Advances in Flow of Multiphase Fluids and Granular Materials

A topical collection in Fluids (ISSN 2311-5521). This collection belongs to the section "Flow of Multi-Phase Fluids and Granular Materials".

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Editors


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Collection Editor
Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5725, USA
Interests: computational fluid dynamics (CFD); turbulence; multiphase flows; aerosols transport and deposition; respiratory flows; heat and mass transfer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Collection Editor
Centre for Sustainable Energy Use in Food Chains, Institute of Energy Futures, Brunel University London, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, UK
Interests: computational fluid dynamics (CFD); heat and mass transfer; turbulence; thermal energy storage; multiphase flows; aerosols transport and deposition phase change materials; photovoltaic/thermal systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topical Collection is concerned with the theoretical, computational, and experimental studies of granular and multiphase flows. We invite contributions on all aspects of multiphase flows, including but not limited to the following topics:

  • Modeling and simulations of granular and multiphase flows (gas–solid, gas–liquid, liquid–solid, liquid–liquid);
  • Experimental studies of granular and multiphase flows;
  • Applications of multiphase flows in the environmental, biomedical, and geophysical science and engineering;
  • Novel industrial applications of multiphase flows;
  • The use of machine learning in multiphase flows.

Best regards,
Prof. Dr. Goodarz Ahmadi
Dr. Pouyan Talebizadeh Sardari
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fluids is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (24 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

13 pages, 872 KiB  
Article
Bursting Sand Balloons
by Gustavo Gómez, Francisco José Higuera, Florencio Sánchez-Silva and Abraham Medina
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020049 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 899
Abstract
Using linear elasticity theory, we describe the mechanical response of dry non-cohesive granular masses of Ottawa sand contained by spherical rubber balloons subject to sudden bursting in the earliest instants of the event. Due to the compression imposed by the balloon, the rupture [...] Read more.
Using linear elasticity theory, we describe the mechanical response of dry non-cohesive granular masses of Ottawa sand contained by spherical rubber balloons subject to sudden bursting in the earliest instants of the event. Due to the compression imposed by the balloon, the rupture produces a fast radial expansion of the sand front that depends on the initial radius R0, the initial pressure p originated by the balloon, and the effective modulus of compression Ke. The hydrostatic compression approximation allows for the theoretical study of this problem. We found a linear decompression wave that travels into the sand and that induces a radial expansion of the granular front in the opposite direction with similar behavior to the wave but with a slightly lower speed. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

9 pages, 2028 KiB  
Communication
Visualization of the Two-Phase Flow Behavior Involved in Enhanced Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide Pasteurization by Means of High-Speed Imaging
by Ratka Hoferick, Holger Schönherr and Stéphan Barbe
Fluids 2024, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9010010 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
This research explores the two-phase flow behavior involved in enhanced dense phase carbon dioxide inactivation of E. coli DH5α, which has been shown to possess a high microbial reduction efficiency of up to 3.7 ± 0.4 log. We present an experiment in which [...] Read more.
This research explores the two-phase flow behavior involved in enhanced dense phase carbon dioxide inactivation of E. coli DH5α, which has been shown to possess a high microbial reduction efficiency of up to 3.7 ± 0.4 log. We present an experiment in which the liquid sample was pressurized with liquid carbon dioxide to 8.2 MPa and, after saturation, was forced to flow through a mini tube. An experimental setup was developed to visualize the flow patterns (plug, slug and churn flows) occurring in the mini tube by means of high-speed imaging. The values of the wall shear stress were estimated within the mini tube with the help of the gas slug velocities (8–9 m/s) and were compared with threshold shear stress values reported for the disruption of fresh E. coli cells. The results suggest that the preliminary pressurization phase may cause a substantial destabilization of the cell wall of E. coli DH5α. Full article
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38 pages, 9902 KiB  
Article
Using Computation Fluid Dynamics to Determine Oil Droplet Breakup Parameters during Emulsion Atomization with Pressure Swirl Nozzles
by Miguel Ángel Ballesteros Martínez and Volker Gaukel
Fluids 2023, 8(10), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8100277 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1609
Abstract
A wide range of commercial powdered products are manufactured by spray drying emulsions. Some product properties are dependent on the oil droplet size, which can be affected by fluid mechanics inside the spray nozzle. However, most of the key flow parameters inside the [...] Read more.
