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Eng. Proc., 2023, INALCO 2023

The 15th International Aluminium Conference

Québec, QC, Canada | 11–13 October 2023

Volume Editors:
Houshang Alamdari, REGAL/Laval University, Québec, QC, Canada
Nicolas Boissonnade, REGAL/Laval University, Québec, QC, Canada
Mario Fafard, AluQuebec, Montréal, QC, Canada

 
Number of Papers: 52
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 15th International Aluminium Conference (INALCO 2023) was co-organized by AluQuébec, and Aluminium Research Centre—REGAL. The central theme revolved around "Green Aluminum for [...] Read more.
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2 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Houshang Alamdari, Nicolas Boissonnade and Mario Fafard
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043001 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 454
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
2 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
Preface of the 15th International Aluminium Conference
by Houshang Alamdari, Nicolas Boissonnade and Mario Fafard
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043002 - 11 Sep 2023
Viewed by 293
Abstract
The 15th International Aluminium Conference (INALCO 2023) was organized by AluQuébec, the aluminum cluster federating instance for Quebec’s thriving aluminum ecosystem, in collaboration with the Aluminium Research Centre—REGAL [...] Full article
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9 pages, 7788 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effects of Ni Content and Alloying Elements on Electrical Conductivity, Mechanical Properties, and Hot Tearing Susceptibility of Al-Ni-Based Alloys
by Farnaz Yavari, Ahmed Y. Algendy, Mousa Javidani, Lei Ray Pan and X.-Grant Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043003 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 615
Abstract
The Aluminum-Nickel alloy system exhibits good potential for rotor applications in electric vehicles, which require good castability, high electrical conductivity (EC), and mechanical strength. In the present study, the microstructure, hot tearing susceptibility (HTS), electrical conductivity, and mechanical properties of binary Al-xNi (x: [...] Read more.
The Aluminum-Nickel alloy system exhibits good potential for rotor applications in electric vehicles, which require good castability, high electrical conductivity (EC), and mechanical strength. In the present study, the microstructure, hot tearing susceptibility (HTS), electrical conductivity, and mechanical properties of binary Al-xNi (x: 1 to 5% wt%) alloys were investigated. The results showed that the Al-1Ni alloy exhibited the highest EC of 57.6% IACS. However, increasing the Ni content to 5% led to a decrease in EC and a significant reduction in HTS. In addition, increasing the Ni content from 1 to 5% slightly enhanced the yield strength from 70.4 to 83.2 MPa showing a weak strengthening effect. The effect of Si and Mg addition on the strength and EC of Al-1Ni alloy was studied. By adding 0.6% Si and 0.6% Mg to the Al-1Ni alloy, the yield strength was enhanced to 156.6 MPa after T5 and 287.5 MPa after T6, respectively, while maintaining a high EC (51% IACS). The significant improvement in yield strength was attributed to the presence of nanosized MgSi precipitates as the strengthening phase, which was confirmed by TEM analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 2199 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Torsional Strength of Aluminum Shapes—Circular and Rectangular Solids
by Constance Ziemian, Marly McClintock and Ronald Ziemian
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043004 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental investigation of 6061-T6 and 5050-H32 aluminum alloy rods and bars subjected to pure torsional loading. The test plan included five sets of 6061-T6 specimens, with solid circular and rectangular cross-sections, and four sets of 5050-H32 specimens, with solid [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental investigation of 6061-T6 and 5050-H32 aluminum alloy rods and bars subjected to pure torsional loading. The test plan included five sets of 6061-T6 specimens, with solid circular and rectangular cross-sections, and four sets of 5050-H32 specimens, with solid rectangular cross-sections. Each series included six specimens, for a total of 54 tests. Resulting torque and angular twist data were used to estimate the torsional stiffness and strength, including the initial yield, full yield, and ultimate strengths. Experimental results were compared with values computed using the Aluminum Association’s Specification for Aluminum Structures (SAS) design rules. SAS provisions were found to be overly conservative, supporting the importance of investigating changes towards an ultimate strength approach that is consistent with a limit states design specification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 1117 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Design and Optimization of Aluminum Member’s Sections for Building Efficient 120–160 kV Power Transmission Towers
by Sanaz Chehrazad, Saeed Mohebbi, Charles-Philippe Lamarche, Sébastien Langlois, Alain Desrochers and Siamak Talatahari
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043005 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 576
Abstract
The use of aluminum in civil engineering applications has increased significantly over the past decades. Aluminum is a durable, lightweight, and recyclable material that can provide alternative structural solutions for building power transmission towers. In order to achieve this objective, it is necessary [...] Read more.
The use of aluminum in civil engineering applications has increased significantly over the past decades. Aluminum is a durable, lightweight, and recyclable material that can provide alternative structural solutions for building power transmission towers. In order to achieve this objective, it is necessary to develop structural members that take advantage of specific properties of the material, such as low density, high strength, resistance to corrosion, and the geometric flexibility that aluminum extrusions provide to design robust and easy-to-assemble structures. This paper presents a section optimization study of an existing medium-voltage steel 120–160 kV lattice tower owned by Hydro-Québec, considering the use of various extruded aluminum sections. The proposed optimized aluminum sections are compared with the steel sections of the existing tower. The study’s main objective is to optimize the tower’s aluminum sections. A SAP2000 structural finite element stick model of the tower coupled to a Matlab optimization routine is used to optimize the aluminum sections. ASCE10-15 and CSA-S157-17R22 standards are used to impose the design constraints for selecting the optimized aluminum square and octagonal hollow sections, with and without stiffeners. This study proposes optimized section shapes suitable for constructing aluminum lattice transmission towers. The study reveals that the proposed aluminum tower prototype is twice as light as its steel counterpart. The aluminum members’ price is also very competitive compared to steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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11 pages, 3920 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Numerical Prediction of the Fatigue Life of Complex Riveted Structures
by Francis Corriveau, Alain Desrochers and Ahmed Maslouhi
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043006 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 396
Abstract
In this study, a numerical prediction methodology used to evaluate the fatigue life of complex riveted aluminum alloy structures subjected to variable amplitude loads is presented. This methodology is based on the combination of experimental fatigue tests with the structural stresses approach to [...] Read more.
