Special Issue "Advances in Clinical and Translational Research of Oral Surgery, Biomaterials, and Oral Disease Management"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Stomatology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Gaetano Isola
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: periodontitis; oral surgery; oral pathology; oral health-systemic health; bone biology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Teresa Lombardi
Website
Guest Editor
Private Practice, Cassano allo Ionio, Cosenza, Italy
Interests: sinus lift; oral surgery; bone healing; biomaterials; bone biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oral health has a vital impact on daily life and overall health, and has important implications for the clinical practice of medicine and dental research. Oral health maintenance, by means of a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical approach is an integral part of general human health and well-being and is recognized by the WHO as an important segment of the Global Oral Health Program.

With this Special Issue we wish to provide a global overview of advances in oral surgery and oral medicine ranging from new oral surgery techniques to the molecular etiological aspects of oral and periodontal disease pathogenesis. This Special Issue will also cover new advances in preclinical pharmacological therapeutic strategies of oral disease, including studies on pharmacological drugs used in the field of dentistry.

On behalf of the Journal of Clinical Medicine you are cordially invited to contribute an article to the Special Issue “Advances in Clinical and Translational Research of Oral Surgery, Biomaterials, and Oral Disease Management”. Research articles, Reviews, and Mini Reviews are welcome. Case Reports will also be considered for publication.

Prof. Gaetano Isola
Dr. Teresa Lombardi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral surgery
  • oral diseases
  • periodontal disease
  • biomaterials
  • oral rehabilitation
  • oral–systemic disease
  • oral pathology
  • peri-implantitis
  • sinus lift
  • antibiotics

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Effects of Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid Administration in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061749 - 05 Jun 2020
Abstract
The study described in this paper was conducted to assess the short-term outcomes of intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid in patients with symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders. A group of 40 patients suffering from temporomandibular joint disorders underwent a series of hyaluronic acid [...] Read more.
The study described in this paper was conducted to assess the short-term outcomes of intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid in patients with symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders. A group of 40 patients suffering from temporomandibular joint disorders underwent a series of hyaluronic acid intra-articular injections. Questionnaires and clinical examinations were conducted to assess stress exposure of the subjects and to evaluate short-term treatment outcomes, i.e., reducing joint and muscle pain and increasing the mobility of the mandible. A weak positive correlation between stress exposure and pain was observed. As a result of treatment, 61% of subjects revealed a total reduction of muscle pain, while joint pain completely resolved in 88% of patients. Mandibular mobility increased by 11%, 31%, 9%, and 11% regarding opening, protrusive, and lateral right and left movements, respectively. The study confirms the short-term effectiveness of intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid on reducing joint and muscle pain in patients with articular disc displacement. The treatment positively affected the mobility of the mandible in all directions. The verification of late treatment effects of hyaluronic acid viscosupplementation requires the continuation of the research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Fluid Biomarkers for Diagnosing Gingivitis in Human: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(6), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061720 - 03 Jun 2020
Abstract
Diagnoses based on oral fluid biomarkers have been introduced to overcome limitations of periodontal probe-based diagnoses. Diagnostic ability of certain biomarkers for periodontitis have been identified and widely studied, however, such studies targeting gingivitis is scarce. The aims of this study were to [...] Read more.
Diagnoses based on oral fluid biomarkers have been introduced to overcome limitations of periodontal probe-based diagnoses. Diagnostic ability of certain biomarkers for periodontitis have been identified and widely studied, however, such studies targeting gingivitis is scarce. The aims of this study were to determine and compare the efficacies and accuracies of eight biomarkers in diagnosing gingivitis with the aid of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) were examined in 100 participants. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected using paper points, and whole-saliva samples were collected using cotton roll. Samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for the different biomarkers. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, lactoferrin, cystatin C, myeloperoxidase (MPO), platelet-activating factor, cathepsin B, and pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen were analyzed. MPO and MMP-8 levels in saliva were strongly correlated with gingivitis, with Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.399 and 0.217, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was largest for MMP-8, at 0.814, followed by values of 0.793 and 0.777 for MPO and MMP-9, respectively. The clinical parameters of GI and PI showed strong correlations and large AUC values, whereas PD and CAL did not. MMP-8 and MPO were found to be effective for diagnosing gingivitis. Further investigations based on the results of this study may identify clinically useful biomarkers for the accurate and early detection of gingivitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An In Vivo Study in Rat Femurs of Bioactive Silicate Coatings on Titanium Dental Implants
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051290 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
Silica-based ceramics have been proposed for coating purposes to enhance dental and orthopedic titanium (Ti) implant bioactivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sphene-based bioceramic (CaO.TiO2.SiO2) coatings on implant osseointegration in vivo. Sphene coatings [...] Read more.
