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Molecules 2018, 23(3), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030537

Lignin from Hardwood and Softwood Biomass as a Lubricating Additive to Ethylene Glycol

1
Division of Machine Elements, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
2
Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325, USA
3
Biochemical Process Engineering, Division of Chemical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
4
Chemical Technology, Division of Chemical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin for Energy, Chemicals and Materials)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3548 KB, uploaded 28 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Ethylene glycol (EG)-based lubricant was prepared with dissolved organosolv lignin from birch wood (BL) and softwood (SL) biomass. The effects of different lignin types on the rheological, thermal, and tribological properties of the lignin/EG lubricants were comprehensively investigated by various characterization techniques. Dissolving organosolv lignin in EG results in outstanding lubricating properties. Specifically, the wear volume of the disc by EG-44BL is only 8.9% of that lubricated by pure EG. The enhanced anti-wear property of the EG/lignin system could be attributed to the formation of a robust lubrication film and the strong adhesion of the lubricant on the contacting metal surface due to the presence of a dense hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network. The lubricating performance of EG-BL outperforms EG-SL, which could be attributed to the denser H-bonding sites in BL and its broader molecular weight distribution. The disc wear loss of EG-44BL is only 45.7% of that lubricated by EG-44SL. Overall, H-bonding is the major contributor to the different tribological properties of BL and SL in EG-based lubricants. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignin; organosolv; lubrication; biomass; hydrogen bonding lignin; organosolv; lubrication; biomass; hydrogen bonding
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Mu, L.; Wu, J.; Matsakas, L.; Chen, M.; Vahidi, A.; Grahn, M.; Rova, U.; Christakopoulos, P.; Zhu, J.; Shi, Y. Lignin from Hardwood and Softwood Biomass as a Lubricating Additive to Ethylene Glycol. Molecules 2018, 23, 537.

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