Next Article in Journal
Polyphosphates as Inhibitors for Poly(vinyl Chloride) Photodegradation
Next Article in Special Issue
Quantification and Variability Analysis of Lignin Optical Properties for Colour-Dependent Industrial Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Biological Properties of Low-Toxic PLGA and PLGA/PHB Fibrous Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Osseous Tissue Regeneration. Evaluation of Potential Bioactivity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Valorization of Lignin by Partial Wet Oxidation Using Sustainable Heteropoly Acid Catalysts
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1850;

Sustainable Bio-Based Phenol-Formaldehyde Resoles Using Hydrolytically Depolymerized Kraft Lignin

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada
Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1, Canada
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin for Energy, Chemicals and Materials)
Full-Text   |   PDF [11454 KB, uploaded 30 October 2017]   |  


In this study bio-based bio-phenol-formaldehyde (BPF) resoles were prepared using hydrolytically depolymerized Kraft lignin (DKL) as bio-phenol to partially substitute phenol. The effects of phenol substitution ratio, weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of DKL and formaldehyde-to-phenol (F/P) ratio were also investigated to find the optimum curing temperature for BPF resoles. The results indicated that DKL with Mw ~ 1200 g/mol provides a curing temperature of less than 180 °C for any substitution level, provided that F/P ratios are controlled. Incorporation of lignin reduced the curing temperature of the resin, however, higher Mw DKL negatively affected the curing process. For any level of lignin Mw, the curing temperature was found to increase with lower F/P ratios at lower phenol substitution levels. At 25% and 50% phenol substitution, increasing the F/P ratio allows for synthesis of resoles with lower curing temperatures. Increasing the phenol substitution from 50% to 75% allows for a broader range of lignin Mw to attain low curing temperatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kraft lignin; depolymerized Kraft lignin; phenol-formaldehyde resoles; curing temperature; optimization Kraft lignin; depolymerized Kraft lignin; phenol-formaldehyde resoles; curing temperature; optimization

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Siddiqui, H.; Mahmood, N.; Yuan, Z.; Crapulli, F.; Dessbesell, L.; Rizkalla, A.; Ray, A.; Xu, C.(. Sustainable Bio-Based Phenol-Formaldehyde Resoles Using Hydrolytically Depolymerized Kraft Lignin. Molecules 2017, 22, 1850.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top