In this study, a numerical prediction methodology used to evaluate the fatigue life of complex riveted aluminum alloy structures subjected to variable amplitude loads is presented. This methodology is based on the combination of experimental fatigue tests with the structural stresses approach to generate S(N) curves. Single-riveted specimens (Al5052-H36) with different characteristics (rivet diameter, sheet thickness, assembly configuration) were first tested experimentally. Using a simplified finite element model (FEM) and a probabilistic model to compute the structural stress of these tested samples, fatigue curves for each type of failure encountered during testing (sheet metal and rivet) with a confidence interval were generated. Of the probabilistic models that were studied, the Stüssi model was the most effective to correlate the experimental results. The proposed methodology was then combined with Miner’s law to predict the fatigue life of complex riveted structures subjected to variable amplitude loading. Using the proposed methodology, satisfactory predictions of the fatigue life of multi-rivet specimens and a structural assembly from a recreational vehicle subjected to variable amplitude loads were obtained without the need to use a complex finite element model for the riveted joints. The methodology proposed in this paper is efficient and quick to use, can be used for various states of stress, and is well suited for structural or fatigue optimization problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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8 pages, 11784 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparative Microstructural Study of Cold Sprayed Coatings Using Pure Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Powders
by Jiashuo Qi, Rija Nirina Raoelison, Christophe Verdy, Jishuai Li and Mohamed Rachik
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043007 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Cold gas dynamic spraying is a solid-state processing technique that is particularly attractive for surface coatings, 3D near-net shape additive manufacturing, and component repairs with an advantage of high-deposition efficiency. This technique has the sustainable potential to change the future industrial and manufacturing [...] Read more.
Cold gas dynamic spraying is a solid-state processing technique that is particularly attractive for surface coatings, 3D near-net shape additive manufacturing, and component repairs with an advantage of high-deposition efficiency. This technique has the sustainable potential to change the future industrial and manufacturing environment, especially in the fabrication process of complex flight-critical components that are made of aluminum. This paper investigates the microstructure of aluminum coatings generated onto a commercial Al plate called FORTAL (Al 7075-T6) via cold spraying using helium as the propellant gas. Three Al coatings (pure Al, AlSi10Mg, and Scalmalloy) are compared under a similar deposition condition. The top view of the coating revealed the highest deformation (high flattening) in the case of pure Al powders, whereas both the AlSi10Mg and Scalmalloy powders exhibit less flattening. The cross sections show fine equiaxed grains within the pure Al coating and extremely fine grains for both the AlSi10Mg coating and the Scalmalloy coating, with more extremely refined grains within the Scalmalloy coating. These results suggested an onset of recrystallization within the Al coating that is attributed to the heat generated by the strong plastic deformation. Less thermally activated recrystallization occurred within both AlSi10Mg coating and Scalmalloy coating due to their stronger mechanical properties. The structure rather resulted from the dynamic due to the high strain rate collision. The extremely fine structure is mostly at the powder/powder interface within the Scalmalloy coating and is developed towards the powder region which is also within the AlSi10Mg coating. Better plastic deformation occurred within the AlSi10Mg powder compared to the Scalmalloy powder that have a higher mechanical resistance. Together, these results evidence a limited thermally activated recrystallization within the Al alloys despite the highest deposition condition being used. The pure Al powders can also achieve a state of equiaxed fine grain due to the better plastic deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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7 pages, 1508 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Surface Roughness Studies on F357 Aluminum Alloy Fabricated Using Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process
by Jaskaranpal Singh Dhillon, Su Su, Oscar Sanchez Mata, Tejas Ramakrishnan and Mathieu Brochu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043008 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Aluminum alloys processed using laser powder bed fusion are attracting industrial and research efforts striving to achieve the lightweighting potential and combination of good mechanical and corrosion properties. In this study, border parameter optimization for F357 (AlSi7Mg) alloy processed using LPBF was performed [...] Read more.
Aluminum alloys processed using laser powder bed fusion are attracting industrial and research efforts striving to achieve the lightweighting potential and combination of good mechanical and corrosion properties. In this study, border parameter optimization for F357 (AlSi7Mg) alloy processed using LPBF was performed with the aim of reducing the as-fabricated surface roughness. The optimization revealed that laser power and scanning speed can significantly influence the surface roughness of cube vertical surfaces. Measured areal average surface roughness (Sa) for cube samples varied from 15 to 24 µm. The cube-based optimized parameters were used to fabricate angled wall samples with angles ranging from 45° to 90°. The surface roughness reduced when the built angle increased from 45° to 75°, while for 75–90°, the surface roughness values remained constant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 5179 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tensile Properties of the Subsurface and Center Regions of AA6111 Direct-Chill-Cast Ingot in Semisolid State and Their Hot Tearing Susceptibility
by Mohamed Qassem, Mousa Javidani, Daniel Larouche and X.-Grant Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043009 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 423
Abstract
AA6111 alloys are widely used in the automotive industry owing to their high strength/weight ratio, good corrosion resistance, and reasonable formability. During their manufacture through ingot metallurgy via direct chill (DC) casting, the alloys often suffer from hot tearing, limiting DC casting productivity. [...] Read more.
AA6111 alloys are widely used in the automotive industry owing to their high strength/weight ratio, good corrosion resistance, and reasonable formability. During their manufacture through ingot metallurgy via direct chill (DC) casting, the alloys often suffer from hot tearing, limiting DC casting productivity. The present study focused on evaluating the mechanical properties in the semisolid state and the hot tearing susceptibility of AA6111 DC-cast ingot in the subsurface and center regions. The mechanical behavior of two different regions at high temperatures above solidus was studied using smoothed and notched samples. Tensile tests were performed using the Gleeble 3800 thermomechanical testing unit, and the digital image correlation method was applied to measure the strain evolution. The change in the grain structure in the subsurface and the presence of a high-volume fraction of needle-like β-Fe intermetallics significantly reduced the ductility of the cast ingot in the subsurface region. The hot tearing susceptibility in the subsurface region of the cast ingot was higher than that in the center region. The notch effect is more significant in the subsurface on the stress sensitivity in the presence of stress raisers compared with that in the center region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 9537 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Additive Manufacturing in Construction—Implementing Powder-Bed Fusion of Metals Using a Laser (PBF-LB/M) and Shape Optimization in the Construction Design Process
by Johannes Diller, Christina Radlbeck, Dorina Siebert, Jakob Blankenhagen, Drilon Gubetini, Florian Oberhaidinger and Martin Mensinger
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043010 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 505
Abstract
In this study, the implementation of the PBF-LB/M process into the construction design and building process was investigated. To this purpose, a tensegrity-tower was designed, planned, and built. The nodes between the compression rods and the tension cables were manufactured by PBF-LB/M/AlSi10Mg. Four [...] Read more.
