Oral Health and Environmentally Related Factors Associated with General Health and Quality of Life

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020) | Viewed by 42545

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of General Surgery and Surgical-Medical Specialties, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
Interests: periodontitis; oral surgery; oral pathology; oral health-systemic health; bone biology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Head, Neck and Sense Organs, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy
Interests: systematic review; methodology; oral microbiome; dental diseases; regenerative medicine
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I am very pleased to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue.

The relationship of oral disease to overall disease is certainly not a new concept. For centuries, the role of oral infection and inflammation in contributing to diseases elsewhere in the body has been studied and reported. During the last few decades, a series of intriguing reports from many countries have increased the current interest in the role of oral health and disease on contributing to general health and systemic conditions.

Might oral and periodontal disease be a risk factor for cardiovascular and other systemic diseases? Since this question was first posed, a phenomenal body of work has been directed at understanding how oral periodontal disease might affect distant sites and organs and thus have an effect on overall health. Recent studies of the human microbiome using DNA sequencing technologies have revealed new insights into the possible mechanisms that help to explain how oral infections can occur in distinct sites such as atheromas, the colon, and reproductive tissues.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a current and thoughtful perspective on the relationship of oral and periodontal disease to systemic conditions and oral-related quality of life.

I especially welcome interventional and observational studies aiming at improving the knowledge of the effects of oral and periodontal diseases on systemic health and how oral and periodontal treatment improve the general wellbeing and quality of life. Review studies including those that use conceptual frameworks for any of the aforementioned topics will also be welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Gaetano Isola

Prof. Dr. Romeo Patini

Guest Editors

Keywords

  • Oral diseases
  • Periodontal diseases
  • Oral health
  • General health
  • Quality of life
  • Oral diseases treatment
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Diabetes
  • Rheumatic diseases
  • Systemic diseases
  • Periodontal treatment
  • Oral cancer
  • Oral–systemic relationship

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 464 KiB  
Editorial
Oral Health and Related Factors Associated with General Health and Quality of Life
by Gaetano Isola
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(13), 4663; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10134663 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2250
Abstract
Oral well-being is an integral part of individual general health. The mouth and teeth are, in fact, part of our body, increasingly characterizing personal identity. Oral diseases are a public health problem that has a growing prevalence. Oral pathologies can occur in childhood, [...] Read more.
Oral well-being is an integral part of individual general health. The mouth and teeth are, in fact, part of our body, increasingly characterizing personal identity. Oral diseases are a public health problem that has a growing prevalence. Oral pathologies can occur in childhood, and as they have a chronic and progressive course, if not properly treated, they can affect the relational, psychological, and social skills of an individual. The population most affected are those with a low socio-economic level, so much so that the presence of diseases of the oral cavity is considered a marker of social disadvantage. In this regard, much effort is needed from scientists, and their applied sciences, in order to give the knowledge required for public health personal to take note of the seriousness of the situation and to start changing the way we deal with the problem. Full article
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Research

