Special Issue "Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease"

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767). This special issue belongs to the section "Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Domenico Dalessandri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università degli Studi di Brescia, Brescia, Italy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Periodontitis and Peri-Implant diseases are a plaque-induced inflammatory condition that affects the periodontium; it is caused by the adherence to tooth surfaces of pathogenic bacterial species organized in complex communities that form biofilms.

Periodontitis can be defined as a chronic inflammatory disease initiated by dental plaque biofilm and perpetuated by a deregulated immune response usually accompanied by an irreversible destruction of the supporting tissues surrounding the tooth, including the alveolar bone that may results in a tooth loss.

The aim of this Special Issue is to update the current knowledge of aetiology of periodontitis based on the most recent scientific evidence. Special emphasis is given to the implications for chronic and aggressive periodontitis.

We especially welcome intervention and review studies with impact on immunomediators active in the periodontal disease and interventional studies aiming at improving the knowledge about the effectiveness of salivary and gingival crevicular fluid diagnostics involved in the diagnosis of periodontitis or in a personalized medicine approach. Review studies including those that use conceptual frameworks for periodontitis pathways on any of the aforementioned topics will also be welcomed.

Dr. Gaetano Isola
Dr. Domenico Dalessandri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Periodontitis
  • Biofilm
  • Salivary diagnostics
  • Personalized periodontal medicine
  • Periodontal immune response

