Special Issue "Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Rosalia Maria Leonardi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: digital dentistry; imaging; orthodontics; TMJ disorders; oral pathology; oral cancer; orofacial pain; craniofacial growth; oral health; general health; quality of life
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Gaetano Isola
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, School of Dentistry, University of Catania, Piazza Università, 2, 95124 Catania CT, Italy
Interests: periodontal disease; oral surgery; oral health quality of life; oral diseases; systemic diseases; etiology of periodontitis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Cristina Grippaudo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma
Interests: oral surgery; digital dentistry; antimicrobial agents; oral health; biomaterials; clear aligner

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Material sciences are major fields of research in the current era of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies, and these new developments define the new frontier in many medical disciplines. Biomaterials play a significant role in the expansion of regenerative treatments of the maxilla, to allow more sophisticated oral rehabilitation of edentulous patients. Periodontology, orthodontics, oral surgery, esthetic and implant dentistry are significant beneficiaries of these recent promising developments and these interconnected clinical domains are themselves major sources of research in implantable materials, particularly bone materials or surgical adjuvants.

During recent decades, a plethora of different types of digital technology, dental biomaterials, bone graft, adjuvants and/or bone substitutes, growth and differentiation factors, enamel matrix proteins or various combinations thereof, have been employed to achieve bone and periodontal regeneration. Despite positive observations in animal models and successful outcomes reported for many of the available regenerative techniques and materials in patients, robust information on the degree to which reported clinical improvements reflect true bone and periodontal regeneration does not exist.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide insight into the recent advances in the field of dentistry. Studies incorporating a new approach or providing novel information are of high priority. Innovative studies and systematic and narrative reviews of dental technologies in the field of dentistry are also welcome.

It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue.

Prof. Rosalia Maria Leonardi
Prof. Gaetano Isola
Prof. Cristina Grippaudo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dentistry
  • orthodontics
  • prosthesis
  • workflow
  • periodontology
  • oral surgery
  • biotechnology
  • dental biomaterials
  • additive manufacturing
  • in vitro research
  • clinical research

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
New Materials for Orthodontic Interceptive Treatment in Primary to Late Mixed Dentition. A Retrospective Study Using Elastodontic Devices
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071695 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes obtained after 1 year of treatment with elastodontic appliances (EA) in a retrospective cohort of children reporting early signs of malocclusion. Also, a detailed description of the tested EAs was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes obtained after 1 year of treatment with elastodontic appliances (EA) in a retrospective cohort of children reporting early signs of malocclusion. Also, a detailed description of the tested EAs was reported. The study sample included 20 subjects, 8 males and 12 females, with a mean age of 8.4 ± 0.6 years, and a control group consisting of 20 subjects, 9 males and 11 females, with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.8 years. All subjects in the treated group received the AMCOP second class (SC) (Ortho Protec, Bari, Italy) device. Digital impressions were taken along with a digital bite registration in centric relation before treatment (T0) and after 1 year (T1). Lateral cephalograms were also taken at T0 and T1 and cephalometric analysis was performed to assess the skeletal sagittal changes of the maxilla and the mandible (sella, nasion, A point angle, SNA^; sella, nasion, B point angle, SNB^; and A point–nasion–B point angle, ANB^) as well as the changes of the inter-incisors angle (IIA^). In the treated group, the distribution of subjects according to the presence of crowding and the pattern of malocclusion changed at T1. In the same group, there was an increase of subjects showing no signs of crowding and a class I occlusal relationship, while in the control group, there was a small increase of subjects developing dental crowding and featuring a worse sagittal relationship (class II) compared to pre-treatment condition. A statistically significant reduction of the overjet and overbite was recorded in the treated group between T0 and T1 (p < 0.05); in the control group, a slight increase in the overjet and overbite was detected at T1, being this increment significanct only for the latter parameter. In the tested group, no significant differences were found between SNA^ values detected at T0 and T1 (p > 0.05), instead the SNB^, ANB^, and IIA^ showed a significant increase after 1 year of treatment (p < 0.05). From a clinical perspective, all clinical goals were reached since patients showed remarkable improvements in overjet, overbite, crowding, and the sagittal molar relationship. Within the limitations of the present study, EAs could be effectively used for the interceptive orthodontic in growing patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
