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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1877; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081877

Optimization of Lignin-Based Biocatalyst Production from Pine Sawdust and Wheat Straw

1
Department of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara, Zapopan 45129, Mexico
2
Mexican Bioenergy Innovation Centre, Bioalcohols Cluster, Av. del Bosque 1145, El Bajío, Zapopan 45019, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin for Energy, Chemicals and Materials)
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Abstract

Pine sawdust and wheat straw are abundant lignocellulosic wastes that have been recently converted into bioethanol under a biochemical platform scheme whose main waste is lignin. Lignin can be transformed into a wide variety of high added-value products, including its functionalization as a catalyst. A key step in the synthesis of a lignin-based catalyst is the sulfonation reaction, whose operating conditions, namely, H2SO4 to lignin ratio (mL/g), temperature and time, have been arbitrarily chosen. In this contribution, an optimization methodology (i.e., Box-Behnken) is applied in order to found the operating conditions during the sulfonation reaction that maximizes the total acid sites density of lignin-based catalysts from pine sawdust and wheat straw. The optimization results show that the time in sulfonation reactions can be significantly reduced, compared to those previously reported, without affecting the performance of both catalysts in esterification reactions. These results could be further considered for energy and costs reduction purposes during the conceptual design engineering of the sulfonation reaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lignin; sawdust; wheat straw; sulfonation; catalyst; esterification; Box-Behnken Lignin; sawdust; wheat straw; sulfonation; catalyst; esterification; Box-Behnken
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Escalante, F.M.; Carranza-Hernández, A.; García-Zamora, A.; Aguilar-Garnica, E. Optimization of Lignin-Based Biocatalyst Production from Pine Sawdust and Wheat Straw. Molecules 2018, 23, 1877.

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