A wide range of commercial powdered products are manufactured by spray drying emulsions. Some product properties are dependent on the oil droplet size, which can be affected by fluid mechanics inside the spray nozzle. However, most of the key flow parameters inside the nozzles are difficult to measure experimentally, and theoretical estimations present deviations at high shear rates and viscosities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a computational model that could represent the multiphase flow in pressure swirl nozzles and could determine the deformation stresses and residence times that oil droplets experience. The multiphase flow was modelled using the Volume-of-Fluid method under a laminar regime. The model was validated with experimental data using the operating conditions and the spray angle. The numerically calculated shear stresses were found to provide a better prediction of the final oil droplet size than previous theoretical estimations. A two-step breakup mechanism inside of the nozzle was also proposed. Additionally, some of the assumptions used in the theoretical estimations could not be confirmed for the nozzles investigated: No complete air core developed inside of the nozzle during atomization, and the shear stress at the nozzle outlet is not the only stress that can affect oil droplet size. Elongation stresses cannot be neglected in all cases. Full article
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29 pages, 7485 KiB  
Article
Ring Vortex Dynamics Following Jet Formation of a Bubble Expanding and Collapsing Close to a Flat Solid Boundary Visualized via Dye Advection in the Framework of OpenFOAM
by Max Koch, Werner Lauterborn, Christiane Lechner and Robert Mettin
Fluids 2023, 8(7), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8070200 - 01 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1094
Abstract
A bubble expanding and collapsing near a solid boundary develops a liquid jet toward the boundary. The jet leaves a torus bubble and induces vortices in the liquid that persist long after the bubble oscillations have ceased. The vortices are studied numerically in [...] Read more.
A bubble expanding and collapsing near a solid boundary develops a liquid jet toward the boundary. The jet leaves a torus bubble and induces vortices in the liquid that persist long after the bubble oscillations have ceased. The vortices are studied numerically in axial symmetry and compared to experiments in the literature. The flow field is visualized with different methods: vorticity with superimposed flow-direction arrows for maps at a time instant and colored-liquid-layer flow-field maps (dye advection) for following the complete long-term fluid flow up to a chosen time since bubble generation. Bubbles with equal energy—maximum radius in a free liquid Rmax= 500 µm—are studied for different distances Dinit from the solid boundary. The interval of normalized distances D* = Dinit/Rmax from 0.4 to 1.8 is covered. Two types of vortices were reported in experiments, one moving toward the solid boundary and one moving away from it. This finding is reproduced numerically with higher resolution of the flow field and in more detail. The higher detail reveals that the two types of vortices have different rotation directions and coexist with individually varying vorticity amplitude throughout the interval studied. In a quite narrow part of the interval, the two types change their strength and extent with the result of a reversal of the dominating rotational direction of the fluid flow. Thereby, the experimentally found transition interval could be reproduced and refined. It is interesting to note that in the vortex transition interval, the erosion of a solid surface is strongly augmented. Full article
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17 pages, 2864 KiB  
Article
Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Minimum Fluidization Velocity for Mixtures of Biomass and Inert Solid Particles
by Andres Reyes-Urrutia, Juan Pablo Capossio, Cesar Venier, Erick Torres, Rosa Rodriguez and Germán Mazza
Fluids 2023, 8(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8040128 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
The fluidization of certain biomasses used in thermal processes, such as sawdust, is particularly difficult due to their irregular shapes, varied sizes, and low densities, causing high minimum fluidization velocities (Umf). The addition of an inert material causes its Umf [...] Read more.
The fluidization of certain biomasses used in thermal processes, such as sawdust, is particularly difficult due to their irregular shapes, varied sizes, and low densities, causing high minimum fluidization velocities (Umf). The addition of an inert material causes its Umf to drop significantly. The determination of the Umf of the binary mixture is however hard to obtain. Generally, predictive correlations are based on a small number of specific experiments, and sphericity is seldom included. In the present work, three models, i.e., an empirical correlation and two artificial neural networks (ANN) models were used to predict the Umf of biomass-inert mixtures. An extensive bibliographical survey of more than 200 datasets was conducted with complete data about densities, particle diameters, sphericities, biomass fraction, and Umf. With the combined application of the partial dependence plot (PDP) and the ANN models, the average effect of sphericity on Umf was quantitatively determined (inverse relationship) together with the average impact of the biomass fraction on Umf (direct relationship). In comparison with the empirical correlations, the results showed that both ANN models can accurately predict the Umf of the presented binary mixtures with errors lower than 25%. Full article
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13 pages, 1899 KiB  
Article
Horizontal Stratified Air–Foam–Water Flows: Preliminary Modelling Attempts with OLGA
by William Ferretto, Igor Matteo Carraretto, Andrea Tiozzo, Marco Montini and Luigi Pietro Maria Colombo
Fluids 2023, 8(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8030089 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
Water accumulation is a major problem in the flow assurance of gas pipelines. To limit liquid loading issues, deliquification by means of surfactant injection is a promising alternative to the consolidated mechanical methods. However, the macroscopic behavior of foam pipe flow in the [...] Read more.