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10 pages, 979 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Pain Perception between Clear Aligners and Fixed Appliances: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Dinis Pereira, Vanessa Machado, João Botelho, Luís Proença, José João Mendes and Ana Sintra Delgado
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4276; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124276 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5001
Abstract
We aimed to compare the pain discomfort levels between clear aligners and fixed appliances at multiple time points. Four electronic databases (Pubmed, Medline, CENTRAL and Scholar) were searched up to May 2020. There were no year or language restrictions. Randomized clinical trials and [...] Read more.
We aimed to compare the pain discomfort levels between clear aligners and fixed appliances at multiple time points. Four electronic databases (Pubmed, Medline, CENTRAL and Scholar) were searched up to May 2020. There were no year or language restrictions. Randomized clinical trials and case–control studies comparing pain perception through pain visual analog scale (VAS) in patients treated with clear aligners and with fixed appliances were included. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed using Cochrane tool and Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) approach. Random-effects meta-analysis were conducted. VAS score and analgesic consumption were collected. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to synthesize available data. Following the review protocol, five articles met the inclusion criteria and were included, with a total of 273 participants (177 females, 96 males). Overall, clear aligners were associated with significantly less pain than fixed appliances during the first seven days of orthodontic treatment. Patients treated with clear aligners experience less pain discomfort than those treated with fixed appliances and consume less analgesics, with SORT A recommendation. Full article
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7 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Sex Prediction Based on Mesiodistal Width Data in the Portuguese Population
by João Albernaz Neves, Nathalie Antunes-Ferreira, Vanessa Machado, João Botelho, Luís Proença, Alexandre Quintas, José João Mendes and Ana Sintra Delgado
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4156; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124156 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3276
Abstract
Accurate sex prediction is a key step in creating a postmortem forensic profile as it excludes approximately half the population. It is our goal to develop a predictive model to establish sex through teeth mesiodistal widths in a Portuguese population. The pretreatment dental [...] Read more.
Accurate sex prediction is a key step in creating a postmortem forensic profile as it excludes approximately half the population. It is our goal to develop a predictive model to establish sex through teeth mesiodistal widths in a Portuguese population. The pretreatment dental casts of 168 of Portuguese orthodontics subjects (59 males and 109 females) were included. Mesiodistal widths from right first molar to left first molar were measured on each pretreatment cast to the nearest 0.01 mm using a digital caliper. Overall, the mesiodistal widths of the upper and lower canines, premolars, and molars were found to be significantly different between females and males. Conversely, no significant differences between sexes were identified for incisors. A multivariate logistic regression model for sex prediction was developed and the teeth included in the final reduced model being the upper left canine (2.3), the lower right lateral incisor (4.2) and the lower right canine (4.3). There is a prevalence of sexual dimorphism in all teeth except the incisors. The canines present the most noticeable difference between sexes. The presented sex determination predictive model exhibits an overall correct classification of 75%, outperforming all available models for this purpose and therefore is a potential tool for forensic analysis in this population. Full article
10 pages, 1373 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Chronic Periodontitis in Tonsillectomy Patients: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study Using a National Health Screening Cohort
by Soo Hwan Byun, Chanyang Min, Yong Bok Kim, Heejin Kim, Sung Hun Kang, Bum Jung Park, Ji Hye Wee, Hyo Geun Choi and Seok Jin Hong
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3663; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103663 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2867
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the risk of chronic periodontitis (CP) between participants who underwent tonsillectomy and those who did not (control participants) using a national cohort dataset. Patients who underwent tonsillectomy were selected from a total of 514,866 participants. A control group [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the risk of chronic periodontitis (CP) between participants who underwent tonsillectomy and those who did not (control participants) using a national cohort dataset. Patients who underwent tonsillectomy were selected from a total of 514,866 participants. A control group was included if participants had not undergone tonsillectomy from 2002 to 2015. The number of CP treatments was counted from the date of the tonsillectomy treatment. Patients who underwent tonsillectomy were matched 1:4 with control participants who were categorized based on age, sex, income, and region of residence. Finally, 1044 patients who underwent tonsillectomy were matched 1:4 with 4176 control participants. The adjusted estimated value of the number of post-index date (ID) CP did not reach statistical significance in any post-ID year (each of p > 0.05). In another subgroup analysis according to the number of pre- ID CP, it did not show statistical significance. This study revealed that tonsillectomy was not strongly associated with reducing the risk of CP. Even though the tonsils and periodontium are located adjacently, and tonsillectomy and CP may be related to bacterial inflammation, there was no significant risk of CP in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Full article
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11 pages, 1652 KiB  
Article
Integration of Cranial Base and Face in Growing Subject
by Giorgio Oliva, Rinaldo Zotti, Francesca Zotti, Domenico Dalessandri, Gaetano Isola, Bruno Oliva, Corrado Paganelli and Stefano Bonetti
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2508; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072508 - 05 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
Background: many papers investigate the role of the cranial base in facial development, but the results are not in agreement. This can be due to a difference between the central and lateral parts of the cranial base. The aim of the present study [...] Read more.
