (RASA3) in 51 TNBC, even at early stages of the disease. Finally, we found significantly lower methylation levels of FLJ43663 in cell free-DNA from the plasma of six TNBC patients than in 15 healthy donors. In conclusion, we report a novel DNA methylation signature with potential predictive value for TNBC diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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12 pages, 976 KiB  
Article
Association of Galectin 9 Expression with Immune Cell Infiltration, Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 Expression, and Patient’s Clinical Outcome in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
by Mi-Ha Ju, Kyung-Do Byun, Eun-Hwa Park, Jin-Hwa Lee and Song-Hee Han
Biomedicines 2021, 9(10), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9101383 - 03 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is an immune checkpoint protein that facilitates T cell exhaustion and modulates the tumor-associated microenvironment, and could be a potential target for immune checkpoint inhibition. This study was conducted to assess Gal-9 expression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and evaluate its [...] Read more.
Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is an immune checkpoint protein that facilitates T cell exhaustion and modulates the tumor-associated microenvironment, and could be a potential target for immune checkpoint inhibition. This study was conducted to assess Gal-9 expression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and evaluate its association with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and immune cell infiltration in tumors and the clinical outcome of patients. Overall, 109 patients with TNBC were included. Gal-9 expression was assessed its relationships with tumor clinicopathologic characteristics, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels, PD-L1+ immune cells, and tumor cells by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry. Low Gal-9 expression was statistically correlated with higher tumor stage (p = 0.031) and presence of lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.008). High Gal-9 expression was associated with a high level of stromal TILs (sTIL; p = 0.011) and positive PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (p = 0.004). In survival analyses, low Gal-9 expression was associated with significantly poor OS (p = 0.013) in patients with TNBC with PD-L1 negativity in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that increased Gal-9 expression is associated with changes in the antitumor microenvironment, such as increased immune cell infiltration and antimetastatic changes. This study emphasizes the predictive value and promising clinical applications of Gal-9 in TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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7 pages, 3158 KiB  
Case Report
Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma with Lymph Node Metastasis in Neck
by Shih-Lung Chen, Tsan-Yu Hsieh and Shih-Wei Yang
Diagnostics 2021, 11(10), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11101804 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Low-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinoma is rarely encountered in the neck region. The diagnosis of this rare malignancy entity in the neck is challenging for both clinicians and pathologists. A 53-year-old female with a chief complaint of a right lower neck mass that had [...] Read more.
Low-grade ovarian serous adenocarcinoma is rarely encountered in the neck region. The diagnosis of this rare malignancy entity in the neck is challenging for both clinicians and pathologists. A 53-year-old female with a chief complaint of a right lower neck mass that had been growing for approximately 2 weeks. The ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology favored malignancy. The positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan revealed the clustered enlarged lymph nodes with increased radioactivity uptake in the right neck level V, and strong radioactivity uptake was also displayed in the right ovarian regions. Pelvis magnetic resonance imaging displayed right adnexal complex mass supporting the ovarian cancer. An en bloc resection of the right neck lymph node was conducted. Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma with metastasis of lymph nodes in the neck was confirmed through histopathological findings. This study reviews the clinical features of low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma metastasizing to lymph nodes in neck. Although very rare, ovarian cancer with neck metastasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a neck mass lesion. The clinical staging would be relatively high due to the quiet entity of the cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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12 pages, 2327 KiB  
Article
Cytoskeletal Actin Structure in Osteosarcoma Cells Determines Metastatic Phenotype via Regulating Cell Stiffness, Migration, and Transmigration
by Kouji Kita, Kunihiro Asanuma, Takayuki Okamoto, Eiji Kawamoto, Koichi Nakamura, Tomohito Hagi, Tomoki Nakamura, Motomu Shimaoka and Akihiro Sudo
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(3), 1255-1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb43030089 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2367