The In Vivo Toxicity and Antimicrobial Properties for Electrolyzed Oxidizing (EO) Water-Based Mouthwashes
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4299; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194299 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 624
Abstract
The objective of this study was to verify the feasibility of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water as a mouthwash through the evaluation of its in vivo toxicity by embryonic zebrafish and antimicrobial efficacy against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Methodology: Each 1.5–3.0 g [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to verify the feasibility of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water as a mouthwash through the evaluation of its in vivo toxicity by embryonic zebrafish and antimicrobial efficacy against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Methodology: Each 1.5–3.0 g of sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium bromide (NaBr), or calcium chloride (CaCl2) were added into an electrolyzer with 300 mL of DD water to produce electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water. A zebrafish embryo assay was used to evaluate acute toxicity of specimens. Antimicrobial property was conducted with 100 μL microbial count of 1 × 108 cfu/mL S. mutans to blend with each 10 mL specimen of chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate or hypochlorous acid (HOCl) for various time points. The concentration of viable microorganisms was assessed according to individually standardized inoculum by a plate-count method. Results: Among the EO water produced from NaCl, NaBr, and CaCl2, the EO water from NaCl showed a relatively low mortality rate of zebrafish embryos and was chosen for a detailed investigation. The mortality rates for the groups treated with EO water containing 0.0125% and 0.0250% HOCl were not statically different from those of a negative control, however the mortality rate was 66.7 ± 26.2% in 0.2% CHX gluconate for the same treatment time of 0.5 min. All of the HOCl or 2.0% CHX gluconate groups showed >99.9% antimicrobial effectiveness against S. mutans; while the 0.2% CHX gluconate group showed a bacterial reduction rate of 87.5% and 97.1% for treatment times of 0.5 min and 1.0 min, respectively. Conclusions: Except for the 0.2% CHX gluconate, all the HOCl specimens and 2.0% CHX gluconate revealed similar antimicrobial properties (>99.9%) against S. mutans. The EO water comprised of both 0.0125% and 0.0250% HOCl showed >99.9% antimicrobial efficacy but with little in vivo toxicity, illuminating the possibility as an alternative mouthwash for dental and oral care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Patient and Operator Centered Outcomes in Implant Dentistry: Comparison between Fully Digital and Conventional Workflow for Single Crown and Three-Unit Fixed-Bridge
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122781 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 599
Abstract
Background: Scientific information about the effects of implant therapy following a precise workflow and patient and operators’ preferences should be considered to choose which implant treatment protocol to use, and to achieve patient’s satisfaction and functional results. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Scientific information about the effects of implant therapy following a precise workflow and patient and operators’ preferences should be considered to choose which implant treatment protocol to use, and to achieve patient’s satisfaction and functional results. The aim of this study was to analyze implant rehabilitations with a fully digital workflow and compare this approach with a conventional one. Methods: This study comprises 64 patients treated with a fully digital approach and 58 patients treated using a conventional protocol. Patient and operator centered outcomes were assessed through two visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires. Results: The VAS questionnaire demonstrated better results for the digital workflow concerning anxiety, convenience, taste, nausea sensation, pain and breathing difficulties (p < 0.0001). The VAS questionnaire administered to the operators showed better scores for the digital approach in relation to anxiety, convenience, difficulties of the impression procedure and the workflow (p < 0.0001). A significant reduced mean time for the digital workflow as well as a reduced number of required visits were recorded. Conclusion: The analysis of a fully digital and a conventional protocol showed better results according to patient and operators’ preferences when a fully digital approach was used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Volumetric Changes in the Upper Airways after Rapid and Slow Maxillary Expansion in Growing Patients: A Case-Control Study
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102239 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
The aim is to evaluate changes in the volume of the upper airways before and after slow maxillary expansion (SME) obtained with the flexible properties of a nickel titanium leaf spring and rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with a conventional Hyrax appliance in growing [...] Read more.