In this study, the implementation of the PBF-LB/M process into the construction design and building process was investigated. To this purpose, a tensegrity-tower was designed, planned, and built. The nodes between the compression rods and the tension cables were manufactured by PBF-LB/M/AlSi10Mg. Four different nodes were designed and shape-optimized by vertex-morphing. In order to qualify the tensegrity nodes according to the German regulations, mechanical as well as microstructural evaluations were conducted. Tensile tests of a manufactured tensegrity node in a fully hinged setup were carried out. Additionally, fatigue testing was conducted. The tensegrity nodes were heat-treated (T6) and subsequently vibratory ground to reduce the surface roughness. The results indicate that it is feasible to integrate the PBF-LB/M process into the design and construction process. The tower is now a permanent and tangible exhibit in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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17 pages, 12850 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Static Mechanical Property Criterion Determined under Different Extent of Hot Crack Index of High-Strength Aluminium Autogenous Laser Welds
by François Nadeau and Fatemeh Mirakhorli
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043011 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Nowadays, vehicle electrification is growing at a fast pace due to stringent environmental regulations on carbon emissions in North America. The manufacturing of E-mobility battery components such as enclosures evolves at the same trend and many new design concepts are put in place. [...] Read more.
Nowadays, vehicle electrification is growing at a fast pace due to stringent environmental regulations on carbon emissions in North America. The manufacturing of E-mobility battery components such as enclosures evolves at the same trend and many new design concepts are put in place. As health and safety in electric vehicles are taken very seriously by OEMs, the enclosures are still heavy but are likely to become more lightweight in years to come, using high-strength aluminium alloys as one of the potential solutions, as weight directly affects the admissible range. In this paper, four (4) different aluminium wrought alloys (AA6061, AA6010, AA7020 S and AA7075) were autogenously laser-welded using various parameters and inspected through 2D X-ray tomography. A hot crack index (HCI), using optical microscopy, was defined in order to quantify the internal extent of hot cracks. Static mechanical butt joint tensile tests were provided to dictate a mechanical property criterion regarding the extent of HCI. This revealed that uniform elongation is a good predictor of the extent of HCI in terms of static mechanical behavior. These findings could eventually be used to define a threshold value toward a safe number of hot cracks in laser welds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 967 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Seismic Design of Aluminium Structures in the Second Generation of Eurocode 8
by Raffaele Landolfo and Federico Massimo Mazzolani
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043012 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Eurocode 8 is currently under revision, and their amended versions will be available in the next few years. One of the major novelties of the second generation of Eurocode 8 is a specific chapter for the seismic design of aluminium buildings (i.e., Chapter [...] Read more.
Eurocode 8 is currently under revision, and their amended versions will be available in the next few years. One of the major novelties of the second generation of Eurocode 8 is a specific chapter for the seismic design of aluminium buildings (i.e., Chapter 15) that is missing in the current EN1998-1:2005. Thus, the second generation of Eurocode 8 is the first European set of rules for seismic-resisting aluminium structures. These new rules are mainly based on the current Japanese recommendations, but adapted to Eurocode philosophy. The main novelties of the second generation of Eurocode 8 and the requirements for seismic-resistant aluminium structures are summarised in the present article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 5205 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modern Applications and Construction Details for Aluminium Bridges
by Benoit Cusson
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043013 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 717
Abstract
Canada’s bridge industry is witnessing a momentum for the use of aluminium in pedestrian and vehicular bridges. This paper describes the results of six years of developing tangible innovative aluminium details and structural arrangements. Various projects of different scales, which are presented, include [...] Read more.
Canada’s bridge industry is witnessing a momentum for the use of aluminium in pedestrian and vehicular bridges. This paper describes the results of six years of developing tangible innovative aluminium details and structural arrangements. Various projects of different scales, which are presented, include two architectural pony truss pedestrian bridges, the first GMAW welded aluminium deck on steel girders vehicular bridge in Canada and a signature pedestrian bridge where an 80 m long through truss connects to a curved girder structure. The development of a simple aluminium girder pedestrian bridge concept also inspired an innovative composite structural system involving a friction stir welding (FSW)-welded aluminium deck connected to longitudinal girders. These various projects generated code-update propositions for the aluminium section of the CSA S6 standard. Featured topics in this paper relate to bolted connections for decks, barriers and truss chords, welded straight and curved girders, expansion joints and designs for fatigue and fabrication. The context is ideal to reflect the roadmap towards 100% aluminium vehicular bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 7193 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Electrical Conductivity of 4xxx Series Al-Based Alloys
by Mohammad Khoshghadam-Pireyousefan, Mousa Javidani, Alexandre Maltais, Julie Lévesque and X.-Grant Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043014 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 788
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of annealing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity (EC) of AA4043 rods produced through the Properzi CCR process. Annealing was conducted at two temperatures (200 °C and 300 °C) for 4 h. Characterization techniques were performed [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of annealing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity (EC) of AA4043 rods produced through the Properzi CCR process. Annealing was conducted at two temperatures (200 °C and 300 °C) for 4 h. Characterization techniques were performed on the rod samples, including optical microscopy, EBSD, microhardness, tensile tests, and EC measurements. The results showed a significant improvement in EC with decreased mechanical strength during annealing. The sample annealed at 300 °C exhibited the most favorable combination of EC (57.48% IACS), microhardness (41 HV), and ultimate tensile strength (124 MPa). Furthermore, the image analysis revealed slight alterations in the shape factors of eutectic Si particles with increasing annealing temperature. In addition, EBSD results demonstrated that the annealing promoted the recrystallization process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 5415 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Industry 4.0: Correlation Analysis Applied to the Hot Stamping of AA7075 B-Pillars Pre-Assembled Using Friction Stir Welding
by Mohamad Idriss, Guillaume D’Amours, François Nadeau, Danick Gallant and Ryan Myers
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043015 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 381
Abstract
In this study, 220 AA7075-T6 B-pillars were fabricated using a thoroughly instrumented hot-stamping press under varied conditions. Feature engineering work identified nineteen attributes of the hot-stamping process as impacting four characteristics of the obtained B-pillars: electrical conductivity (%IACS), mechanical strength, distortion, and the [...] Read more.
In this study, 220 AA7075-T6 B-pillars were fabricated using a thoroughly instrumented hot-stamping press under varied conditions. Feature engineering work identified nineteen attributes of the hot-stamping process as impacting four characteristics of the obtained B-pillars: electrical conductivity (%IACS), mechanical strength, distortion, and the presence of visible defects. Pearson correlation suggests an important correlation between the heating phase and the mechanical strength, as well as the %IACS values. As for distortion, the influence of the stamping phase is more obvious. Finally, no correlation was obtained between the hot stamping attributes and the presence of visible cracks. This is mainly due to the pre-assembly phase, i.e., Friction Stir Welding, which will be considered in future works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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5 pages, 2273 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Aluminium Alloys
by Théo Ouellet, Maxime Croteau, Alexandre Bois-Brochu and Julie Lévesque
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043016 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Additive manufacturing is used to produce parts with complex near-net shape geometries. It can also be used to repair parts that have worn out in service using specific processes such as Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) and Directed Energy Deposition (DED). Wire additive [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing is used to produce parts with complex near-net shape geometries. It can also be used to repair parts that have worn out in service using specific processes such as Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) and Directed Energy Deposition (DED). Wire additive manufacturing processes allow for relatively high deposition rates compared to powder technologies but necessitate a stable welding process and a controlled heat input. As the perfect transfer mode for low welding energy and low spatter, Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) is the process of choice for WAAM. In this project, parts made from aluminium 4943 and 6061 were additively manufactured using CMT technology. The deposition rate, porosity level, and mechanical properties are discussed herein. For the 6061 alloy, after heat treatment, it is possible to attain properties that are close to those obtained for T6 for wrought products or even higher when samples are hot-isostatically pressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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8 pages, 4317 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Solidification Processing of Al-Ce Alloys for High-Temperature Applications
by Shimaa El-Hadad, Mohamed Eissa Moussa, Eric Riedel, Mostafa Ahmed, Rüdiger Bähr and Adel Nofal
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043017 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 652
Abstract
The current study of Al alloys aims to improve their high-temperature mechanical properties by forming intermetallic precipitates with high-temperature stability. Using rare earth elements (RE) to achieve this goal increases the production cost and, hence, minimizes the economic advantage of the conventional casting [...] Read more.