Abstract
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor. The cause of death due to osteosarcoma is typically a consequence of metastasis to the lung. Controlling metastasis leads to improved prognosis for osteosarcoma patients. The cell stiffness of several tumor types is involved [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor. The cause of death due to osteosarcoma is typically a consequence of metastasis to the lung. Controlling metastasis leads to improved prognosis for osteosarcoma patients. The cell stiffness of several tumor types is involved in metastatic potential; however, it is unclear whether the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma depends on cell stiffness. In this study, we analyzed the cell stiffness of the low metastatic Dunn cell line and its highly metastatic LM8 subline, and compared actin organization, cell proliferation, and metastasis. Actin cytoskeleton, polymerization, stiffness, and other cellular properties were analyzed. The organization of the actin cytoskeleton was evaluated by staining F-actin with Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin. Cell stiffness was measured using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion were also evaluated. All experiments were performed using mouse osteosarcoma cell lines cultured in the absence and presence of cytochalasin. In LM8 cells, actin polymerization was strongly suppressed and actin levels were significantly lower than in Dunn cells. Stiffness evaluation revealed that LM8 cells were significantly softer than Dunn. Young’s modulus images showed more rigid fibrillar structures were present in Dunn cells than in LM8 cells. LM8 cells also exhibited a significantly higher proliferation. The migration and invasion potential were also higher in LM8 cells, whereas the adhesion potential was higher in Dunn cells. The administration of cytochalasin resulted in actin filament fragmentation and decreased actin staining intensity and cell stiffness in both LM8 and Dunn cells. Cells with high metastatic potential exhibited lower actin levels and cell stiffness than cells with low metastatic potential. The metastatic phenotype is highly correlated to actin status and cell stiffness in osteosarcoma cells. These results suggest that evaluation of actin dynamics and cell stiffness is an important quantitative diagnostic parameter for predicting metastatic potential. We believe that these parameters represent new reliable quantitative indicators that can facilitate the development of new drugs against metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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12 pages, 4319 KiB  
Article
Potential Role of Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystalline for Early Diagnostics of Ovarian Cancer
by Ruslana Chyzhma, Artem Piddubnyi, Sergey Danilchenko, Olha Kravtsova and Roman Moskalenko
Diagnostics 2021, 11(10), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11101741 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2455
Abstract
Calcification is one of the clinical and morphological manifestations of ovarian tumors and it begins at the initial stages of carcinogenesis. Thus, this process can be used for the early diagnostics of some malignant ovarian tumors. We compared the results of ultrasound and [...] Read more.
Calcification is one of the clinical and morphological manifestations of ovarian tumors and it begins at the initial stages of carcinogenesis. Thus, this process can be used for the early diagnostics of some malignant ovarian tumors. We compared the results of ultrasound and histology and found that calcifications of a size less than 200 μm are not detected by ultrasound. These calcified structures are round fragile particles of different sizes. In the EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) spectra, the main lines were from Ca and P, and the ratio of these elements corresponds to hydroxyapatite. Thus, we established that hydroxyapatite is the main mineral component of ovarian psammoma bodies and could be used for early diagnostics of ovarian malignant neoplasia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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12 pages, 1635 KiB  
Article
Combination of Bone Marrow Biopsy and Flow Cytometric Analysis: The Prognostically Relevant Central Approach for Detecting Bone Marrow Invasion in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
by Haruya Okamoto, Nobuhiko Uoshima, Ayako Muramatsu, Reiko Isa, Takahiro Fujino, Yayoi Matsumura-Kimoto, Taku Tsukamoto, Shinsuke Mizutani, Yuji Shimura, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Eri Kawata, Hitoji Uchiyama, Junya Kuroda and Kyoto Clinical Hematology Study Group Investigators
Diagnostics 2021, 11(9), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11091724 - 20 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2819
Abstract
Bone marrow (BM) involvement is associated with prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most prevalent disease subtype of malignant lymphoma. We conducted this multi-institutional retrospective study to investigate the functional association and prognostic values of four BM tests (BM biopsy, BM [...] Read more.