Water accumulation is a major problem in the flow assurance of gas pipelines. To limit liquid loading issues, deliquification by means of surfactant injection is a promising alternative to the consolidated mechanical methods. However, the macroscopic behavior of foam pipe flow in the presence of other phases has barely been explored. The goal of this work was to propose an approach to simulate air–water–foam flows in horizontal pipes using OLGA by Schlumberger, an industry standard tool for the transient simulation of multiphase flow. The simulation results were compared with experimental data for 60 mm and 30 mm ID (Inner Diameter) horizontal pipelines. Preliminary validation for two-phase air–water flow was carried out, which showed that correct flow pattern recognition is essential to accurately reproduce the experimental data. Then, stratified air–foam–water flows were investigated, assuming different models for the foam local velocity distribution. Foam rheology was considered through the Herschel–Bulkley model with the yield stress varying in time due to foam decay. The results showed good agreement for a uniform velocity profile and fresh foam properties in the case of the 60 mm ID pipeline, whereas for the 30 mm ID, which was characterized by significantly higher velocities, a linear velocity profile and 2000 s foam aging provided the best agreement. In both cases, the pressure gradient was overestimated, and the mean absolute prediction error ranged from about 5% to 30%. Full article
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13 pages, 42813 KiB  
Article
High-Speed Digital Photography of Vapor Cavitation in a Narrow Gap Flow
by Peter Reinke, Tom Beckmann, Caroline Ahlers, Jan Ahlrichs, Lamyaa Hammou and Marcus Schmidt
Fluids 2023, 8(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8020044 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Digital photography of cavitation in narrow gap flows, e.g., lubrication films in journal bearings or squeeze film dampers, demands a high time-resolution and a solution to approaching the particular spatial restrictions. Typically, the lubrication film thickness is in the range of a few [...] Read more.
Digital photography of cavitation in narrow gap flows, e.g., lubrication films in journal bearings or squeeze film dampers, demands a high time-resolution and a solution to approaching the particular spatial restrictions. Typically, the lubrication film thickness is in the range of a few microns and the characteristic time for vapor bubble generation and collapse is about one millisecond, respectively. The authors have developed a Journal Bearing Model Experiment, which is designed according to similarity laws providing fully similar flow conditions to real journal flows while offering ideal access to the flow by means of optical measurement equipment. Compared with other methods, e.g., pulsed laser, electrical discharge, tube arrest, applied to produce vapor bubbles, the work on hand applies a dynamic variation of the minimum film thickness to produce suction cavitation, which proves the applicability of this novel approach to study vapor cavitation in fluid films similar to lubricant flows. The results are obtained by means of digital high-speed photography of vapor bubbles from inception to implosion triggered by the dynamic variation of the minimum film thickness of a narrow gap flow. Moreover, the results are set in relation to a general overview of cavitation processes. Full article
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11 pages, 399 KiB  
Article
The Hindered Settling Velocity of Particles of Any Shape in Low Reynolds Number Flow
by Yuri Mendez
Fluids 2023, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids8010021 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2039
Abstract
This article takes insights from a previously derived mathematical framework for the free settling velocity of particles of any shape to model analytical constructs to solve the hindered settling velocity of hard particles of any shape. Because the geometry of the physical environment [...] Read more.
This article takes insights from a previously derived mathematical framework for the free settling velocity of particles of any shape to model analytical constructs to solve the hindered settling velocity of hard particles of any shape. Because the geometry of the physical environment and continuity can be strictly enforced in the construct model, the relative velocity of the fluid front pumped upward by the settling particles can be found, thus allowing for calculation by subtracting the front velocity from the calculated velocity. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021

22 pages, 4485 KiB  
Article
Experimental Solid–Liquid Mass Transfer around Free-Moving Particles in an Air-Lift Membrane Bioreactor with Optical Techniques
by Naila Bouayed, Manon Montaner, Claude Le Men, Johanne Teychené, Christine Lafforgue, Nicolas Dietrich, Chung-Hak Lee and Christelle Guigui
Fluids 2022, 7(10), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7100338 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
This article focuses on the study of the mass transfer involved in the application of a bacterial antifouling technique for membrane bioreactors (MBR), via the addition of solid media. These alginate objects can contain a biological system capable of producing an enzyme that [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the study of the mass transfer involved in the application of a bacterial antifouling technique for membrane bioreactors (MBR), via the addition of solid media. These alginate objects can contain a biological system capable of producing an enzyme that degrades the signal molecules responsible for membrane fouling. The objective of this article is to quantify the mass transfer by distinguishing two main types: the transfer from the liquid to the solid media and the transfer from solid media to the liquid phase. For this purpose, a model molecule was chosen, and experiments were specifically developed with an optical device to track the concentration of the dye in the liquid phase, considering three different shapes for the particles (beads, hollow cylinders, and flat sheets). The experiments were first performed in jar tests and then in a lab-scale reactor. The results of this study revealed that the total amount of dye transferred into the sheets was greater than that transferred into the cylinders or the beads, which was attributed to the sheets having a larger exchange area for the same volume. When the dyed media were implemented in the MBR (loading rate of solid media: 0.45% v/v—no biomass), the global transfer coefficient from the sheets to the liquid was found to be greater than for the other shapes, indicating a faster transfer phenomenon. The effect of aeration in the MBR was investigated and an optimal air flowrate for fostering the transfer was found, based on the highest transfer coefficient that was obtained. This study provided key information about mass transfer in MBRs and how it is affected by the particle shapes and the MBR operating conditions. Full article
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16 pages, 484 KiB  
Article
The Single Particle Motion of Non-Spherical Particles in Low Reynolds Number Flow
by Yuri Mendez
Fluids 2022, 7(10), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7100320 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
This research presents a mathematical framework that places the physics and the dynamics of viscosity within a physical environment that captures the effect of the shape and overall weight of non-spherical particles to calculate their settling velocity. It then takes insights derived from [...] Read more.