The current study of Al alloys aims to improve their high-temperature mechanical properties by forming intermetallic precipitates with high-temperature stability. Using rare earth elements (RE) to achieve this goal increases the production cost and, hence, minimizes the economic advantage of the conventional casting processes. Therefore, alternative additives/methods with reasonable costs become mandatory. Al-Ce alloys were found to be a promising group of alloys. Cerium is the most economically abundant RE that can be added to aluminum alloys. The main intermetallic phase, i.e., Al11Ce3, is characterized by its high-temperature stability compared to other Al-based intermetallic compounds. Several research works modified the morphology of the stable Al11Ce3 phase to enhance the high-temperature properties of Al-Ce alloys. These methods were heat treatment, chemical modification, and solidification processing. This review article summarizes the “few” available research works, that studied the influence of solidification processing on the microstructure features of Al-Ce alloys. Among the solidification processing techniques available, special attention was given to microstructure processing via ultrasonic treatment and the corresponding effects on mechanical properties and electrochemical behavior. Future research points were also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 2907 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental and Theoretical Research on Welded Aluminum K-Joints
by Šemso Kalač, Martin Mensinger, Christina Radlbeck, Naja Zejnelagić, Đorđe Đuričić and Duško Lučić
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043018 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 469
Abstract
Aluminum alloys provide corrosion resistance, lightweight construction, and functionality through extruded profiles. The creation of heat-affected zones (HAZs), which can reduce load-bearing capacity by up to 50% and complicate K-joint design, makes it difficult to apply aluminum in truss systems. Since EN 1999-1-1 [...] Read more.
Aluminum alloys provide corrosion resistance, lightweight construction, and functionality through extruded profiles. The creation of heat-affected zones (HAZs), which can reduce load-bearing capacity by up to 50% and complicate K-joint design, makes it difficult to apply aluminum in truss systems. Since EN 1999-1-1 (EC 9) does not even provide guidelines for welded aluminum K-joints, practitioners turn to EN 1993-1-8 (EC 3), resulting in a conservative design that ignores the advantages of aluminum. This study investigated the behavior of welded K-joints in lattice girders made of alloy EN AW 6082 T6. The comparison of the experimental and numerical results showed different load-bearing behaviors depending on dimensions and cross-section types. Further tests were carried out. The aim was to derive an aluminum-specific design procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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7 pages, 2928 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Characterization of the Resistance of Tubular Aluminum Sections
by Sahar Dahboul, Liya Li, Prachi Verma, Pampa Dey and Nicolas Boissonnade
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043019 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Aluminum has a bright future as a structural material due to its excellent corrosion resistance, durability, lightweight, and complete recyclability. However, it is necessary to fully understand its mechanical behaviour under various loading conditions to make it competitive with other materials, such as [...] Read more.
Aluminum has a bright future as a structural material due to its excellent corrosion resistance, durability, lightweight, and complete recyclability. However, it is necessary to fully understand its mechanical behaviour under various loading conditions to make it competitive with other materials, such as concrete or steel, for civil engineering applications, especially as primary load-bearing structural members. To develop an in-depth knowledge on the behaviour of extruded aluminum sections of various shapes, an extensive experimental study was undertaken with specific emphasis on analyzing the buckling response of rectangular and square hollow sections (RHS and SHS) with 6061-T6 aluminum alloy under compressive loads. In this regard, six stub column tests were performed under axial compression, while eleven short beam-column tests under eccentric compression are currently in progress. Additionally, six tensile coupon tests were performed to obtain the full material stress–strain curve, and initial geometrical imperfections were measured mechanically and using a 3D scanner. Finally, the results of the stub column tests were compared to the resistances calculated using the Canadian standard CSA S157, which were generally conservative compared to the experimental observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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7 pages, 3320 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Selection and Characterization of a Flexible Seal to Allow Sheet Flow during Superplastic Forming
by Ahmed Gnenna, Alexandre Landry-Blais, Dany Francoeur, Nicolas Bombardier, Alain Chapdelaine and Mathieu Picard
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043020 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 399
Abstract
The auto industry aims to deliver cost-effective, efficient vehicles to meet customer needs. They are utilizing aluminum to lower expenses, enhance durability, and lighten vehicles. Currently, the industry is developing a high-speed blow forming (HSBF) technique—a faster version of the aluminum thermoforming process, [...] Read more.
The auto industry aims to deliver cost-effective, efficient vehicles to meet customer needs. They are utilizing aluminum to lower expenses, enhance durability, and lighten vehicles. Currently, the industry is developing a high-speed blow forming (HSBF) technique—a faster version of the aluminum thermoforming process, superplastic forming (SPF). HSBF allows the rapid creation of aluminum bodywork or structural parts at high temperatures using pressurized gas. It can produce up to 25 parts per hour, significantly faster than SPF, which only produces 4 parts per hour. The primary objective of this project is to select and characterize a seal that can increase the production rate to 120 parts per hour by allowing the sheet to flow into the mold, especially during the initial stages of the forming process, where most of the deformation occurs. Several test benches were developed to assess the performance and durability of the selected high-temperature seals under conditions that imitate the HSBF process. During the tests, low air pressures are applied to a gasket-enclosed cavity and the resulting mass-flow leakage is measured. The temperature of the mold is kept constant at approximately the superplastic temperature of the aluminum alloy. Through testing, we derived leakage mass flow curves based on cycle count, showcasing the superior sealing ability and longevity of packing seals in HSBF conditions. The seals displayed good durability and sealing performance under HSBF operational conditions, sustaining over 3000 cycles. Moreover, the seals attained a leakage mass flow rate of around 0.3 g/s·m·bar, nearly ten times below the target application limit of 2 g/s·m·bar, confirming their superior performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 3805 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
The Second Generation Eurocode 9
by Federico M. Mazzolani and Alberto Mandara
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043021 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 657
Abstract
The paper summarizes the main results achieved in the context of CEN Mandate M/515 for amending and extending existing Eurocodes with regard to Eurocode 9 (EC9) on Aluminium Structures (EN1999). The revision process led to introducing additional structural typologies (bridging, roofing and a [...] Read more.