Bone marrow (BM) involvement is associated with prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most prevalent disease subtype of malignant lymphoma. We conducted this multi-institutional retrospective study to investigate the functional association and prognostic values of four BM tests (BM biopsy, BM clot, flow cytometry (FCM), and BM smear). A total of 221 DLBCL patients were enrolled. BM involvement was detected in 17 (7.7%), 16 (7.2%), 27 (12.2%), and 34 (15.4%) patients by BM biopsy, BM clot, FCM, and BM smear, respectively. The consistency between BM biopsy and clot examination was favorable, with a κ coefficient of 0.705, whereas the consistencies among other modalities were poor. In 184 patients treated with the first-line R-CHOP (-like) regimen, BM involvement was associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) irrespective of the type of modality for a positive result. Intriguingly, among various single and combinatory modalities, the combination of BM biopsy and FCM had the highest hazard ratio of 3.33 and a c-index of 0.712. In conclusion, our study suggested that the combination of BM biopsy and FCM is the prognostically relevant central approach for BM involvement detection. The other BM examinations also may provide complementary information in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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15 pages, 3379 KiB  
Article
Oncological Properties of Intravenous Leiomyomatosis: Involvement of Mesenchymal Tumor Stem-Like Cells
by Saya Tamura, Takuma Hayashi, Hideki Tokunaga, Nobuo Yaegashi, Kaoru Abiko and Ikuo Konishi
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(2), 1188-1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb43020084 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
Uterine leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is the most common benign neoplasm of the female genital tract. Leiomyoma is the most common uterine tumor. The leiomyoma subtypes account for approximately 10% of leiomyomas. Intravenous leiomyomatosis, a uterine leiomyoma subtype, is an intravascular growth [...] Read more.
Uterine leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is the most common benign neoplasm of the female genital tract. Leiomyoma is the most common uterine tumor. The leiomyoma subtypes account for approximately 10% of leiomyomas. Intravenous leiomyomatosis, a uterine leiomyoma subtype, is an intravascular growth of benign smooth muscle cells, occasionally with pelvic or extrapelvic extension. Uterine leiomyosarcoma, a malignant tumor, tends to metastasize hematogenously, and distant metastasis to the lungs and liver is common. Therefore, the oncological properties of this intravenous leiomyomatosis resemble those of the malignant tumor uterine leiomyosarcoma. Cancer stem cells migrate to distant organs via intravascular infiltration, leading to micrometastases. We examined the oncological properties of intravenous leiomyomatosis using molecular pathological techniques on tissue excised from patients with uterine leiomyoma. CD44-positive mesenchymal tumor stem-like cells were detected in both patients with intravenous leiomyomatosis and uterine leiomyosarcoma. The oncological properties of intravenous leiomyomatosis were found to be similar to those of uterine leiomyosarcoma. However, in intravenous leiomyomatosis, cyclin E and Ki-67-positive cells were rare and no pathological findings suspecting malignancy were observed. It is expected that establishing a treatment method targeting cancer stem cells will lead to the treatment of malignant tumors with a low risk of recurrence and metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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9 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
A Locally Advanced Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising from Vaginal Endometriosis: Management and Review of the Literature
by Mariangela Costanza, Fernanda Herrera, Delfyne Hastir, Patrice Mathevet and Apostolos Sarivalasis
Reports 2021, 4(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/reports4030029 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 3103
Abstract
Endometrioid adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis at extrauterine or extraovarian localization is a rare entity. Often presenting with local spread without nodal and distant metastasis, this entity has no specific staging system nor treatment guidelines. In the case of nodal and distant spread, the [...] Read more.
Endometrioid adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis at extrauterine or extraovarian localization is a rare entity. Often presenting with local spread without nodal and distant metastasis, this entity has no specific staging system nor treatment guidelines. In the case of nodal and distant spread, the treatment decision requires personalization. In this article, we present the diagnosis and surgical and systemic treatment of a 56-year-old woman diagnosed with an endometriosis-associated advanced endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the vagina with nodal involvement. Following an extensive review of the scarce data reported to guide the treatment choices in this rare setting, we proposed a multidisciplinary treatment with laparoscopic surgical cytoreduction, four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, and radiotherapy with brachytherapy. Due to an anaphylactic reaction on the first administration, paclitaxel was replaced with nab-paclitaxel. Despite many negative prognostic factors, the patient is free from relapse after 48 months. We report the case of a locally advanced endometrioid adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis of the vagina, with pelvic nodal spread, and the relevant literature review of similar cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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11 pages, 2024 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Next-Generation Sequencing and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Detection of Segmental Chromosomal Aberrations in Neuroblastoma
by Eojin Kim, Boram Lee, Ji Won Lee, Ki Woong Sung and Jung-Sun Kim
Diagnostics 2021, 11(9), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11091702 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2237
