Special Issue "Lignin for Energy, Chemicals and Materials"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2018
Prof. Dr. Charles Xu
Institute for Chemicals and Fuels from Alternative Resources (ICFAR), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, Ontario, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 519-661-2111 ext. 86414
Interests: Biorefining technologies; Bio-fuels; Bio-based chemicals; Bio-based materials; Thermochemical conversion; Hydrothermal liquefaction; Pyrolysis; Combustion; Gasification; Lignocellulosic biomass; Forestry residues; Agricultural residues; Sugars; Starch; Cellulose; Lignin; Municipal solid wastes; Wastewater sludge; Catalysis; Catalysts; Chemical reaction engineering; Green process engineering
Dr. Michael Paleologou
Research Leader, Lignin Products, Biorefinery Program, FPInnovations, 570 boul. Saint-Jean, Pointe-Claire(QC) H9R 3J9, Canada
Interests: forest biorefinery; lignin recovery; lignin characterization; lignin products; hemicellulose recovery; hemicellulose products; methanol recovery; biomass processing operations; process integration and economics; black and red liquor characterization; chemical recovery; chemical separation and regeneration technologies for kraft, sulphite and BCTMP mills; system closure
Lignin is the second most abundant natural renewable polymer after cellulose. Natural lignin is a phenolic polymer of three monolignols with an amorphous macromolecular structure. Lignin is currently being produced in large quantities as a by-product of chemical pulping and cellulosic ethanol processes. According to the International Lignin Institute, about 40–50 million tonnes of kraft lignin (KL) are generated each year, globally, in the form of “black liquor”. While combustion of black liquor to regenerate pulping chemicals and to produce steam and power is an integral part of the kraft process, a small portion of the lignin can be removed without compromising mill material and energy balances. Meanwhile, the production of ethanol, butanol and platform chemicals (e.g., lactic, succinic and other organic acids) from cellulosic sugars is growing. For this to achieve extensive commercial success on a worldwide basis, value-added applications are needed for the hydrolysis lignin by-products that are generated from lignocellulose hydrolysis processes.
Many studies have been conducted on lignin utilization. Similar to other carbonaceous solid fuels, lignin can be a source for energy and fuels (e.g., combustion/co-combustion of lignin for energy, pyrolysis or hydrothermal liquefaction of lignin for bio-oils/liquid bio-fuels, or gasification of lignin for syngas/hydrogen, etc.). The presence of various functional groups (aromatic ring free positions and hydroxyl groups) on lignin structure, biodegradability, antioxidant, flame retardant and reinforcing capability make it as a potential candidate for the production of bio-aromatic chemicals (e.g., vanillin, phenols and antioxidants), bio-based polymeric materials (e.g., resins and polymers), and carbon fibers for use as reinforcement fillers in thermoplastic polymers, light-weight composite materials, as well as graphene for use in supercapacitors for energy storage. Direct use of lignin for chemical synthesis and materials can be challenging because the molecular weight is too high and because reactivity is reduced due to steric hindrance effects. The reactivity of lignin could be enhanced through some chemical modifications and thermochemical de-polymerization processes.
This Special Issue aims to cover recent progress and trends in the utilization of lignin or modified/de-polymerized lignin in chemical synthesis, materials and energy. Submissions are welcome but not limited to the topics listed below. Types of contributions to this Special Isssue can be full research articles, short communications, and reviews focusing on the utilization of lignin for energy/fuels, chemical and materials.
- Extraction of lignin from pulping processes or cellulosic ethanol processes;
- Chemical modification/de-polymerization of lignin;
- Combustion/co-combustion of lignin for energy;
- Pyrolysis or hydrothermal liquefaction of lignin for bio-oils/liquid bio-fuels;
- Gasification of lignin for syngas/hydrogen;
- Production of bio-aromatic chemicals from lignin (e.g., vanillin, phenols and antioxidants);
- Synthesis of bio-based polymeric materials from lignin (e.g., resins and polymers)
- Production of carbon fibers as reinforcement fillers in thermoplastic polymers or light-weight composite materials
- Production of graphene for use in supercapacitors for energy storage.