The paper summarizes the main results achieved in the context of CEN Mandate M/515 for amending and extending existing Eurocodes with regard to Eurocode 9 (EC9) on Aluminium Structures (EN1999). The revision process led to introducing additional structural typologies (bridging, roofing and a composite of aluminium–concrete), new connection types, new materials and a new buckling material class and to defining improved buckling curves accordingly. This resulted in the addition of several new annexes to the main text. The new items were mostly planned for Part 1-1, including general upgrading, updating and simplifying, with some new additions where necessary. NDPs were reduced from 89 to 49. A general improvement of editorial aspects was obtained as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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8 pages, 1287 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of the Equivalent Moving Force Model for Lightweight Aluminum Footbridges in Simulating the Bridge Response under a Single-Pedestrian Walking Load
by Elyar Ghaffarian Dallali and Pampa Dey
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043022 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 421
Abstract
Due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, extrudability, and recyclability, there is a growing demand for the use of aluminum for sustainable bridge constructions, especially for footbridges. Owing to their light weight and lively characteristics, vibration serviceability often governs the design of [...] Read more.
Due to its high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, extrudability, and recyclability, there is a growing demand for the use of aluminum for sustainable bridge constructions, especially for footbridges. Owing to their light weight and lively characteristics, vibration serviceability often governs the design of aluminum footbridges. To better design these bridges, it is necessary to accurately predict pedestrian-induced walking loads. To this end, the existing design codes around the world have adopted the periodic moving force model (MF) due to its simplicity. However, the appropriateness of the MF model is being questioned, mainly in capturing the effect of the human–structure interaction (HSI), which can be pertinent to the design behavior of aluminum footbridges. A biomechanical-based spring-mass-damper (SMD) model was developed in the literature to simulate the HSI phenomena, which has never been validated for aluminum footbridges. Moreover, to simplify the complexity associated with SMD models, the experimental moving force model (EMF) was developed that can capture the effect of the HSI in an equivalent sense. This study aims to evaluate the capability of the SMD and EMF models to capture the real behavior of aluminum footbridges. To do so, the vibration responses of two aluminum footbridges are simulated numerically as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system under single-pedestrian walking loads employing the SMD, EMF, and MF models, which are then compared and validated based on already-available experimental observations. Finally, recommendations are made for the most suitable model for the vibration prediction of aluminum footbridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 4602 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Preparation of High-Quality 6xxx Aluminium Eco Alloys Cast in Billets
by Sonia Boczkal, Bogusław Augustyn, Joanna Hrabia-Wiśnios, Dawid Kapinos, Gregory Lewis, Pierre-François Bareel, Stéphane Savelli, Manel da Silva and Tutku Özen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043023 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 500
Abstract
The present research work shows that secondary aluminium alloys, properly sorted and prepared for the casting process, can provide almost 100% of the input for the casting process of 6xxx alloys billets. The 6063 and 6082 alloys were prepared in three variants of [...] Read more.
The present research work shows that secondary aluminium alloys, properly sorted and prepared for the casting process, can provide almost 100% of the input for the casting process of 6xxx alloys billets. The 6063 and 6082 alloys were prepared in three variants of chemical composition. Liquid metal analysis showed low levels of impurities in most of the alloys studied. In the hot-top cast billets, differences were observed in the phase fraction and average grain size between the edge and centre of the billet, which was related to a slight increase in the content of elements such as Fe and Mn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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8 pages, 3809 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Tests on Aluminum Sections with Simple and Complex Geometries
by Prachi Verma, Sahar Dahboul, Liya Li, Pampa Dey and Nicolas Boissonnade
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043024 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Aluminum appears as a promising structural material as it shows many benefits such as a great strength to weight ratio, low maintenance costs, resistance to corrosion, recyclability, etc. Accordingly, characterizing the behavior and resistance of different aluminum sections under various loading conditions is [...] Read more.
Aluminum appears as a promising structural material as it shows many benefits such as a great strength to weight ratio, low maintenance costs, resistance to corrosion, recyclability, etc. Accordingly, characterizing the behavior and resistance of different aluminum sections under various loading conditions is essential. The current paper presents an experimental investigation on aluminum sections with simple and complex geometries to study the effect of cross-section shape on the buckling response of the aluminum sections. Firstly, eight tensile coupon tests were conducted on coupons of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 to accurately determine its material properties. Geometrical imperfections on the surface of each specimen were then measured using a 3D scanner. Further, eight stub column tests were also performed to study the behavior of I, H and complex cross-sections under pure compression. In addition to this, 12 cross-section tests under combined compression and bending are currently under way to study the buckling behavior of these specimens under eccentric compression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 10667 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Texture and Mechanical Properties of Extruded AA6063 Aluminum Alloy
by Clément Pot, Majid Yazdani, Quentin Boyadjian, Philippe Bocher and Jean-François Béland
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043025 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 756
Abstract
The extrusion process imposes a large amount of deformation on the material, resulting in complex changes in microstructure morphology and crystallographic texture, making the predictions of the final mechanical properties very challenging. In this research, the texture and the mechanical properties of AA6063 [...] Read more.
The extrusion process imposes a large amount of deformation on the material, resulting in complex changes in microstructure morphology and crystallographic texture, making the predictions of the final mechanical properties very challenging. In this research, the texture and the mechanical properties of AA6063 aluminum extruded profiles are investigated. This alloy adopts a recrystallized microstructure with equiaxed grains and a typical texture. The plastic anisotropy is compared with a calculation method considering only the texture effect. Some attempts were made to numerically reproduce specific experimental results by accounting for certain restauration mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 1742 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Modelling Induction Heating of Aluminium Sheets for Hot Stamping
by Alexandre Gariépy and Guillaume D’Amours
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043026 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Hot forming of aluminium sheets enables the forming of complex shapes with high-strength alloys due to increased formability at elevated temperatures. A fast, uniform and accurate heating method is required to meet the narrow solution heat treatment window from 460 to 490 °C [...] Read more.