This research presents a mathematical framework that places the physics and the dynamics of viscosity within a physical environment that captures the effect of the shape and overall weight of non-spherical particles to calculate their settling velocity. It then takes insights derived from the framework to model analytical constructs to solve the motion of a single particle that settles in a fluid that moves horizontally as a whole. These analytical constructs are then shown to be applicable to spherical and non-spherical particles. Full article
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10 pages, 2522 KiB  
Article
Computational Inertial Microfluidics: Optimal Design for Particle Separation
by Suvash C. Saha, Isabella Francis and Tanya Nassir
Fluids 2022, 7(9), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7090308 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2369
Abstract
Following the emergence of many blood transfusion-associated diseases, novel passive cell separation technologies, such as microfluidic devices, are increasingly designed and optimized to separate red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood. These systems allow for the rapid diagnosis [...] Read more.
Following the emergence of many blood transfusion-associated diseases, novel passive cell separation technologies, such as microfluidic devices, are increasingly designed and optimized to separate red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood. These systems allow for the rapid diagnosis of diseases without relying on complicated and expensive hematology instruments such as flow microscopes, coagulation analyzers, and cytometers. The inertia effect and the impact of intrinsic hydrodynamic forces, the Dean drag force (FD), and the inertial lift force (FL) on the migration of particles within curved and complex confined channels have been explored theoretically, computationally, and experimentally. This study aimed to optimize the dimensions of a microfluidic channel for fast particle propagation and separation. Several spiral geometries with different cross-sections were tested using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to separate two particle types representing RBCs and WBCs. The chosen three geometries consist of a single inlet, two outlets, and three spiral turns, each having a different cross-sectional height (120, 135, and 150 µm). Particle separation was successfully achieved in the 135 µm-height microchannel, while other microchannels demonstrated mixed particle types at the outlets. Full article
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15 pages, 5142 KiB  
Article
Examination of Haines Jump in Microfluidic Experiments via Evolution Graphs and Interface Tracking
by Jindi Sun, Ziqiang Li and Saman A. Aryana
Fluids 2022, 7(8), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7080256 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
This work examines a type of rapid pore-filling event in multiphase flow through permeable media that is better known as Haines Jump. While existing microfluidic experiments on Haines Jump mostly seek to maintain quasi-steady states through very low bulk flow rates over long [...] Read more.
This work examines a type of rapid pore-filling event in multiphase flow through permeable media that is better known as Haines Jump. While existing microfluidic experiments on Haines Jump mostly seek to maintain quasi-steady states through very low bulk flow rates over long periods of time, this work explores the combined use of a highly structured microscale transport network, high-speed fluorescent microscopy, displacement front segmentation algorithms, and a tracking algorithm to build evolution graphs that track displacement fronts as they evolve through high-speed video recording. The resulting evolution graph allows the segmentation of a high-speed recording in both space and time, potentially facilitating topology-cognitive computation on the transport network. Occurrences of Haines Jump are identified in the microfluidic displacement experiments and their significance in bulk flow rates is qualitatively analyzed. The bulk flow rate has little effect on the significance of Haines Jump during merging and splitting, but large bulk flow rates may obscure small bursts at the narrowest part of the throat. Full article
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20 pages, 2462 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Irregular Breaking Waves Using a Coupled Artificial Compressibility Method
by Athanasios Dermatis, Dimitrios Ntouras and George Papadakis
Fluids 2022, 7(7), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7070235 - 11 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1859
Abstract
Wave breaking is widely recognized as a very challenging phenomenon to emulate using numerical/computational methods. On that condition, the transition from modelling regular to irregular breaking waves is not trivial. Even though some issues are surpassed in CFD simulations, there still are two [...] Read more.