Silica-based ceramics have been proposed for coating purposes to enhance dental and orthopedic titanium (Ti) implant bioactivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sphene-based bioceramic (CaO.TiO2.SiO2) coatings on implant osseointegration in vivo. Sphene coatings were obtained from preceramic polymers and nano-sized active precursors and deposited by an automatic airbrush. Twenty customized Ti implants, ten sphene-coated and ten uncoated rough implants were implanted into the proximal femurs of ten Sprague-Dawley rats. Overall, cortical and cancellous bone-to-implant contact (BIC) were determined using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) at 14 and 28 days. Moreover, peri-implant bone healing was histologically and histomorphometrically evaluated. The white blood cell count in the synovial fluid of the knee joints, if present, was also assessed. No difference in the BIC values was observed between the sphene-coated and uncoated implants, overall and in the two bone compartments (p > 0.05). Delamination of the coating occurred in three cases. Consistently with micro-CT data, the histological evaluation revealed no differences between the two groups. In addition, no synovial fluid could be collected on the test side, thus confirming sphene biocompatibility. In conclusion, sphene coating was found to be a suitable material for biomedical applications. Further studies are needed to improve coating adhesion to the implants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects on the Facial Growth of Rapid Palatal Expansion in Growing Patients Affected by Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis with Monolateral Involvement of the Temporomandibular Joints: A Case-Control Study on Posteroanterior and Lateral Cephalograms
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041159 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) affecting temporomandibular joints (TMJ) in growing patients results in maxillofacial deformities, especially if only one condyle has been affected by the rheumatic disease. Mandibular hypoplasia is the most common issue and it may be associated with maxillary hypoplasia. [...] Read more.
Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) affecting temporomandibular joints (TMJ) in growing patients results in maxillofacial deformities, especially if only one condyle has been affected by the rheumatic disease. Mandibular hypoplasia is the most common issue and it may be associated with maxillary hypoplasia. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in these patients. Methods: 25 growing patients affected by maxillary hypoplasia, currently in a quiescent phase of JIA for at least one year and monolateral involvement of the TMJs, were treated with RME. Data gathered from posteroanterior and lateral cephalograms before and after 1 year from RME were compared to those of 25 non-JIA controls. Results: Nasal cavity width, maxillary width and upper and lower intermolar width statistically increased. Maxillary and mandibular symmetry indexes presented a statistically significant increase, so did the skeletal class. No signs or symptoms of TMJ activity of JIA occurred according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) criteria. No difference was found when comparing JIA and non-JIA patients apart from the better improvement of several mandibular symmetry indexes in the affected TMJ side of JIA patients. This event is allegedly due to a worse baseline asymmetry in JIA patients that underwent a bigger relative improvement after treatment. Conclusions: Results suggest that solving maxillary hypoplasia and, therefore, premature contacts are likely to have allowed mandibular repositioning and condylar growth. RME is a safe and effective solution that can substantially improve maxillary and mandibular symmetry in growing patients affected by JIA with TMJ involvement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) and Its Related Products: Biomolecular Characterization of the Liquid Fibrinogen
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041099 - 12 Apr 2020
Abstract
Liquid fibrinogen is an injectable platelet concentrate rich in platelets, leukocytes, and fibrinogen obtained by blood centrifugation. The aim of this study was to analyze the release of different growth factors in the liquid fibrinogen at different times and to assess possible correlations [...] Read more.
Liquid fibrinogen is an injectable platelet concentrate rich in platelets, leukocytes, and fibrinogen obtained by blood centrifugation. The aim of this study was to analyze the release of different growth factors in the liquid fibrinogen at different times and to assess possible correlations between growth factors and cell counts. The concentration of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released by liquid fibrinogen were examined with ELISA at three time points (T0, time of collection; T7, 7 days; T14, 14 days). The cellular content of the liquid fibrinogen and whole blood was also calculated for each volunteer. A mean accumulation of platelets of almost 1.5-fold in liquid fibrinogen compared to whole blood samples was found. An increase of TGF-β1, PDGF-AB, FGF-2, and VEGF levels was detected at T7. At T14, the level of TGF-β1 returned to T0 level; PDGF-AB amount remained high; the levels of FGF-2 and VEGF decreased with respect to T7, but remained higher than the T0 levels; PDGF-BB was high at all time points; BMP-2 level was low and remained constant at all time points. TGF-β1, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-BB showed a correlation with platelet amount, whereas BMP-2, FGF-2, and VEGF showed a mild correlation with platelet amount. Due to the high concentration of platelets, liquid fibrinogen does contain important growth factors for the regeneration of both soft and hard tissue. The centrifugation protocol tested in this study provides a valid solution to stimulate wound healing in oral and periodontal surgery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Immunohistochemical Results of Soft Tissues around a New Implant Healing-Abutment Surface: A Human Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041009 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Although, the high success rate of implant rehabilitation treatment, the biological complications such as bone loss and peri-implantitis are still present. The creation of a coronal biological seal between the implant and the oral tissues seems to be a crucial point on preserving [...] Read more.
