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Open AccessReview

Recent Advances in Applications of Acidophilic Fungi to Produce Chemicals

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Lignin Valorization & Nanomaterials Lab, Centre for Applied Molecular Biology (CAMB), University of the Punjab, 87-West Canal Bank Road, Thokar Niaz Baig, 53700 Lahore, Pakistan
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Cell and Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab Quaid-e Azam Campus, 54590 Lahore, Pakistan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Charles Xu and Michael Paleologou
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040786
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 22 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin for Energy, Chemicals and Materials)
Processing of fossil fuels is the major environmental issue today. Biomass utilization for the production of chemicals presents an alternative to simple energy generation by burning. Lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) is abundant and has been used for variety of purposes. Among them, lignin polymer having phenyl-propanoid subunits linked together either through C-C bonds or ether linkages can produce chemicals. It can be depolymerized by fungi using their enzyme machinery (laccases and peroxidases). Both acetic acid and formic acid production by certain fungi contribute significantly to lignin depolymerization. Fungal natural organic acids production is thought to have many key roles in nature depending upon the type of fungi producing them. Biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass is beneficial over physiochemical processes. Laccases, copper containing proteins oxidize a broad spectrum of inorganic as well as organic compounds but most specifically phenolic compounds by radical catalyzed mechanism. Similarly, lignin peroxidases (LiP), heme containing proteins perform a vital part in oxidizing a wide variety of aromatic compounds with H2O2. Lignin depolymerization yields value-added compounds, the important ones are aromatics and phenols as well as certain polymers like polyurethane and carbon fibers. Thus, this review will provide a concept that biological modifications of lignin using acidophilic fungi can generate certain value added and environmentally friendly chemicals. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass; laccases; peroxidases; green biochemicals; acidophilic microbes lignocellulosic biomass; laccases; peroxidases; green biochemicals; acidophilic microbes
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Javaid, R.; Sabir, A.; Sheikh, N.; Ferhan, M. Recent Advances in Applications of Acidophilic Fungi to Produce Chemicals. Molecules 2019, 24, 786.

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