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare next-generation sequencing (NGS) with the traditional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detecting segmental chromosomal aberrations (SCAs) such as 1p deletion, 11q deletion and 17q gain, which are well-known predictive markers for adverse outcome in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare next-generation sequencing (NGS) with the traditional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detecting segmental chromosomal aberrations (SCAs) such as 1p deletion, 11q deletion and 17q gain, which are well-known predictive markers for adverse outcome in neuroblastoma. The tumor tissue obtained from 35 patients with neuroblastoma was tested by FISH and targeted NGS, which is specially designed to detect copy number alterations across the entire chromosomal region in addition to mutations in 353 cancer-related genes. All chromosomal copy number alterations were analyzed using the copy number variation plot derived from targeted NGS. FISH was performed to detect 1p deletion, 11q deletion and 17q gain. The copy numbers of 1p, 11q, and 17q obtained via NGS were correlated with those acquired via FISH. The SCAs determined by NGS were matched with those by FISH. Most 17q gain of mismatched cases detected by NGS alone showed a subsegmental gain of 17q. FISH revealed 11q deletion and 17q gain in a few tumor cells of two cases, which were not detected by NGS. NGS can be a sensitive complementary and alternative method to the conventional FISH for detecting SCAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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18 pages, 1760 KiB  
Review
The Role of WAVE2 Signaling in Cancer
by Priyanka Shailendra Rana, Akram Alkrekshi, Wei Wang, Vesna Markovic and Khalid Sossey-Alaoui
Biomedicines 2021, 9(9), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091217 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4868
Abstract
The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and WASP family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE)—WAVE1, WAVE2 and WAVE3 regulate rapid reorganization of cortical actin filaments and have been shown to form a key link between small GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Upon receiving upstream signals from Rho-family [...] Read more.
The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and WASP family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE)—WAVE1, WAVE2 and WAVE3 regulate rapid reorganization of cortical actin filaments and have been shown to form a key link between small GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Upon receiving upstream signals from Rho-family GTPases, the WASP and WAVE family proteins play a significant role in polymerization of actin cytoskeleton through activation of actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3). The Arp2/3 complex, once activated, forms actin-based membrane protrusions essential for cell migration and cancer cell invasion. Thus, by activation of Arp2/3 complex, the WAVE and WASP family proteins, as part of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), have been shown to play a critical role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, drawing significant research interest over recent years. Several studies have highlighted the potential for targeting the genes encoding either part of or a complete protein from the WASP/WAVE family as therapeutic strategies for preventing the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. WAVE2 is well documented to be associated with the pathogenesis of several human cancers, including lung, liver, pancreatic, prostate, colorectal and breast cancer, as well as other hematologic malignancies. This review focuses mainly on the role of WAVE2 in the development, invasion and metastasis of different types of cancer. This review also summarizes the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity of WAVE2, as well as those oncogenic pathways that are regulated by WAVE2 to promote the cancer phenotype. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic strategies that target WAVE2 or the WAVE regulatory complex, aimed at preventing or inhibiting cancer invasion and metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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20 pages, 7559 KiB  
Article
Saussurea lappa Exhibits Anti-Oncogenic Effect in Hepatocellular Carcinoma, HepG2 Cancer Cell Line by Bcl-2 Mediated Apoptotic Pathway and Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Release
by Amal A. Alotaibi, Asmatanzeem Bepari, Rasha Assad Assiri, Shaik Kalimulla Niazi, Sreenivasa Nayaka, Muthuraj Rudrappa, Shashiraj Kareyellapa Nagaraja and Meghashyama Prabhakara Bhat
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(2), 1114-1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb43020079 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3238
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Saussurea lappa (S. lappa) is an important species of the Asteraceae family with several purposes in traditional medicine. This study intended to explore the cytotoxic effect of S. lappa on HepG2 cancer cell proliferation. Materials and Methods: The effects [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Saussurea lappa (S. lappa) is an important species of the Asteraceae family with several purposes in traditional medicine. This study intended to explore the cytotoxic effect of S. lappa on HepG2 cancer cell proliferation. Materials and Methods: The effects of an S. lappa n-butanol extract on the induction of apoptosis were investigated by flow cytometry and mitochondrial cytochrome C-releasing apoptosis assay. Additionally, real-time PCR was employed to confirm apoptosis initiation. Further, qualitative estimation of the active constituent of S. lappa was done by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Results: The cell viability study revealed that the n-butanol extract of S. lappa demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against HepG2 cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 56.76 μg/mL. Cell morphology with dual staining of acridine orange (AO)-ethidium bromide (EB) showed an increase in orange/red nuclei due to cell death by S. lappa n-butanol extract compared to control cells. Apoptosis, as the mode of cell death, was also confirmed by the higher release of cytochrome C from mitochondria, the increased expression of caspase-3 and bax, along with down regulation of Bcl-2. Conclusion: These findings conclude that S. lappa is a cause of hepatic cancer cell death through apoptosis and a potential natural source suggesting furthermore investigation of its active compounds that are responsible for these observed activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 2539 KiB  
Article
Immunological Status of Bladder Cancer Patients Based on Urine Leukocyte Composition at Radical Cystectomy
by Elisabet Cantó, Óscar Rodríguez Faba, Carlos Zamora, Maria Mulet, Maria Soledad Garcia-Cuerva, Ana Palomino, Georgia Anguera, Alberto Breda, Pablo Maroto and Sílvia Vidal
Biomedicines 2021, 9(9), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091125 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Background: Bladder cancer (BC) is the ninth most common malignancy worldwide, with high rates of recurrence. The use of urine leukocyte composition at the time of radical cystectomy (RC) as a marker for the study of patients’ immunological status and to predict the [...] Read more.
