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Open AccessArticle

Lignocellulosic Biomass as Source for Lignin-Based Environmentally Benign Antioxidants

1
Department of Natural Sciences, Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, von-Liebig-Str. 20, D-53359 Rheinbach, Germany
2
Brandenburg University of Technology BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Faculty of Environment and Natural Sciences, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, D-03046 Cottbus, Germany
3
Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, 2820 Faucette Drive Biltmore Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
4
Kompetenzzentrum Holz GmbH, Altenberger Strasse 69, A- 4040 Linz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Charles Xu and Michael Paleologou
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102664
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin for Energy, Chemicals and Materials)
Antioxidant activity is an essential aspect of oxygen-sensitive merchandise and goods, such as food and corresponding packaging, cosmetics, and biomedicine. Technical lignin has not yet been applied as a natural antioxidant, mainly due to the complex heterogeneous structure and polydispersity of lignin. This report presents antioxidant capacity studies completed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The influence of purification on lignin structure and activity was investigated. The purification procedure showed that double-fold selective extraction is the most efficient (confirmed by ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and X-ray diffraction), resulting in fractions of very narrow polydispersity (3.2–1.6), up to four distinct absorption bands in UV/Vis spectroscopy. Due to differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the glass transition temperature increased from 123 to 185 °C for the purest fraction. Antioxidant capacity is discussed regarding the biomass source, pulping process, and degree of purification. Lignin obtained from industrial black liquor are compared with beech wood samples: antioxidant activity (DPPH inhibition) of kraft lignin fractions were 62–68%, whereas beech and spruce/pine-mixed lignin showed values of 42% and 64%, respectively. Total phenol content (TPC) of the isolated kraft lignin fractions varied between 26 and 35%, whereas beech and spruce/pine lignin were 33% and 34%, respectively. Storage decreased the TPC values but increased the DPPH inhibition. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant activity; biomass; Folin-Ciocalteu assay; kraft lignin; lignocellulose feedstock; organosolv; total phenol content antioxidant activity; biomass; Folin-Ciocalteu assay; kraft lignin; lignocellulose feedstock; organosolv; total phenol content
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alzagameem, A.; Khaldi-Hansen, B.E.; Büchner, D.; Larkins, M.; Kamm, B.; Witzleben, S.; Schulze, M. Lignocellulosic Biomass as Source for Lignin-Based Environmentally Benign Antioxidants. Molecules 2018, 23, 2664.

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