Background: many papers investigate the role of the cranial base in facial development, but the results are not in agreement. This can be due to a difference between the central and lateral parts of the cranial base. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between the central and the lateral cranial base and the facial skeleton in pre-pubertal peak subjects and at the end of growth. Material/Methods: a total sample of 52 latero-lateral cranial teleradiographs were analyzed. To test the correlation between structures, the “Partial Least Square” analysis was performed. Geometric morphometric analysis were applied and partial least square analysis was used to test correlation. Integration was studied removing the effect of allometry. Results: facial skeleton has no significant relation with central cranial base. Facial skeleton has significant relationships with the lateral portion of the cranial base. This relationship is higher in the post-peak phase of growth. Conclusion: the Integration between facial structures and cranial base is significant. The Spatial orientation and shape of the facial structures are both influenced by cranial base. This is mainly due to the lateral portion of cranial base. Full article
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13 pages, 4470 KiB  
Article
New Technologies in Orthodontics: A Digital Workflow to Enhance Treatment Plan and Photobiomodulation to Expedite Clinical Outcomes
by Vincenzo Quinzi, Vincenzo Ronsivalle, Vincenzo Campanella, Leonardo Mancini, Salvatore Torrisi and Antonino Lo Giudice
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041495 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4230
Abstract
Background: The transversal maxillary deficiency represents one of the most frequent skeletal discrepancies of the craniofacial region. The analysis of morphological characteristics of the maxilla can be detrimental for a correct diagnosis and treatment plan. Methods: This paper shows a user-friendly digital [...] Read more.
Background: The transversal maxillary deficiency represents one of the most frequent skeletal discrepancies of the craniofacial region. The analysis of morphological characteristics of the maxilla can be detrimental for a correct diagnosis and treatment plan. Methods: This paper shows a user-friendly digital workflow involving mirroring, superimposition, and the deviation analysis of 3D models of the maxilla in order to identify the presence of symmetry/asymmetry of the palatal vault. Such information can be helpful to clinicians in order to design an appropriate orthodontic appliance for the treatment of transversal maxillary deficiency. We also describe a case report of a seven-year-old female affected by mild transversal maxillary deficiency associated with anterior openbite. The appliance is designed after a comprehensive evaluation of the morphology of the maxilla performed by using the presented diagnostic digital workflow. Additionally, the orthodontic treatment is assisted by photobiomodulation sessions that expedite the achievement of clinical outcomes. Full article
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13 pages, 789 KiB  
Article
Influence of Myeloperoxidase Levels on Periodontal Disease: An Applied Clinical Study
by Alessandro Polizzi, Salvatore Torrisi, Simona Santonocito, Mattia Di Stefano, Francesco Indelicato and Antonino Lo Giudice
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(3), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10031037 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2882
Abstract
In this trial, we evaluated the influence on plasma and salivary myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels of periodontal health, coronary heart disease (CHD), periodontitis, or both periodontitis and CHD. Clinical and periodontal parameters were collected from periodontitis patients (n = 31), CHD patients (n = [...] Read more.
In this trial, we evaluated the influence on plasma and salivary myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels of periodontal health, coronary heart disease (CHD), periodontitis, or both periodontitis and CHD. Clinical and periodontal parameters were collected from periodontitis patients (n = 31), CHD patients (n = 31), patients with both periodontitis and CHD (n = 31), and from healthy patients (n = 31) together with saliva and plasma samples. The median concentrations of salivary and plasma MPO were statistically higher in the CHD patients [plasma: 26.2 (18.2–34.4) ng/mg; saliva 83.2 (77.4–101.5) ng/mL, p < 0.01] and in the periodontitis plus CHD patients [plasma: 27.8 (22.5–35.7) ng/mg; saliva 85.6 (76.5–106.7) ng/mL, p < 0.001] with respect to periodontitis and control patients. Through a univariate regression analysis, c-reactive protein (CRP) and CHD (both p < 0.001) and periodontitis (p = 0.024) were statistically correlated with MPO in plasma. The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that only CRP was statistically the predictor of MPO in plasma (p < 0.001). The multivariate regression analysis in saliva demonstrated that, regarding MPO levels the only predictors were CRP (p < 0.001) and total cholesterol (p = 0.035). The present study evidenced that subjects with CHD and periodontitis plus CHD had higher plasma and salivary levels of MPO compared to subjects with periodontitis and healthy controls. Full article
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11 pages, 1454 KiB  
Article
Association between Gingival Biotype and Facial Typology through Cephalometric Evaluation and Three-Dimensional Facial Scanning
by Rosa Valletta, Ada Pango, Gregorio Tortora, Roberto Rongo, Vittorio Simeon, Gianrico Spagnuolo and Vincenzo D’Antò
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5057; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235057 - 23 Nov 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4470
Abstract
In dentistry, the assessment of periodontal biotype is considered one of the most important parameters with which to plan treatment, and craniofacial morphology might affect it. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between facial typology and gingival biotype in [...] Read more.
In dentistry, the assessment of periodontal biotype is considered one of the most important parameters with which to plan treatment, and craniofacial morphology might affect it. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between facial typology and gingival biotype in patients by means of two-dimensional and three-dimensional evaluations of facial typology. This study included 121 participants searching for orthodontic treatment (43 M, 78 F; 20.4 ± 10.4). Gingival biotype was evaluated based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin of the mid-buccal sulcus for both upper (UGB) and lower (LGB) anterior teeth. SellionNasion^GonionGnation (SN^GoGn) and CondylionGonionMenton (CoGoMe^) angles were measured on two-dimensional cephalograms. Three-dimensional face scans were acquired by means of a three-dimensional facial scanner (3dMD system) and successively analyzed to assess the facial typology using the ratio between lower facial height (SNMe) and total facial height (NMe). A chi-squared test and regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between gingival biotype and facial morphology (p < 0.05). The chi-squared test showed that there was no statistically significant association between facial typology and gingival biotype (UGB p = 0.83; LGB p = 0.75). The logistic regression showed an association between SNMe/NMe and the UGB (p = 0.036), and SNMe/NMe and LGB (p = 0.049). The decreased ratio of SNMe/NMe might be a protective factor for a thin gingival biotype. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 731 KiB  
Review
The Efficacy of Retention Appliances after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Antonino Lo Giudice, Gaetano Isola, Lorenzo Rustico, Vincenzo Ronsivalle, Marco Portelli and Riccardo Nucera