Although, the high success rate of implant rehabilitation treatment, the biological complications such as bone loss and peri-implantitis are still present. The creation of a coronal biological seal between the implant and the oral tissues seems to be a crucial point on preserving dental implants. The objective of this study was to immunohistochemically analyze the behavior of peri-implant soft tissues around a new implant healing-abutment surface on humans. A total of 30 soft tissue biopsies were collected after a healing period of 30 (±7) days, to analyze the expression of inflammatory (cluster of differentiation 63 (CD63), human neutrophil peptides 1–3 (HPN1–3)) and junctional (E-cadherin, occludin, and β-catenin) markers, on soft tissues around laser treated and machined alternated healing abutments. The evaluation demonstrated the whole area of the soft tissues adherent to the laser treated surface with a regular morphology. While several stress hallmarks in correspondence of machined surfaces were shown such as: (a) An irregular, disrupted, and discontinued basal membrane with an increased inflammation evident both the epithelial and connective tissues; (b) the absence or defective proper keratinization process of the external layer, and (c) damages in the cell to cell interaction. In conclusion, the laser treated surface is preferable to maintain the integrity and functionality of the gingiva epithelium. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Morphological Changes of the True Cleft under Passive Presurgical Orthopaedics in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate: A Retrospective Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040962 - 31 Mar 2020
Abstract
The aim of this cohort study was to quantify the morphological changes in the palatal cleft and true cleft areas with passive plate therapy using a new analysis method based on three-dimensional standardized reproducible landmarks. Forty-five casts of 15 consecutive patients with complete [...] Read more.
The aim of this cohort study was to quantify the morphological changes in the palatal cleft and true cleft areas with passive plate therapy using a new analysis method based on three-dimensional standardized reproducible landmarks. Forty-five casts of 15 consecutive patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate were laser scanned and investigated retrospectively. The landmarks and the coordinate system were defined, and the interrater and intrarater measurement errors were within 1.0 mm. The morphological changes of the cleft palate area after a period of 8 months of passive plate therapy without prior lip surgery are presented graphically. The median decrease in cleft width was 38.0% for the palatal cleft, whereas it was 44.5% for the true cleft. The width of the true and palatal cleft decreased significantly over a period of 8 months. The true cleft area decreased by 34.7% from a median of 185.4 mm2 (interquartile range, IQR = 151.5–220.1) to 121.1 mm2 (IQR = 100.2–144.6). The palatal cleft area decreased by 31.5% from a median of 334 mm2 (IQR = 294.9–349.8) to 228.8 mm2. The most important clinical considerations are the reproducibility and reliability of the anatomical points, as well as the associated morphological changes. We propose using the vomer edge to establish a validated measuring method for the width, area, and height of the true cleft. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Surgical Outcomes of Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting and Extensive Gingivoperiosteoplasty Performed at Mixed Dentition Stage in Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip and Palate
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020576 - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
Secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) is associated with donor site morbidities. We aimed to compare the outcomes of SABG and extensive gingivoperiosteoplasty (EGPP) at the mixed dentition stage. This single-blinded, randomized, prospective trial enrolled 50 consecutive patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and [...] Read more.
Secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) is associated with donor site morbidities. We aimed to compare the outcomes of SABG and extensive gingivoperiosteoplasty (EGPP) at the mixed dentition stage. This single-blinded, randomized, prospective trial enrolled 50 consecutive patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate who had residual alveolar bone cleft, of which 44 (19 SABG, 25 EGPP) completed the study. Bone volumes before surgery, 6 months postoperatively, and 1-year postoperatively were compared using computed tomography. The Bergland scale score was recorded at 6 months postoperatively. Both groups had the same preoperative alveolar cleft volume. On the Bergland scale, 21, 3, and 1 patient in the EGPP group and 16, 2, and 1 patient in the SABG group were classified as types I, II, and IV, respectively, which did not show significant difference. With perioperative orthodontic treatment, the 1-year residual bone defect volume in both groups did not show significant difference (SABG 0.12 cm3 vs. EGPP at 0.14 cm3, p > 0.05). The study was not able to reveal much difference between SABG and EGPP combined with perioperative orthodontic treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Antibacterial Agent-Releasing Polydimethylsiloxane Coating for Polymethyl Methacrylate Dental Restorations
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(11), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111831 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chlorhexidine (CHX) has been incorporated into the composition of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) dental restorations to enhance their antimicrobial performance. However, the controlled delivery of CHX remains a challenge. Although previous findings with pure silica or polymer coatings demonstrated the resistance to bacterial adhesion, [...] Read more.