The aim is to evaluate changes in the volume of the upper airways before and after slow maxillary expansion (SME) obtained with the flexible properties of a nickel titanium leaf spring and rapid maxillary expansion (RME) with a conventional Hyrax appliance in growing patients. The records of 1200 orthodontic patients undergoing maxillary expansion from 2018 to 2019 were analyzed; among these pre and post treatment CBCT scans of 22 patients (mean age 8.2 ± 0.6 years old) treated by SME were compared with those obtained from 22 patients (mean age 8.1 ± 0.7 years old) treated by RME banded on the second primary molars. The following inclusion criteria were used: Maxillary transverse constriction, good general health, and no previous orthodontic treatment. Volumes of nasal cavity (NCavV), nasopharynx (NsPxV), and right and left maxillary sinuses (MSV) were calculated with ITK-SNAP. Shapiro–Wilk test revealed a normal distribution of data in each group. Paired t-test was used for within-group comparisons and independent t-test for between-group comparisons. Statistically significant increases occurred in NCavV, NsPxV, and MSVs after treatment with both appliances. No statistically significant difference between the appliances occurred in NCavV, NsPxV, and MSVs. Method error was considered negligible (mean intra-operator and inter-operator intraclass correlation coefficient were 0.928 and 0.911, respectively). It appears that both appliances produce similar effects on the different segments of the upper airway tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
A Procedure for Analyzing Mandible Roto-Translation Induced by Mandibular Advancement Devices
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081826 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
Background: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders are characterized by repeated episodes of complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. Mandibular advancement devices represent a non-invasive treatment in reducing the number of respiratory events and in decreasing symptoms. The advancement extent of these [...] Read more.
Background: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders are characterized by repeated episodes of complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. Mandibular advancement devices represent a non-invasive treatment in reducing the number of respiratory events and in decreasing symptoms. The advancement extent of these devices is responsible for the mandibular roto-translation and its effects on the temporomandibular joint. Methods: This study defined a systematic method to assess the mandible roto translation that is caused by MADs according to a scan-to-CAD approach. Starting from a closed mouth position and simulating the oral appliance at different settings it was possible to define a local reference system that is useful for the evaluation of the mandibular roto-translation. This latter was then applied to evaluate the movements of the condyle and the mandibular dental arch. Results: MAD1 resulted in a reduced mouth opening and protrusion, while MAD2 enabled a higher degree of motion of the mandible useful for patients who need an important protrusion. Conclusions: The two devices present different dynamics. Results that are achievable employing this method can be directly used by practitioners in comparing MADs, as well as by researchers in evaluating MADs effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Tooth Types on the Accuracy of Dental 3D Scanners: An In Vitro Study
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071744 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dental three-dimensional (3D) scanners according to the types of teeth. A computer-aided design (CAD) reference model (CRM) was obtained by scanning the reference typodont model using a high-precision industrial scanner (Solutionix C500, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dental three-dimensional (3D) scanners according to the types of teeth. A computer-aided design (CAD) reference model (CRM) was obtained by scanning the reference typodont model using a high-precision industrial scanner (Solutionix C500, MEDIT). In addition, a CAD test model (CTM) was obtained using seven types of dental 3D scanners (desktop scanners (E1 and DOF Freedom HD) and intraoral scanners (CS3500, CS3600, Trios2, Trios3, and i500)). The 3D inspection software (Geomagic control X, 3DSystems) was used to segment the CRM according to the types of teeth and to superimpose the CTM based on the segmented teeth. The 3D accuracy of the scanner was then analyzed according to the types of teeth. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the differences according to the types of teeth in statistical analysis, and the Tukey HSD test was used for post hoc testing (α = 0.05). Both desktop and intraoral scanners showed significant differences in accuracy according to the types of teeth (P < 0.001), and the accuracy of intraoral scanners tended to get worse from anterior to posterior. Therefore, when scanning a complete arch using an intraoral scanner, the clinician should consider the tendency for the accuracy to decrease from anterior to posterior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Maxillary Sinus Changes in Growing Subjects: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