Prof. Chunbao (Charles) Xu
Dr. Michael Paleologou
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- Chemical characterization
- Chemical modification
- Hydrothermal liquefaction
- Bio-aromatic chemicals
- Carbon fibers
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Author: Abayneh Demesa
Affiliation: Laboratory of Process and Product Development, LUT School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, FI-53850 Lappeenranta, Finland
Tentative title: Lignin valorization for chemical production
Author: Rehman Javaid, Aqsa Sabir, Nadeem Sheikh, Muhammad Ferhan
Affiliation: Lignin Valorization & Nanomaterials Lab, Centre for Applied Molecular Biology (CAMB),
University of the Punjab, 87-West Canal Bank Road, Thokar Niaz Baig, Lahore-53700, Pakistan
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, 1- KM Raiwind Road, Lahore
Tentative title: Recent advances in applications of acidophilic fungal microbes for bio-chemicals.
Tentative abstract: Lignocellulosic feedstock (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) has been used for a variety of purposes. Among them, lignin can produce value-added chemicals containing a variety of structurally related phenyl propanoid subunits known as core lignin, consisting of either C-C bonds or ether linkages. It can be depolymerized by microbial activity together with certain enzymes (laccases and peroxidases). Both acetic acid and formic acid production by certain fungi contribute significantly to lignin depolymerization to obtain most chemicals substances. Natural organic acids production by fungi has many key roles in nature that are strictly dependent upon organic acid producing fungus type. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic is beneficial over other physio-chemical processes because of enzymatic speciﬁcity in reactions. Laccases, the copper containing proteins contribute to oxidize a broad spectrum of inorganic as well as organic compounds but most specifically phenolic compounds by radical catalyzed mechanism. Similarly, lignin peroxidases (LiP), the heme containing proteins perform a vital part in oxidizing a wide variety of aromatic compounds with H2O2. Lignin depolymerization yields polyaromatics, the important of which are BTX (Benzene, Toluene and Xylene). These aromatic complexes are found in several different configurations. However, most modern aromatics complexes enhance the production of para-xylene, benzene and sometimes ortho-xylene respectively. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide a concept that chemical and biological modifications of lignin yield certain value added and environment friendly green biochemicals.
Author: Basma El Khaldi-Hansen, Abla Alzazgameem, Birgit Kamm and Margit Schulze1,*
Tentative title: Lignin-Derived Biomaterials for Drug Release and Tissue Engineering
Tentative abstract: Renewable resources gain increasing interest as source for environmentally benign biomaterials, such as drug encapsulation and release compounds, and scaffolds for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine. Being the second largest naturally abundant polymer, the interest in lignin utilization in biomedicine is rapidly growing. Within the last five years, remarkable progress has been made in isolation, functionalization and modification of lignin and lignin-derived materials. However, literature so far (including review articles) most often focus industrial utilization such as fuels, resins and lubricants. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of the art and highlight the most important results of lignin-derived materials for biomedicine (cited references include original paper and patents in 2013-18). Special focus is drawn on guided bone regeneration: 3D scaffolds are known to directly influence differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells into bone tissue due to scaffold structure (polarity, porosity, surface topography) and controlled release of osteoinductive and/or osteoconductive drugs. The review highlights recent progresses in guided bone formation, including stem cell-based approaches for future therapies.
Keywords: biomaterial, bone regeneration, drug encapsulation, drug release, lignin, osteogenesis, scaffolds, stem cells, tissue engineering.
Author: Thomas Rosenau
Affiliation: Universitat fur Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria
Tentative title: Lignin-based foams for insulation - a review
Tentative abstract: The bulk use of renewable polymers is largely limited to cellulose and, less significantly, hemicelluloses. The situation is quite different for lignin which finds application in novel materials only to a very small extent. Lignin, which is the second most abundant biopolymer, is currently only used in low-performance applications or is simply burned for energy ("energetic utilization"). Due to its attractive chemical structure, i.e. different reactive chemical motifs, together with the huge quantities available from pulping processes, technical lignins have indeed potential for innovative applications on larger scale, which hopefully will find access to the markets in the near future. Promising applications for lignin are thermal insulation materials, 3D printing, membranes in separation processes, packaging and adsorbent materials, fertilizers, to name but a few. In this review, the state of the art of foamed lignin-based polymers, so called lignofoams, as high performance insulation materials, is presented. Fundamental foaming principles and influential agents which directly or potentially improve the matrix interactions between lignin/lignosulfonate and a copolymer for foam composites are discussed, and different approaches are critically compared.