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3107; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093107 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3965
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the amount of the relapse of anterior crowding and the efficacy of retention appliances by reviewing the best available scientific evidence. A survey of articles published up to November 2019 about the stability of dental [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the amount of the relapse of anterior crowding and the efficacy of retention appliances by reviewing the best available scientific evidence. A survey of articles published up to November 2019 about the stability of dental alignment and retention after fixed orthodontic treatment was performed using seven electronic databases. Study Selection: Only randomized clinical trials investigating patients previously treated with multi-bracket appliances with a follow-up period longer than 6 months were included. Data Extraction: Two authors independently performed the study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. All pooled data analyses were performed using a random-effects model. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated. In total, eight randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included, grouping data from 987 patients. The ages of the patients varied across the studies, ranging between 13 and 17 years. The observation period ranged between 6 and 24 months. The data showed no significant intercanine width modifications during the retention period with both fixed and removable retainers. A significant modification of Little’s Index was found for the mandibular removable retainers with a mean difference of 0.72 mm (95% Cl, 0.47 to 0.98) and for the maxillary removable retainers with a mean difference of 0.48 mm (95% Cl, 0.27 to 0.68). No significant changes were found by evaluating Little’s Index modification for the mandibular fixed retainers. The results of this meta-analysis showed that all the considered retainers were effective in maintaining dental alignment after fixed orthodontic treatment. However, fixed retainers showed greater efficacy compared to removable retainers. Full article
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15 pages, 541 KiB  
Review
2D vs. 3D Radiological Methods for Dental Age Determination around 18 Years: A Systematic Review
by Domenico Dalessandri, Ingrid Tonni, Laura Laffranchi, Marco Migliorati, Gaetano Isola, Luca Visconti, Stefano Bonetti and Corrado Paganelli
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(9), 3094; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10093094 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3548
Abstract
The age of a living human being can be determined by applying a number of different methods; the most diffused are skeletal and dental methods, both principally based on X-rays examinations. This systematic review assesses the current evidence regarding the accuracy and reliability [...] Read more.
The age of a living human being can be determined by applying a number of different methods; the most diffused are skeletal and dental methods, both principally based on X-rays examinations. This systematic review assesses the current evidence regarding the accuracy and reliability of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) vs. Orthopantomography (OPG) in age determination. A computerized systematic literature search of studies published up to January 2020 was conducted without language restrictions in order to identify articles comparing CBCT vs. OPG in dental anatomy evaluation, articles evaluating the accuracy of dental methods for age estimation, both with CT and OPG exams, and articles comparing CBCT vs. OPG in terms of radiation dose. CBCT was found to be more accurate compared to OPG in dental anatomy evaluation. When analyzing young adults, an estimation error of two years is considered forensically acceptable. The radiation dose of a CBCT exam is higher compared to an OPG exam. However, the difference is not as marked with small Fields Of View (FOV) and low-resolution protocols. Final conclusion was that a small FOV CBCT centered on the mandibular angle of a young patient is an accurate and safe method for dental age estimation around the age of 18. Full article
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15 pages, 1459 KiB  
Review
Surface Alterations Induced on Endodontic Instruments by Sterilization Processes, Analyzed with Atomic Force Microscopy: A Systematic Review
by Mario Dioguardi, Vito Crincoli, Luigi Laino, Mario Alovisi, Enrica Laneve, Diego Sovereto, Bruna Raddato, Khrystyna Zhurakivska, Filiberto Mastrangelo, Domenico Ciavarella, Lucio Lo Russo and Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(22), 4948; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9224948 - 17 Nov 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2435
Abstract
Endodontic canal disinfection procedures that use sodium hypochlorite, and subsequently, heat sterilization procedures can alter the surface of endodontic instruments, described as corrosion and micropitting. These phenomena can be visualized on the surface of the instruments by SEM and atomic force microscopy analyses. [...] Read more.
Endodontic canal disinfection procedures that use sodium hypochlorite, and subsequently, heat sterilization procedures can alter the surface of endodontic instruments, described as corrosion and micropitting. These phenomena can be visualized on the surface of the instruments by SEM and atomic force microscopy analyses. The endodontic instruments used in probing, pre-enlargement, and shaping phases are made of steel alloy or nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi) and are subject to torsional, flexor, and cyclic fatigue; indeed, reuse of these instruments must be done with the knowledge that these instruments are subject to fracture following stress caused during their use. Fracture of the instrument within the canal is an eventuality that can lead to failure of the treatment, and therefore it is important to try to reduce situations that can contribute to the fracture. This review was performed based on the PRISMA protocol. Studies were identified through bibliographic research using electronic databases. A total of 1036 records were identified on the PubMed and Scopus databases. After screening the articles, restricted by year of publication (1979 to 2019), there were 946 records. With the application of the eligibility criteria (all the articles pertaining to the issue of sterilization in endodontics), there were 228 articles. There were 104 articles after eliminating overlaps. There were 50 articles that discussed the influence of sterilization procedures on the surface characteristics of endodontic instruments, and 26 articles that measured parameters on surface alteration. Applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria resulted in a total of eleven articles for quantitative analysis. Four articles were in reference to the primary outcome, eight articles to secondary outcome, and five articles to tertiary outcome. The meta-analysis showed a statistically significant surface alteration effect after five autoclaves and after immersion in the canal irrigants after 10 min. Full article
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Other