Wave breaking is widely recognized as a very challenging phenomenon to emulate using numerical/computational methods. On that condition, the transition from modelling regular to irregular breaking waves is not trivial. Even though some issues are surpassed in CFD simulations, there still are two substantial problems to account for. The first one entails the proper generation of irregular waves in a numerical wave tank, while the second is the introduction of the turbulent regime of breaking in the solver. The present work addresses these two problems by employing the Stabilized kω SST model for turbulence closure and by proposing an efficient and accurate method for irregular wave generation. Apart from that, an artificial compressibility method is used for coupling the system of equations, which solves these equations in a non-segregated manner and overcomes problems pertaining to the existence of the interface in free-surface flows. The methodology is validated through the test case of irregular wave propagation over a submerged breaker bar and a piecewise sloped bottom, indicating the ability of the method to capture irregular breaking wave phenomena. Simulations are in fair agreement with experimental data regarding energy spectra and free surface time-series, while results suggest that the known over-prediction of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is significantly constrained by the stabilized kω SST model. Full article
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17 pages, 1257 KiB  
Article
Experiments on Water Gravity Drainage Driven by Steam Injection into Elliptical Steam Chambers
by Jonathan Enrique Martínez-Gómez, Abraham Medina, Francisco J. Higuera and Carlos A. Vargas
Fluids 2022, 7(6), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7060206 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1483
Abstract
Based on a recently published theoretical model, in this work we experimentally studied the problem of gravity water drainage due to continuous steam injection into an elliptical porous chamber made of glass beads and embedded in a metallic, quasi-2D, massive cold slab. This [...] Read more.
Based on a recently published theoretical model, in this work we experimentally studied the problem of gravity water drainage due to continuous steam injection into an elliptical porous chamber made of glass beads and embedded in a metallic, quasi-2D, massive cold slab. This configuration mimics the process of steam condensation for a given time period during the growth stage of the steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process, a method used in the recovery of heavy and extra-heavy oil from homogeneous reservoirs. Our experiments validate the prediction of the theoretical model regarding the existence of an optimal injected steam mass flow rate per unit length, ϕopt, to achieve the maximum recovery of a condensate (water). We found that the recovery factor is close to 85% when measured as the percentage of the mass of water recovered with respect to the injected mass. Our results can be extended to actual oil-saturated reservoirs because the model involves the formation of a film of condensates close to the chamber edge that allows for gravity drainage of a water/oil emulsion into the recovery well. Full article
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17 pages, 5140 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Modeling and Pilot Test Validation of Nanoparticles Injection in Heavy Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
by Juan D. Valencia, Juan M. Mejía, Matteo Icardi and Richard Zabala
Fluids 2022, 7(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7040135 - 12 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1857
Abstract
Heavy-oil mobility in reservoir rocks can be improved, using nanotechnology, by reducing the viscosity of the oil and improving the rock wettability to a water-wet condition. Previous pilot studies in Colombian heavy oil fields reported that nanoparticles dispersed in an oleic carrier fluid [...] Read more.
Heavy-oil mobility in reservoir rocks can be improved, using nanotechnology, by reducing the viscosity of the oil and improving the rock wettability to a water-wet condition. Previous pilot studies in Colombian heavy oil fields reported that nanoparticles dispersed in an oleic carrier fluid (diesel) increased oil production rates between 120–150% higher than before the interventions. However, to optimally deploy a massive nanofluid intervention campaign in heavy oil fields, it is valuable to implement simulation tools that can help to understand the role of operational parameters, to design the operations and to monitor the performance. The simulator must account for nanoparticle transport, transfer, and retention dynamics, as well as their impact on viscosity reduction and wettability restoration. In this paper, we developed and solved, numerically, a 3D mathematical model describing the multiphase flow and interaction of the nanoparticles with oil, brine, and rock surface, leading to viscosity reduction and wettability restoration. The model is based on a multiphase pseudo-compositional formulation, coupled with mass balance equations, of nanoparticles dispersed in water, nanoparticles dispersed in oil, and nanoparticles retained on the rock surface. We simulated a pilot test study of a nanofluid stimulation done in a Colombian heavy oil field. The injection, soaking, and production stages were simulated using a 3D single-well formulation of the mathematical model. The comparison of simulation results with the pilot test results shows that the model reproduced the field observations before and after the stimulation. Simulations showed that viscosity reduction during the post-stimulation period is strongly related to the detachment rate of nanoparticles. Simulation indicates that the recovery mechanism of the nanofluid stimulation is initially governed by viscosity reduction and wettability alteration. At latter times, wettability alteration is the main recovery mechanism. The nanoparticles transferred to the residual water promote the wettability alteration to a water wet condition. The model can be used to design field deployments of nanofluid interventions in heavy oil reservoirs. Full article
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17 pages, 6058 KiB  
Article
Detailed Assessment of Nasal Inter-Chamber Anatomical Variations and Its Effect on Flow Apportionment and Inhalation Exposure Patterns
by Qinyuan Sun, Lin Tian, Jiyuan Tu and Jingliang Dong
Fluids 2022, 7(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7030089 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2328
Abstract
Although many parametric studies have been conducted in developing standardized nasal geometry and analysing associated airflow dynamics, most of them are based on symmetrical nasal chambers assumption, while the inter-chamber variations due to the morphological asymmetry of the two nasal chambers are much [...] Read more.