Hot forming of aluminium sheets enables the forming of complex shapes with high-strength alloys due to increased formability at elevated temperatures. A fast, uniform and accurate heating method is required to meet the narrow solution heat treatment window from 460 to 490 °C for AA7xxx alloys before forming. Heated plates and convection furnaces are commonly used in hot forming, but require large equipment and can have medium to long cycle times. Induction heating, which uses an alternating current in a coil surrounding the workpiece, could provide shorter heating times. However, induction heating requires a part-specific coil and can exhibit significant temperature gradients over the blank. Multi-physics electromagnetic and thermal simulation can be used as a design tool to help achieve the target temperature uniformity. In this study, induction heating of an irregular aluminium blank was modelled and validated with experimental data. Methods to improve the temperature uniformity were also tested numerically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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11 pages, 6827 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Structural Folding for Architectural Applications
by Andrei Nejur
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043027 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 826
Abstract
The environmental impact of the construction industry (CI) is no longer a matter of debate. On the other hand, society is in a constant race to build bigger and more audaciously. To mitigate these competing directions, CI is turning to geometry and computation [...] Read more.
The environmental impact of the construction industry (CI) is no longer a matter of debate. On the other hand, society is in a constant race to build bigger and more audaciously. To mitigate these competing directions, CI is turning to geometry and computation to reduce new material consumption and to improve the structural properties of buildings. Aluminum, with its remarkable weight to stiffness ratio and its natural anticorrosive properties, is at the forefront of this endeavor. For structural applications, aluminum is mainly used in its extruded form, while the rolled (sheet) material is preferred for architectural finishings and non-structural applications due to its low stiffness. However, with the advent of computational design and ubiquitous 2d CNC cutting, sheet metal can be used for bespoke architectural applications that combine aesthetic, structural, and environmental innovations. This paper will present two research projects developed in an academic setting at University of Montreal’s School of Architecture that use low thickness aluminum sheets to build bespoke architectural structures. The first project highlights an innovative use of surface discretization and assembly tabs to induce stiffness in large-scale doubly curved architectural surfaces and thus produces complex, free-standing aluminum surfaces with no support structure. The second project introduces a new folded low-tech ultralight aluminum node (300–400 gr) that is used to produce complex reticular wooden structures with nonstandard angles using reclaimed 2 × 4 wooden studs. Both projects culminated in full-scale research demonstrators with architectural pavilions exhibited on the university campus in 2021 and 2022. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 8302 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Unidirectional and Cross-Rolling on the Texture Evolution of a Hot Extruded AA6082
by Majid Yazdani, Clément Pot, Quentin Boyadjian, Yang Liu, Stephen Yue, Jean-François Béland and Philippe Bocher
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043028 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 548
Abstract
To illustrate how the texture evolution of a polycrystalline aluminum alloy is dependent on the deformation path, hot extruded AA6082 plates in T6 conditions were rolled with various deformation modes. Unidirectional and cross-rolling were conducted at room temperature for different levels of thickness [...] Read more.
To illustrate how the texture evolution of a polycrystalline aluminum alloy is dependent on the deformation path, hot extruded AA6082 plates in T6 conditions were rolled with various deformation modes. Unidirectional and cross-rolling were conducted at room temperature for different levels of thickness reduction. The resulting textures were then evaluated using the electron backscatter diffraction technique. Depending on the extent of deformation, different textures were obtained. The strong texture of the initial hot extruded material influences texture development and provides new insights into texture development in aluminum alloys. The evolution of the Cube component was particularly interesting in this matter. A competition between dislocation glide and crystal rotation could explain the observed results. The comprehension of these mechanisms leads to a better understanding of texture evolution that drives many properties in aluminum alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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5 pages, 1333 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Polymer–Aluminum Lightweight Multi-Material Joints Bonded with Mixed Adhesive
by Mani Mohan Tiwari, Saleema Noormohammed, Dilip Kumar Sarkar and X.-Grant Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043029 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Considering the challenges faced when joining multi-materials where welding is not possible, such as with polymers and metal, adhesives can be used to bond them. In this study, two chemically different adhesives, namely epoxy and silicone, were used to bond PVC/Al. Infrared spectra [...] Read more.
Considering the challenges faced when joining multi-materials where welding is not possible, such as with polymers and metal, adhesives can be used to bond them. In this study, two chemically different adhesives, namely epoxy and silicone, were used to bond PVC/Al. Infrared spectra of a mixed adhesive revealed the presence of overlapping peaks with PVC, namely –CH2, –CH3 around 2800–3000 cm−1 and Si–CH3 at 1260 cm−1. Mechanical testing on single-lap shear specimens of PVC/Al prepared using mixed adhesive showed the enhancement in the adhesive strength was ~5 times higher compared to the adhesive strength of PVC/Al joints made with only silicone adhesive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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6 pages, 3279 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Microstructure Evolution in a 6082 Alloy under Pulsed Magnetic Field Melt Treatment
by Xinyu Bao, Yonglin Ma and Yongzhen Liu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043030 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The 6082 alloy is used to produce DC (direct-chilling) billets for subsequent forging or rolling processes. It is necessary to control the solidification structure in casting billets during the casting process. Based on the previous work, the energy of the magnetic field was [...] Read more.
The 6082 alloy is used to produce DC (direct-chilling) billets for subsequent forging or rolling processes. It is necessary to control the solidification structure in casting billets during the casting process. Based on the previous work, the energy of the magnetic field was found to reduce the formation work of the larger cluster in the melt, leading to the formation of larger clusters in the melt, facilitating nucleation and refining the solidification structure. Inspired by this, the pulsed magnetic field melt treatment was applied upon the launder of the casting platform to affect the morphology, size and distribution of α-Al dendrites in the 6082 alloy DC-casting billet with a diameter of 380 mm. The experiment result shows that after the pulsed magnetic field melt treatment, the morphology of α-Al grains in the billet changed from coarse dendritic to small globular and its size was reduced by 18.5–45.4% compared to the existing process. Meanwhile, the difference in morphology of α-Al between the billet centre and edge decreased at the same time. This work may provide a new method for the grain refinement of the 6082 alloy DC-casting billet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 3333 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
O.I.C.-Based Design of Aluminum Circular Hollow Sections under Compression or Pure Bending
by Liya Li, Sahar Dahboul, Prachi Verma, Pampa Dey, Mario Fafard and Nicolas Boissonnade
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043031 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 552
Abstract
This paper investigates the ultimate resistance of aluminum circular hollow sections (C.H.S.) under simple load cases as affected by local buckling and material strain hardening. Following the development of advanced non-linear shell finite element models and their validation against existing test data, extensive [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the ultimate resistance of aluminum circular hollow sections (C.H.S.) under simple load cases as affected by local buckling and material strain hardening. Following the development of advanced non-linear shell finite element models and their validation against existing test data, extensive non-linear numerical analyses were carried out, varying several key parameters such as alloy types, load case (compression or pure bending) and various section dimensions. The numerical results are used as references to analyze the structural performance of aluminum C.H.S., and to assess the accuracy of design equations based on the Overall Interaction Concept (O.I.C.). The O.I.C.-based proposal is shown to yield more accurate, consistent, and continuous resistance predictions than Eurocode 9 recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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8 pages, 570 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Opportunities for Adding Recycled Content to Primary Aluminum Products
by Agathe Tshipama, Vincent Goutière and Marie-Eve Pomerleau
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043032 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Rio Tinto is a leading producer of low-carbon primary aluminum due to its efficient processes and hydroelectricity. It has one of the lowest greenhouse gas (GHG) footprints in the world, which is below four tons of CO2 per ton of primary aluminum. [...] Read more.