Background: Bladder cancer (BC) is the ninth most common malignancy worldwide, with high rates of recurrence. The use of urine leukocyte composition at the time of radical cystectomy (RC) as a marker for the study of patients’ immunological status and to predict the recurrence of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has received little attention. Methods: Urine and matched peripheral blood samples were collected from 24 MIBC patients at the time of RC. Leukocyte composition and expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 in each subpopulation were determined by flow cytometry. Results: All MIBC patients had leukocytes in urine. There were different proportions of leukocyte subpopulations. The expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 on each subpopulation differed between patients. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), smoking status, and the affectation of lymph nodes influenced urine composition. We observed a link between leukocytes in urine and blood circulation. Recurrent patients without NAC and with no affectation of lymph nodes had a higher proportion of lymphocytes, macrophages, and PD-L1+ neutrophils in urine than non-recurrent patients. Conclusions: Urine leukocyte composition may be a useful tool for analyzing the immunological status of MIBC patients. Urine cellular composition allowed us to identify a new subgroup of LN− patients with a higher risk of recurrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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22 pages, 3424 KiB  
Article
The Histone Variant MacroH2A1 Impacts Circadian Gene Expression and Cell Phenotype in an In Vitro Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
by Annalucia Carbone, Elisabetta De Santis, Olga Cela, Vincenzo Giambra, Luca Miele, Giuseppe Marrone, Antonio Grieco, Marcus Buschbeck, Nazzareno Capitanio, Tommaso Mazza and Gianluigi Mazzoccoli
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9081057 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2608
Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. A foremost risk factor for HCC is obesity/metabolic syndrome-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is prompted by remarkable changes in transcription patterns of genes enriching metabolic, immune/inflammatory, [...] Read more.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. A foremost risk factor for HCC is obesity/metabolic syndrome-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is prompted by remarkable changes in transcription patterns of genes enriching metabolic, immune/inflammatory, and circadian pathways. Epigenetic mechanisms play a role in NAFLD-associated HCC, and macroH2A1, a variant of histone H2A, is involved in the pathogenesis modulating the expression of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes and interacting with SIRT1, which crucially impacts the circadian clock circuitry. Hence, we aimed to appraise if and how macroH2A1 regulated the expression patterns of circadian genes in the setting of NAFLD-associated HCC. We took advantage of an in vitro model of liver cancer represented by HepG2 (human hepatocarcinoma) cells stably knocked down for macroH2A1 and conducted whole transcriptome profiling and deep phenotyping analysis. We found up-regulation of PER1 along with several deregulated circadian genes, enriching several important pathways and functions related to cancer onset and progression, such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell cycle deregulation, and DNA damage. PER1 silencing partially mitigated the malignant phenotype induced by the loss of macroH2A1 in HCC cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest a modulatory role for the core circadian protein PER1 in liver carcinogenesis in the context of a lack of the macroH2A1 epigenetic and transcriptional landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 1913 KiB  
Article
Prognostic Significance of ROR2 Expression in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma
by Cheng-Fa Yeh, Ti-Chun Chan, Hung-Lung Ke, Tzu-Ju Chen, Li-Ching Wu, Hsiang-Ying Lee, Yu-Ching Wei, Wen-Jeng Wu, Chien-Feng Li and Wei-Ming Li
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9081054 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2345
Abstract
We investigated the association of receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) expression with clinicopathological features and oncologic outcomes in large urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the upper tract (UTUC) and urinary bladder (UBUC) cohorts. Through transcriptomic profiling of a published dataset (GSE31684), ROR2 [...] Read more.