Although many parametric studies have been conducted in developing standardized nasal geometry and analysing associated airflow dynamics, most of them are based on symmetrical nasal chambers assumption, while the inter-chamber variations due to the morphological asymmetry of the two nasal chambers are much less investigated. To address this issue, this paper presents an inter-chamber anatomical variability study by developing a shape comparison method to quantify inter-chamber anatomical differences. Then the anatomical deviation is correlated with the flow apportionment and the associated nanoparticle deposition patterns using CFD method. Results show that noticeable inter-chamber difference is observed especially in the inferior and middle passages where most inhaled flow is distributed to. Additionally, the shape of vestibule notch and septum deviation contributes to the discrepancy flow behaviour between two chambers. Consequently, these differences lead to variations in regional nanoparticle deposition, especially for 1 nm particles in the olfactory region, where the inter-chamber differences can reach up to 400%. Our results suggest that the inter-chamber anatomical variation should be considered when developing standardized nasal models. Full article
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18 pages, 130509 KiB  
Article
Effect of Initial Water Saturation on Oil Displacement Efficiency by Nanosuspensions
by Dmitriy Guzei, Vladimir Zhigarev, Valery Rudyak, Sofia Ivanova and Andrey Minakov
Fluids 2022, 7(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7020059 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
This article deals with the study of the initial water saturation effect of a porous medium on the oil recovery factor using a water-based nanosuspension. The initial water saturation of the porous medium in the computations varied within the range from 0 to [...] Read more.
This article deals with the study of the initial water saturation effect of a porous medium on the oil recovery factor using a water-based nanosuspension. The initial water saturation of the porous medium in the computations varied within the range from 0 to 90%. The nanoparticle SiO2 concentration varied from 0 to 1 wt%. The particle sizes were equal to 5, 18, 22, and 50 nm. Experimentally measured wetting angles and the interfacial tension coefficient depending on the concentration and size of nanoparticles were used in computations. A mathematical model was developed, describing the transfer and diffusion of nanoparticles within the aqueous phase during immiscible displacement of oil by nanosuspension from a porous medium. Using the developed model, a systematic computational study of the effect of the initial water saturation of the core micromodel on the oil recovery factor using nanosuspension was carried out. It was revealed that with an increase in the initial water saturation, the oil recovery factor monotonically decreased in the case of displacement both by water and nanosuspension. It was shown that with an increase in the concentration of nanoparticles and a decrease in their size, the oil recovery factor increased. At that, the relative increase in the recovery factor had a maximum at an initial water saturation equal to 60%. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022

39 pages, 13802 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of a Laser-Induced Bubble above the Flat Top of a Solid Cylinder—Mushroom-Shaped Bubbles and the Fast Jet
by Max Koch, Juan Manuel Rosselló, Christiane Lechner, Werner Lauterborn and Robert Mettin
Fluids 2022, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids7010002 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3650
Abstract
The dynamics of a laser-induced bubble on top of a solid cylinder is studied both experimentally and numerically. When the bubble is generated close to the flat top along the axis of the cylinder and its maximum radius exceeds the one of the [...] Read more.