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
An Insight into Acute Pericoronitis and the Need for an Evidence-Based Standard of Care
Dent. J. 2019, 7(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7030088 - 02 Sep 2019
Abstract
Background: Pericoronitis is inflammation of the operculum associated with a partially erupted third molar. It is a highly prevalent infection of the oral cavity and presents as a painful sensation of the soft tissue encompassing the crown of the involved tooth. Though pericoronitis [...] Read more.
Background: Pericoronitis is inflammation of the operculum associated with a partially erupted third molar. It is a highly prevalent infection of the oral cavity and presents as a painful sensation of the soft tissue encompassing the crown of the involved tooth. Though pericoronitis is common, there is no evidence-based standard-of-care for treatment of emergency patients with acute pericoronitis. Study Design: In this study, anonymous clinicians were asked to participate in an online survey with questions formulated to identify professional clinical background, emergency treatment preferred for acute pericoronitis, number of associated complications, frequency of third molar extraction, and patient satisfaction. Results and Conclusion: A statistical analysis of the collected data regarding the variance among different treatment plans and associated complications revealed little consensus in the treatment of pericoronitis. The lack of consistency of the responses focusing on the preferred treatment for emergency patients with acute pericoronitis reinforces the need for developing a standard-of-care to train future dental professionals based on well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials and meta-analyses. Practical Implications: The ultimate goal is developing a treatment option with the fewest complications to provide the best health care for patients with pericoronitis. This issue is seen not only as an acute infection but also has the potential to impact overall health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of UP446 on Ligature-Induced Periodontitis in Beagle Dogs
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020033 - 28 Mar 2019
Abstract
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of the gum caused by a formation of a plaque that triggers immune responses and inflammation leading to the destruction of tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. Chronic usage of synthetic chemicals and antibiotics is limited by [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of the gum caused by a formation of a plaque that triggers immune responses and inflammation leading to the destruction of tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. Chronic usage of synthetic chemicals and antibiotics is limited by undesired adverse events to the host. A botanical composition (UP446), which consists primarily of bioflavonoids such as baicalin from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and catechins from heartwoods of Acacia catechu, was evaluated for its effect on ligature-induced periodontal disease in beagle dogs. Disease model was induced in 20 male and female dogs. After a 12-week induction of periodontitis, animals were assigned to a placebo, positive control (doxycycline), and two treatment groups consisting of five animals each. The placebo group was only administrated to normal dog chow (25 g/kg/day). In the doxycycline treatment group, animals were fed a normal diet (25 g/kg/day) and doxycycline (5 mg/kg) was orally administrated every day. Treatment of UP446 was done by feeding the regular diet formulated with 0.1% and 0.2% of UP446 by weight. Clinical indices such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), and bleeding on probing (BoP) were measured every two weeks for 12 weeks. UP446 administered to beagle dogs for 12 weeks at 0.1% and 0.2% resulted in statistically significant reductions in gingivitis, pocket depth, loss of attachment, and gum bleeding. UP446 could potentially be used alone or as an adjunct with other oral hygiene preparations for periodontal disease in both human and companion animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Dentigerous Cysts Developed around a Mandibular Third Molar by Panoramic Radiographs
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010013 - 04 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Dentigerous cysts are one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts and are associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth, especially of the mandibular third molar. In this study, the characteristics of a dentigerous cyst developed around a mandibular third molar [...] Read more.
Dentigerous cysts are one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts and are associated with the crown of an unerupted tooth, especially of the mandibular third molar. In this study, the characteristics of a dentigerous cyst developed around a mandibular third molar on panoramic radiographs were investigated. The panoramic images of 257 consecutive dentigerous cyst cases associated with a mandibular third molar were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 45.9 ± 13.3 years. The size of the cyst did not significantly correlate to the age of the patient. The unilocular type (89.1%) and the crown side type (68.5%) were significant. The associated mandibular third molars had a high frequency of class III (64.6%) and position B (48.3%) in Pell and Gregory classification and of horizontal position (36.3%) in angulation. Dentigerous cysts were thought to originate and grow commonly around deeply impacted third molars. The associated third molar with dentigerous cyst tends to have a mesial inclination. Dentigerous cysts do not appear to develop gradually after the crown formation has finished, but arise at various periods randomly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Adjunctive Effects of a Sub-Antimicrobial Dose of Doxycycline on Clinical Parameters and Potential Biomarkers of Periodontal Tissue Catabolism
Dent. J. 2019, 7(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7010009 - 20 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was to examine the effectiveness of a sub-antimicrobial dose of doxycycline (SDD) in combination with nonsurgical periodontal therapy, compared to nonsurgical periodontal therapy alone, on potential gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers of [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was to examine the effectiveness of a sub-antimicrobial dose of doxycycline (SDD) in combination with nonsurgical periodontal therapy, compared to nonsurgical periodontal therapy alone, on potential gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers of periodontal tissue catabolism related to the clinical outcomes over a 12-month period. Materials and Methods: GCF was collected and clinical parameters were recorded from 30 periodontitis patients randomized either to an SDD or placebo group. The SDD group received SDD (20 mg) b.i.d for 3 months plus scaling and root planing (SRP), while the placebo group was given placebo capsules b.i.d for 3 months plus SRP. The patients were evaluated every 3 months during the 12-month study period. At each visit, clinical parameters and GCF sampling were repeated. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, myeloperoxidase (MPO), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5 (TRAP-5) were determined by IFMA and ELISA. Results: Significant improvements were observed in all clinical parameters in both groups over 12 months (p < 0.0125) while the SDD group showed significantly better reduction in gingival index (GI) and pocket depth and a gain in clinical attachment compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). GCF MMP-8 and OPG levels significantly reduced in the SDD group compared to baseline (p < 0.05). GCF MMP-9 significantly decreased in both groups compared to baseline (p < 0.05). GCF MPO significantly decreased at 3 and 9 months in the SDD group, while it significantly decreased at 6 months in the placebo group (p < 0.05). TRAP and MMP-13 could be detected in none of the samples. Conclusions: The present results indicate that three months of adjunctive usage of SDD to nonsurgical periodontal therapy compared to nonsurgical periodontal therapy alone in periodontitis patients results in further improvement of clinical periodontal parameters and GCF markers of periodontal tissue breakdown over a 12-month period. Beneficial effects of adjunctive SDD therapy is likely to be related to the reduced levels of two major periodontitis-associated MMPs, MMP-8 and -9, and their potential oxidative activator MPO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Substantial Differences in the Subgingival Microbiome Measured by 16S Metagenomics According to Periodontitis Status in Older Women
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040058 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Aging invokes physiological changes, such as immunosenescence and inflammation, that could increase host susceptibility to oral microbiome shifts that enable periodontitis progression in later life. At present, there is a dearth of studies specifically evaluating the oral microbiome and periodontitis in older adults. [...] Read more.
Aging invokes physiological changes, such as immunosenescence and inflammation, that could increase host susceptibility to oral microbiome shifts that enable periodontitis progression in later life. At present, there is a dearth of studies specifically evaluating the oral microbiome and periodontitis in older adults. We used high-throughput untargeted sequencing methods and functional metagenomic analyses to assess and compare the subgingival biofilm of postmenopausal women (mean age 71 years) according to periodontitis status. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained from 15 postmenopausal women with no periodontitis, and from 15 women with severe periodontitis, determined by probing measures. The 16S rRNA gene (V1–V3 region) was sequenced on the 454 FLX platform. The PICRUSt technique was used to provide information on what the potential functional characteristics of microbiota might be in healthy, compared with diseased, periodontium. The subgingival microbiome associated with periodontitis showed clear differences to that associated with health. Of the 464 species identified, 22.8% had elevated abundance in disease, while only 6.3% had elevated abundance in health. Among the 12 most prevalent organisms in periodontitis, one-half have previously been recognized as periodontal pathogens by other investigators. The subgingival microbiome in periodontitis contained genes that could code for specific activities, including microbial mobility, synthesis of endotoxin, and proteolytic degradation. The healthy microbiome included genes that could code for sustaining microbial life, including encoding for transporters, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the Krebs cycle, and protein kinases. In the present study on postmenopausal women, aged 60 and older, the subgingival microbiome differed in composition and potential function between those with and without periodontitis. Studies of functional gene expression, such as transcriptomics, are needed to definitively identify the molecules carrying out functions associated with pathogenic subgingival complexes. This, in turn, could lead to identification of targets for enhanced management of periodontitis and, possibly, other diseases, in later life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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Open AccessCase Report
Unusual Imaging Features of Dentigerous Cyst: A Case Report
Dent. J. 2019, 7(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7030076 - 01 Aug 2019
Abstract
Dentigerous cysts (DC) are cystic lesions radiographically represented by a well-defined unilocular radiolucent area involving an impacted tooth crown. We present an unusual radiographic feature of dentigerous cyst related to the impacted mandibular right second molar, in a 16-year-old patient, which suggested an [...] Read more.
Dentigerous cysts (DC) are cystic lesions radiographically represented by a well-defined unilocular radiolucent area involving an impacted tooth crown. We present an unusual radiographic feature of dentigerous cyst related to the impacted mandibular right second molar, in a 16-year-old patient, which suggested an ameloblastoma or odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) because of its multilocular appearance seen on the panoramic radiography. A multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT), however, revealed a unilocular lesion without septations, with an attenuation coefficient from 3.9 to 22.9 HU suggesting a cystic lesion. Due to its extension, a marsupialization was performed together with the histopathological analysis of the fragment removed which suggested a dentigerous cyst. Nine months later, the lesion was reduced in size and then totally excised. The impacted mandibular right second molar was also extracted. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a dentigerous cyst. One year later, the panoramic radiography showed a complete mandible bone healing. Large dentigerous cysts can sometimes suggest other more aggressive pathologies. Precise diagnosis is important to avoid mistakes since DC, OKC and ameloblastoma require different treatments. Histological examination is, therefore, essential to establish a definitive diagnosis. In our case, MSCT and the tissue attenuation coefficient analysis contributed to guide the diagnosis and management of the dentigerous cyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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