We investigated the association of receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) expression with clinicopathological features and oncologic outcomes in large urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the upper tract (UTUC) and urinary bladder (UBUC) cohorts. Through transcriptomic profiling of a published dataset (GSE31684), ROR2 was discovered to be the most upregulated gene during UC progression, focusing on the JNK cascade (GO:0007254). Initially, the evaluation of ROR2 mRNA expression in 50 frozen UBUCs showed significantly upregulated levels in high-stage UC. Moreover, high ROR2 immunoexpression significantly correlated with high tumor stage, high tumor grade, lymph node metastasis, and vascular invasion (all p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, after adjusting for standard clinicopathological features, ROR2 expression status was an independent prognosticator of cancer-specific survival and metastasis-free survival in UTUC and UBUC (all p < 0.01). In the subgroup analysis, it also significantly predicted bladder tumor recurrence in non-muscle invasive UBUC. Furthermore, the GO enrichment analysis showed that fatty acid, monocarboxylic acid, carboxylic acid metabolic processes, negative regulation of neutrophil migration, and negative regulation of granulocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis were significantly enriched by ROR2 dysregulation. In conclusion, high ROR2 immunoexpression was associated with aggressive pathological characteristics in UC and independently predicted worse prognosis, suggesting it could play roles in clinical risk stratification and therapy decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 542 KiB  
Review
Translational Insights and New Therapeutic Perspectives in Head and Neck Tumors
by Morena Fasano, Francesco Perri, Carminia Maria Della Corte, Raimondo Di Liello, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Marco Cascella, Alessandro Ottaiano, Fortunato Ciardiello and Raffaele Solla
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9081045 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7493
Abstract
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterized by a high mortality rate owing to very few available oncological treatments. For many years, a combination of platinum-based chemotherapy and anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has represented the only available option for first-line therapy. Recently, [...] Read more.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterized by a high mortality rate owing to very few available oncological treatments. For many years, a combination of platinum-based chemotherapy and anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has represented the only available option for first-line therapy. Recently, immunotherapy has been presented an alternative for positive PD-L1 HNSCC. However, the oncologists’ community foresees that a new therapeutic era is approaching. In fact, no-chemo options and some molecular targets are on the horizon. This narrative review addresses past, present, and future therapeutic options for HNSCC from a translational point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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14 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
The Investigation of Associations between TP53 rs1042522, BBC3 rs2032809, CCND1 rs9344, EGFR rs2227983 Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Phenotype and Prognosis
by Justina Bekampytė, Agnė Bartnykaitė, Aistė Savukaitytė, Rasa Ugenskienė, Erika Korobeinikova, Jurgita Gudaitienė and Elona Juozaitytė
Diagnostics 2021, 11(8), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11081419 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1970
Abstract
Breast cancer is one of the most common oncological diseases among women worldwide. Cell cycle and apoptosis—related genes TP53, BBC3, CCND1 and EGFR play an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. However, the roles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) [...] Read more.
Breast cancer is one of the most common oncological diseases among women worldwide. Cell cycle and apoptosis—related genes TP53, BBC3, CCND1 and EGFR play an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. However, the roles of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes have not been fully defined. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the association between TP53 rs1042522, BBC3 rs2032809, CCND1 rs9344 and EGFR rs2227983 polymorphisms and breast cancer phenotype and prognosis. For the purpose of the analysis, 171 Lithuanian women were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood; PCR-RFLP was used for SNPs analysis. The results showed that BBC3 rs2032809 was associated with age at the time of diagnosis, disease progression, metastasis and death. CCND1 rs9344 was associated with tumor size, however an association resulted in loss of significance after Bonferroni correction. In survival analysis, significant associations were observed between BBC3 rs2032809 and OS, PFS and MFS. EGFR rs2227983 also showed some associations with OS and PFS (univariate Cox regression analysis). However, the results were in loss of significance (multivariate Cox regression analysis). In conclusion, BBC3 rs2032809 polymorphism was associated with breast cancer phenotype and prognosis. Therefore, it could be applied as potential markers for breast cancer prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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