The dynamics of a laser-induced bubble on top of a solid cylinder is studied both experimentally and numerically. When the bubble is generated close to the flat top along the axis of the cylinder and its maximum radius exceeds the one of the flat top surface, it collapses in the form of a mushroom with a footing on the cylinder, a long stem and a hat-like cap typical for a mushroom head. The head may collapse forming a thin, fast liquid jet into the stem, depending on bubble size and bubble distance to the top of the cylinder. Several experimental and numerical examples are given. The results represent a contribution to understand the behavior of bubbles collapsing close to structured surfaces and in particular, how thin, fast jets are generated. Full article
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17 pages, 4147 KiB  
Article
Equation of State’s Crossover Enhancement of Pseudopotential Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of CO2 Flow in Homogeneous Porous Media
by Assetbek Ashirbekov, Bagdagul Kabdenova, Ernesto Monaco and Luis R. Rojas-Solórzano
Fluids 2021, 6(12), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6120434 - 01 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
The original Shan-Chen’s pseudopotential Lattice Boltzmann Model (LBM) has continuously evolved during the past two decades. However, despite its capability to simulate multiphase flows, the model still faces challenges when applied to multicomponent-multiphase flows in complex geometries with a moderately high-density ratio. Furthermore, [...] Read more.
The original Shan-Chen’s pseudopotential Lattice Boltzmann Model (LBM) has continuously evolved during the past two decades. However, despite its capability to simulate multiphase flows, the model still faces challenges when applied to multicomponent-multiphase flows in complex geometries with a moderately high-density ratio. Furthermore, classical cubic equations of state usually incorporated into the model cannot accurately predict fluid thermodynamics in the near-critical region. This paper addresses these issues by incorporating a crossover Peng–Robinson equation of state into LBM and further improving the model to consider the density and the critical temperature differences between the CO2 and water during the injection of the CO2 in a water-saturated 2D homogeneous porous medium. The numerical model is first validated by analyzing the supercritical CO2 penetration into a single narrow channel initially filled with H2O, depicting the fundamental role of the driving pressure gradient to overcome the capillary resistance in near one and higher density ratios. Significant differences are observed by extending the model to the injection of CO2 into a 2D homogeneous porous medium when using a flat versus a curved inlet velocity profile. Full article
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26 pages, 23557 KiB  
Article
LES of Particle-Laden Flow in Sharp Pipe Bends with Data-Driven Predictions of Agglomerate Breakage by Wall Impacts
by Ali Khalifa, Jasper Gollwitzer and Michael Breuer
Fluids 2021, 6(12), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6120424 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2812
Abstract
The breakage of agglomerates due to wall impact within a turbulent two-phase flow is studied based on a recently developed model which relies on two artificial neural networks (ANNs). The breakup model is intended for the application within an Euler-Lagrange approach using the [...] Read more.
The breakage of agglomerates due to wall impact within a turbulent two-phase flow is studied based on a recently developed model which relies on two artificial neural networks (ANNs). The breakup model is intended for the application within an Euler-Lagrange approach using the point-particle assumption. The ANNs were trained based on comprehensive DEM simulations. In the present study the entire simulation methodology is applied to the flow through two sharp pipe bends considering two different Reynolds numbers. In a first step, the flow structures of the continuous flow arising in both bend configurations are analyzed in detail. In a second step, the breakage behavior of agglomerates consisting of spherical, dry and cohesive silica particles is predicted based on the newly established simulation methodology taking agglomeration, fluid-induced breakage and breakage due to wall impact into account. The latter is found to be the dominant mechanism determining the resulting size distribution at the bend outlet. Since the setups are generic geometries found in dry powder inhalers, important knowledge concerning the effect of the Reynolds number as well as the design type (one-step vs. two-step deflection) can be gained. Full article
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34 pages, 8253 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of an Electroless Plating Problem in Gas–Liquid Two-Phase Flow
by Po-Yi Wu, Olivier Pironneau, Po-Shao Shih and ChengHeng Robert Kao
Fluids 2021, 6(11), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6110371 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Electroless plating in micro-channels is a rising technology in industry. In many electroless plating systems, hydrogen gas is generated during the process. A numerical simulation method is proposed and analyzed. At a micrometer scale, the motion of the gaseous phase must be addressed [...] Read more.
Electroless plating in micro-channels is a rising technology in industry. In many electroless plating systems, hydrogen gas is generated during the process. A numerical simulation method is proposed and analyzed. At a micrometer scale, the motion of the gaseous phase must be addressed so that the plating works smoothly. Since the bubbles are generated randomly and everywhere, a volume-averaged, two-phase, two-velocity, one pressure-flow model is applied. This fluid system is coupled with a set of convection–diffusion equations for the chemicals subject to flux boundary conditions for electron balance. The moving boundary due to plating is considered. The Galerkin-characteristic finite element method is used for temporal and spatial discretizations; the well-posedness of the numerical scheme is proved. Numerical studies in two dimensions are performed to validate the model against earlier one-dimensional models and a dedicated experiment that has been set up to visualize the distribution of bubbles. Full article
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9 pages, 1371 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Multicomponent Flow in Porous Media: Efficiency Analysis of Newton-Based Method
by Timur Imankulov, Danil Lebedev, Bazargul Matkerim, Beimbet Daribayev and Nurislam Kassymbek
Fluids 2021, 6(10), 355; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6100355 - 08 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Newton’s method has been widely used in simulation multiphase, multicomponent flow in porous media. In addition, to solve systems of linear equations in such problems, the generalized minimal residual method (GMRES) is often used. This paper analyzed the one-dimensional problem of multicomponent fluid [...] Read more.