Materials 2020, 13(4), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13041007 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate changes of maxillary sinuses in growing subjects. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of 146 patients were divided according to gender and age (6–8, 9–11, 12–14 years old). Left, right and total maxillary sinus volume (MSV-R, MSV-L, MSV-Tot) [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate changes of maxillary sinuses in growing subjects. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of 146 patients were divided according to gender and age (6–8, 9–11, 12–14 years old). Left, right and total maxillary sinus volume (MSV-R, MSV-L, MSV-Tot) and surface (MSS-R, MSS-L, MSS-Tot), left and right linear maximum width (LMW-L, LMW-R), depth (LMD-R, LMD-L) and height (LMH-R, LMH-R) were calculated using Mimics Research 22. Kruskal–Wallis Test and showed a statistically significant increase in both genders for all variables. Pairwise comparisons in females are always statistically significant in: LMH-R, LMH-R, MSS-Tot, MSV-Tot. All other variables showed a statistical significant increase between 9–11 and 12–14, and between 6–8 and 12–14 age groups, apart from LMSW-R, LMSW-L, LMSD-R, LMSD-L between 6–8 and 12–14 age groups. Pairwise comparisons in males are always and only statistically significant between 9–11 and 12–14, and between 6–8 and 12–14 groups. Symmetrical measurements (right and left) evaluated using Wilcoxon test retrieved no statistical significant difference. Comparisons between measurements on male and female subjects using Mann–Whitney test showed a statistical significant difference in 6–8 years group in MSV-R, MSV-L and MSV-Tot, and in 12–14 age group in MSV-R, MSV-L, MSV-Tot, MSS-r, MSS-l, MSS-Tot, MSW-R, MSW-L, MSD-R, MSD-L. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) assessing inter-operator and intra-operator concordance retrieved excellent results for all variables. It appears that maxillary sinus growth resembles the differential peak of growth in male and female subjects. Sinuses starts to develop early in female subjects. However, in the first and last age group female sinuses are statistically significantly smaller compared to male ones. In male subjects, sinus growth occurs mainly between the second and third age group whilst in female subjects it starts between the first and second age group and continues between the second and the last. Sinus has a vertical development during the peak of growth, which is the main reason for its increase in volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Dental Vestibular–Palatal Inclination and Alveolar Bone Remodeling after Orthodontic Treatment: A CBCT Analysis
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244225 - 16 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between dental vestibular–palatal inclination changes and the cortical bone remodeling after fixed orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-two patients with Angle Class I malocclusion, permanent dentition, and mild to moderate [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between dental vestibular–palatal inclination changes and the cortical bone remodeling after fixed orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty-two patients with Angle Class I malocclusion, permanent dentition, and mild to moderate dental crowding were included in the present three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Bone dimensions were evaluated by CBCT scans obtained before and after orthodontic treatment, whereas the torque values were calculated by means of digital models using the 3D VistaDent software. A paired t-test was used to compare the changes between the pretreatment and post-treatment measurements. The correlations between variables were analyzed with linear regression analysis. A significant correlation between torque variations and bone thickness changes was observed for the apical buccal level of the anterior side (P < 0.05). Limited and not significant alveolar bone resorption for the apical thickness of anterior teeth occurred at ± 5 degrees of torque variation, while for tooth inclination exceeding +5 or −5 degrees, the bone remodeling was more evident. The present study demonstrated that anterior region was the most affected area by bone remodeling and that torque variation was highly related to apical bone thickness adaptation for maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary canines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Technologies in Dentistry)
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