Chlorhexidine (CHX) has been incorporated into the composition of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) dental restorations to enhance their antimicrobial performance. However, the controlled delivery of CHX remains a challenge. Although previous findings with pure silica or polymer coatings demonstrated the resistance to bacterial adhesion, they did not provide antibacterial activity beyond the coated surface. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are widely used in biomedical science as a transfer medium in drug delivery systems. Here, the MSNs are used to encapsulate CHX, and the combination is added to PDMS. A thin coating film is formed on the PMMA, using oxygen plasma and thermal treatment. The liquid chromatography analysis shows that the coating film has high encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity, with a slow and stable release rate of CHX. The cytotoxicity tests also show that the coating does not affect the proinflammatory cytokines, cellular mitotic activity, or apoptotic cell death. The ability of the coating to release CHX indicates that the coating may even be effective against bacteria that are not directly in contact with the surface. This antibacterial protective film is expected to be a novel method to inhibit bacterial activity distal to the coated surfaces of PMMA restorations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Emerging Role of NANOG as an Early Cancer Risk Biomarker in Patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(9), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091376 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
NANOG, a key regulator of pluripotency and self-renewal in embryonic and adult stem cells, is frequently overexpressed in multiple cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). It has been frequently associated with poor outcomes in epithelial cancers, and recently implicated in laryngeal tumorigenesis. [...] Read more.
NANOG, a key regulator of pluripotency and self-renewal in embryonic and adult stem cells, is frequently overexpressed in multiple cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). It has been frequently associated with poor outcomes in epithelial cancers, and recently implicated in laryngeal tumorigenesis. On this basis, we investigated the role of NANOG protein expression as an early cancer risk biomarker in oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), and the impact on prognosis and disease outcomes in OSCC patients. NANOG expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 55 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 125 OSCC patients. Correlations with clinical and follow-up data were assessed. Nuclear NANOG expression was detected in 2 (3.6%) and cytoplasmic NANOG expression in 9 (16.4%) oral dysplasias. NANOG expression increased with the grade of dysplasia. Cytoplasmic NANOG expression and the histopathological grading were significantly correlated with oral cancer risk, although dysplasia grading was the only significant independent predictor of oral cancer development in multivariate analyses. Cytoplasmic NANOG expression was also detected in 39 (31%) OSCC samples. Positive NANOG expression was significantly associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, and was more frequent in pN0 tumors, early I-II stages. These data unveil the clinical relevance of NANOG in early stages of OSCC tumorigenesis rather than in advanced neoplastic disease. NANOG expression emerges as an early predictor of oral cancer risk in patients with OPMD. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Use of Platelet-Rich Fibrin in the Treatment of Grade 2 Furcation Defects: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072104 - 03 Jul 2020
Abstract
In periodontitis patients, furcation defects are crucial sites to regenerate due to their complex anatomy. Various modern surgical techniques and use of biomaterials have been suggested in the literature. Among all, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has potential in tissue regeneration thanks to its role [...] Read more.
In periodontitis patients, furcation defects are crucial sites to regenerate due to their complex anatomy. Various modern surgical techniques and use of biomaterials have been suggested in the literature. Among all, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has potential in tissue regeneration thanks to its role in the release of growth factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of the addition of PRF to open flap debridement (OFD) or as an adjuvant to other biomaterials such as bone grafts in the treatment of grade 2 mandibular furcation defects. Systematic research was carried out on the databases Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane Library and registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020167662). According to the PICO guidelines by Cochrane, randomized trials and prospective non-randomized trials were evaluated, with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. The inclusion criteria were the absence of systemic diseases, non-smoking patients, and a population aged from 18 to 65 years. Vertical pocket probing depth (PPD), vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL), and gingival recession (REC) were the primary outcomes. Vertical furcation depth (VFD), and the percentage of bone defect fill (%v-BDF) were considered as secondary outcomes. A meta-analysis of the primary and secondary outcomes was performed. Publication bias was assessed through a funnel plot. Eighty-four articles were initially extracted. Eight randomized clinical trials were analyzed according to the exclusion and inclusion criteria. The Quality assessment instrument (QAI) revealed four articles at low risk of bias, one at moderate, and three at high risk of bias. The metanalysis showed significant data regarding PPD, VCAL, VFD and %v-BDF in the comparison between PRF + OFD vs. OFD alone. The adjunct of PRF to a bone graft showed a significant difference for VCAL and a not statistically significant result for the other involved parameters. In conclusion, the adjunctive use of PRF to OFD seems to enhance the periodontal regeneration in the treatment of grade 2 furcation defects. The combination of PRF and bone graft did not show better clinical results, except for VCAL, although the amount of literature with low risk of bias is scarce. Further well-designed studies to evaluate the combination of these two materials are therefore needed. Full article
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