Newton’s method has been widely used in simulation multiphase, multicomponent flow in porous media. In addition, to solve systems of linear equations in such problems, the generalized minimal residual method (GMRES) is often used. This paper analyzed the one-dimensional problem of multicomponent fluid flow in a porous medium and solved the system of the algebraic equation with the Newton-GMRES method. We calculated the linear equations with the GMRES, the GMRES with restarts after every m steps—GMRES (m) and preconditioned with Incomplete Lower-Upper factorization, where the factors L and U have the same sparsity pattern as the original matrix—the ILU(0)-GMRES algorithms, respectively, and compared the computation time and convergence. In the course of the research, the influence of the preconditioner and restarts of the GMRES (m) algorithm on the computation time was revealed; in particular, they were able to speed up the program. Full article
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18 pages, 6342 KiB  
Article
Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) for Characterization of Additively Manufactured Lattice Structures (AMLS) in Gas-Liquid Systems
by Claas Spille, Vaishakh Prasannan Tholan, Benjamin Straiton, Monika Johannsen, Marko Hoffmann, Qussai Marashdeh and Michael Schlüter
Fluids 2021, 6(9), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6090321 - 08 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
Against the background of current and future global challenges, such as climate change, process engineering requires increasingly specific solutions adapted to the respective problem or application, especially in gas–liquid contact apparatuses. One possibility to adjust the conditions in this kind of apparatuses is [...] Read more.
Against the background of current and future global challenges, such as climate change, process engineering requires increasingly specific solutions adapted to the respective problem or application, especially in gas–liquid contact apparatuses. One possibility to adjust the conditions in this kind of apparatuses is an intelligent and customized structuring, which leads to consistent fluid properties and flow characteristics within the reactor. In the course of this, the interfacial area for mass transfer, as well as residence times, have to be adjusted and optimized specifically for the respective application. In order to better understand and advance the research on intelligent customized additively manufactured lattice structures (AMLS), the phase distributions and local gas holdups that are essential for mass transfer are investigated for different structures and flow conditions. For the first time a tomographic measurement technique is used, the Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT), and validated with the volume expansion method and a fiber optical needle probe (A2PS-B-POP) for an air-water system for different modes of operation (with or without co-current liquid flow in empty or packed state). The ECVT proved to be particularly useful for both in the empty tube and the packed state and provided new insights into the phase distributions occurring within structured packings, which would have led to significantly underestimated results based on the visual reference measurements, especially for a densely packed additively manufactured lattice structure (5 mm cubic on the tip). Particularly for the modified structures, which were supposed to show local targeted differences, the ECVT was able to resolve the changes locally. The additional use of a pump for co-current flow operation resulted in slightly higher fluctuations within the ECVT data, although local events could still be resolved sufficiently. The final comparison of the empty tube at rest data with a fiber optical needle probe showed that the results were in good agreement and that the local deviations were due to general differences in the respective measurement techniques. Full article
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16 pages, 5313 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Behavior of Air Void during the Discharge of Cohesive Powder in a Hopper Using a Rubber Air Spring
by Hideo Kawahara, Kazuhito Kudo and Koichiro Ogata
Fluids 2021, 6(8), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids6080276 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1862
Abstract
An unstable discharge rate occurs during dry fine powder discharge from a hopper because of the significant two-phase solid/gas interactions that occur in powder flows. In addition, the air bubble phenomenon may occur in a silo during fine powder discharge. In this study, [...] Read more.
An unstable discharge rate occurs during dry fine powder discharge from a hopper because of the significant two-phase solid/gas interactions that occur in powder flows. In addition, the air bubble phenomenon may occur in a silo during fine powder discharge. In this study, we conducted experiments using a semi-conical dual-structure hopper, and examined the effects on the hopper internal flow structure, cavity fluid pressure, pressure inside the airtight cavity section, and the powder discharge rate when changes are made in the position of the supplied air injection port and the solenoid valve open/close timing. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that an appropriate pressure supply port position exists, and the change in expansion/contraction of the flexible container due to air vibration is determined by the balance between the amount of air inserted and the amount of air discharged, and does not affect the presence or absence of powder so much. Furthermore, as the pressure value in the airtight void is directly related to the change in the expansion and contraction of the flexible container, the maximum amplitude value of the pressure in the airtight void can be kept high and constant at the time of opening and closing the solenoid valve. Full article
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