10 pages, 1094 KiB  
Hypothesis
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 as a Possible Correlation between COVID-19 and Periodontal Disease
by Leonardo Mancini, Vincenzo Quinzi, Stefano Mummolo, Giuseppe Marzo and Enrico Marchetti
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6224; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186224 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 4485
Abstract
SARS-CoV-2 propagation in the world has led to rapid growth and an acceleration in the discoveries and publications of various interests. The main focus of a consistent number of studies has been the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in binding the virus [...] Read more.
SARS-CoV-2 propagation in the world has led to rapid growth and an acceleration in the discoveries and publications of various interests. The main focus of a consistent number of studies has been the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in binding the virus and its role in expression of the inflammatory response after transmission. ACE2 is an enzyme involved in the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), whose key role is to regulate and counter angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), reducing the amount of angiotensin II and increasing angiotensin 1–7 (Ang1–7), making it a promising drug target for treating cardiovascular diseases. The classical RAS axis, formed by ACE, angiotensin II (Ang II), and angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1), activates several cell functions and molecular signalling pathways related to tissue injury and inflammation. In contrast, the RAS axis composed of ACE2, Ang1–7, and Mas receptor (MasR) exerts the opposite effect concerning the inflammatory response and tissue fibrosis. Recent studies have shown the presence of the RAS system in periodontal sites where osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and osteoclasts are involved in bone remodelling, suggesting that the role of ACE2 might have a fundamental function in the under- or overexpression of cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-7 (IL-7), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), associated with a periodontal disorder, mainly during coinfection with SARS-CoV-2, where ACE2 is underexpressed and cannot form the ACE2–Ang1–7–MasR axis. This renders the patient unresponsive to an inflammatory process, facilitating periodontal loss. Full article
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