Rio Tinto is a leading producer of low-carbon primary aluminum due to its efficient processes and hydroelectricity. It has one of the lowest greenhouse gas (GHG) footprints in the world, which is below four tons of CO2 per ton of primary aluminum. Nevertheless, integrating end-of-life recycling into primary aluminum products, although challenging, plays an important role in further reducing GHG emissions during aluminum production. This is why much effort has been made in recent years throughout Rio Tinto plants to find innovative solutions to overcome this challenge. In 2022, the first circular economy initiative was deployed at Laterrière Works with the addition of a remelt furnace with an initial production capacity of 22,000 tons per year. This project has contributed to adding capacity to remelt both internal process scrap and external industrial scrap. A second initiative is the operation of a new recycling center at Arvida Works to commence in 2025 that will process 30,000 tons per year of end-of-life scrap. As a primary alloy producer, the main challenge for Rio Tinto is to integrate these materials into current and new products without affecting their quality and performance. This paper will present preliminary studies on the chemical compatibility of scrap with current alloys, and the approach used for managing their organic content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 1567 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Aluminum Beams with Composite Thermal Barriers: Recent Developments in Analysis (Part 1)
by James LaBelle
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043033 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 455
Abstract
Two recent developments in the analysis of aluminum-thermal barrier beams are presented in Part 1 of this paper. These beams are used in windows and curtainwalls to support glass lites. The thermal barriers are more flexible than the aluminum faces, and analysis methods [...] Read more.
Two recent developments in the analysis of aluminum-thermal barrier beams are presented in Part 1 of this paper. These beams are used in windows and curtainwalls to support glass lites. The thermal barriers are more flexible than the aluminum faces, and analysis methods that account for shear deformation are required. Part 1 includes: (1) New load case. For a simply supported beam, a closed-form solution for the case of two equal and symmetric concentrated loads has been developed. (2) Overhang effect. For a simply supported beam with a midspan concentrated load, an FEA study was conducted regarding the stiffening effect of overhangs for two profiles and shear moduli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 267 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Aluminum Beams with Composite Thermal Barriers: Recent Developments in Analysis (Part 2)
by James LaBelle
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043034 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 374
Abstract
This is Part 2 of an article about analysis developments for aluminum-thermal barrier beams. It includes: (1) Effective shear modulus. An FEA study determined the effective shear moduli of the cores of simply supported beams. These beams (tested by others) had glass-fiber-reinforced [...] Read more.
This is Part 2 of an article about analysis developments for aluminum-thermal barrier beams. It includes: (1) Effective shear modulus. An FEA study determined the effective shear moduli of the cores of simply supported beams. These beams (tested by others) had glass-fiber-reinforced nylon (polyamide) cores, short overhangs, and two symmetrical concentrated loads. Effective moments of inertia, effective section moduli, and shear flows are presented. (2) Bending stiffness. Bending stiffnesses based on a U.S. method are compared to those based on a European method. Two profiles, two shear moduli, and three spans were studied. Results are very similar if face shear deformation is not included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
10 pages, 2887 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Behaviour and Design of I-Shaped Aluminium Sections
by Sahar Dahboul, Tristan Coderre, Liya Li and Nicolas Boissonnade
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043035 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Aluminium alloys exhibit a non-linear stress–strain material response with significant strain-hardening effects. Whereas the latter shall be considered in the design of aluminium elements, they are largely ignored in most design codes, such as Eurocode 9 and the Canadian Standards. Preliminary studies on [...] Read more.
Aluminium alloys exhibit a non-linear stress–strain material response with significant strain-hardening effects. Whereas the latter shall be considered in the design of aluminium elements, they are largely ignored in most design codes, such as Eurocode 9 and the Canadian Standards. Preliminary studies on typical aluminium I-shapes indeed indicated that as much as 40% extra resistance could be reached through more accurate and appropriate design recommendations. Accordingly, an original design approach based on the Overall Interaction Concept (O.I.C.) is developed to better account for the actual behaviour of aluminium structural shapes. In this respect, non-linear finite element models are developed within ABAQUS and further validated against experimental data. Subsequently, comprehensive parametric studies are performed to collect numerical reference results, and comparisons are performed with resistance predictions from well-known design standards. The performance of the newly developed O.I.C.-based design approach is shown to significantly improve accuracy, safety, consistency, and reliability levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 11729 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Optimal Extrusion Shape for Fabricating Aluminium Bridge Deck Using Assembly-Based Friction Stir Welding with Bobbin Tool
by Amar Djedid, Marc Oudjene and Mario Fafard
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043036 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 419
Abstract
This article presents an optimal extrusion geometry for fabricating a bridge deck. The profile of the extrusion enables the possibility of welding onto another extrusion through butt joints only. This type of welding joint is optimal in terms of both the ultimate resistance [...] Read more.
This article presents an optimal extrusion geometry for fabricating a bridge deck. The profile of the extrusion enables the possibility of welding onto another extrusion through butt joints only. This type of welding joint is optimal in terms of both the ultimate resistance and the fatigue performance. Thus, the aluminium deck will be manufactured by welding these extrusions together through the bobbin tool friction stir welding process, resulting in a full-penetration weld, free of the kissing bond and the flash toe defects, and in which the thermal input and the stirring are symmetrical on both outer sides of the butt joint. Therefore, this geometry addresses the shortcomings of both the MIG and the conventional FSW processes and significantly increases the lifespan of the aluminium deck. This article will present the scientific and technical approach, based on the Canadian standard CSA S6:19, and will present an example of application on an aluminium/glued laminated timber bridge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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4 pages, 1999 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Metal Fused Filament Fabrication of AlSi10Mg Aluminum Alloy
by E. Galindo, M. Maric, A. Avalos Postigo, A. Walker, M. Conlon, K. Azari and M. Brochu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043037 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Metal-fused filament fabrication (MF3), which is a variation of the conventional fused filament fabrication (FFF), has recently gained interest due to its distinctive process flexibility and rapid prototyping capability to produce metallic parts. With respect to the additive manufacturing (AM) of aluminum alloys, [...] Read more.
Metal-fused filament fabrication (MF3), which is a variation of the conventional fused filament fabrication (FFF), has recently gained interest due to its distinctive process flexibility and rapid prototyping capability to produce metallic parts. With respect to the additive manufacturing (AM) of aluminum alloys, most efforts have been centered on laser powder bed fusion technologies, with limited activities focused on binder-based processes due to challenges in the sintering of aluminum powders. With respect to MF3, one challenge for fabricating metallic components is the appropriate selection of a binder mixture, enabling the extrusion of a filament with high metallic volume content. In this paper, a mixture of biodegradable aliphatic polyester thermoplastic is used as a binder phase to act as the carrier for AlSi10Mg alloy powders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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8 pages, 1833 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Life Cycle Cost Assessment of an Existing All-Aluminum Bridge: Comparison of Two Deck Options
by Thomas Fortin, Pampa Dey, Nicolas Boissonnade and Mario Fafard
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043038 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Traditionally, initial material cost has been the governing factor for material selection in structural construction. However, the growing maintenance cost of existing infrastructure has demanded a long-term vision in material selection and in this regard, life cycle cost assessment has been proven to [...] Read more.
Traditionally, initial material cost has been the governing factor for material selection in structural construction. However, the growing maintenance cost of existing infrastructure has demanded a long-term vision in material selection and in this regard, life cycle cost assessment has been proven to be a better assessment tool than the initial cost of construction. Despite its higher initial cost, aluminum offers many positive attributes, such as a high resistance to weight ratio, good recyclability, and excellent corrosion resistance, which can significantly reduce the life cycle cost of a structure over its entire service life. Yet, the limited use of aluminum in bridge construction and the lack of literature on this matter do not provide comprehensive evidence of its superior performance in the long-term. Based on this premise, this study performs a life cycle cost analysis on the first all-aluminum bridge situated in Arvida, Quebec. The analysis has revealed that most maintenance costs are associated with the rehabilitation of the concrete deck. The frequent concrete deck maintenance dismisses the benefits of the low maintenance aluminum structure. In order to investigate further, an alternative analysis has also been performed on the bridge with a hypothetical aluminum deck that replaces the existing concrete deck. The comparison shows that the aluminum deck reduces the maintenance cost significantly. However, further analysis should be performed with an optimized aluminum deck that can also yield a significantly lower life cycle cost compared to the existing bridge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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14 pages, 1876 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental and Analytical Study of SHS Aluminium Members under Uniform Compression
by Vincenzo Piluso and Alessandro Pisapia
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043039 - 25 Sep 2023
Viewed by 353
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the ultimate behaviour of box-shaped aluminium members subjected to uniform compression. Eight stub column tests have been carried out at the University of Salerno. In particular, four box sections made of 6060 aluminium alloys with [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the ultimate behaviour of box-shaped aluminium members subjected to uniform compression. Eight stub column tests have been carried out at the University of Salerno. In particular, four box sections made of 6060 aluminium alloys with different width-to-thickness ratios have been investigated. The results have been reported in terms of the maximum compressive resistance and corresponding deformation capacity. Subsequently, the experimental results have been compared with those obtained by two accurate methodologies: (1) a theoretical procedure based on the deformation theory of plasticity (J2); and (2) an extension of the effective thickness method (ETM) provided by Annex L of the Eurocode 9 draft. These approaches take into account the local buckling effects within the elastic-plastic region, the strain-hardening be-haviour of the aluminium material, and the interaction between the plate elements constituting the cross-section. Finally, a comparison between new methodologies and current design rules has been presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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7 pages, 2395 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Direct Resistance Heating of Aluminum Sheets for Rapid Superplastic Forming
by Valentin Maynard, Alexandre Landry-Blais, Dany Francoeur, Nicolas Bombardier, Alain Chapdelaine and Mathieu Picard
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043040 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Superplastic aluminum forming is a promising manufacturing process for the transportation industry because it allows for the manufacturing of complex body parts from a single sheet of aluminum, reducing the number of pieces and the weight of vehicles. However, the process is still [...] Read more.
Superplastic aluminum forming is a promising manufacturing process for the transportation industry because it allows for the manufacturing of complex body parts from a single sheet of aluminum, reducing the number of pieces and the weight of vehicles. However, the process is still limited, among other things, by the low heating rate of the sheets. Indeed, for the 5000 series aluminum alloy, a temperature between 450 and 550 °C must be reached, but the furnaces used are inefficient, leading to heating times in the order of ~3 to 6 min. A test bench has been developed to evaluate direct resistance heating as a solution. It allows heating 350 × 200 × 1 mm sheets. The uniformity of the sheet’s temperature is an important factor in ensuring good formability and has been evaluated using an infrared camera. Tests show that the sheets can be heated within 20 s using a current of 6200 A, with a standard deviation of about 10 °C over the surface of the sheet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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7 pages, 2771 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of Small-Scale Thin Wall AlSi7Mg Alloys LPBF Coupons under Extreme Low Cycle Fatigue Regime
by Muralidharan Kumar, Rafael Mata Garcia, Srikanta Prasad and Mathieu Brochu
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043041 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 540
Abstract
The recently developed process of additive manufacturing of aluminum alloys via laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) has the capability to build parts with complex geometries, which can lead to potential benefits in manufacturing industries. The adoption of intricate thin wall structures is restrained [...] Read more.
The recently developed process of additive manufacturing of aluminum alloys via laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) has the capability to build parts with complex geometries, which can lead to potential benefits in manufacturing industries. The adoption of intricate thin wall structures is restrained by the lack of reliable mechanical property data and understanding of the failure sequence in extreme cyclic loading conditions. The results show that the LPBF AlSi7Mg thin-walled specimens under an Extreme Low Cycle Fatigue (ELCF) regime for 0.1 mm to 0.8 mm design thin wall thickness variation attained results of 1 to 20 number of cycles to failure (Nf) in as-built, stress-relieved annealing and T5 heat treatment conditions. The present work also explores the factors linking GD&T, and heterogeneity of the thin-walled alternate cyclic bend fatigue-tested specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 8803 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Test of Slip-Critical Connection System with Embedded Nuts for Aluminum Bridge Application
by Petrino Buzatu, Benoit Cusson, John Erian and Mario Fafard
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043042 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Aluminum is a common material in construction and relatively new in infrastructure, such as bridges. One advantage of aluminum is the production of complex geometry extrusions, which optimizes the mass of components. In order to assemble aluminum deck panels, a mechanical assembly method [...] Read more.
Aluminum is a common material in construction and relatively new in infrastructure, such as bridges. One advantage of aluminum is the production of complex geometry extrusions, which optimizes the mass of components. In order to assemble aluminum deck panels, a mechanical assembly method must be used. One solution is to access the fasteners (nuts) in closed areas of the extrusions. As was found, to embed the nuts in an aluminum flat bar, the goal was to assure non-slip grip at maximum torque and minimum fabrication cost. Full-scale physical tests were performed to verify the compliance with standardized turn-of-nut tightening requirements. The good test results will help introduce this solution in future aluminum bridge construction projects and improve bridge standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 4258 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Short Review on Superplasticity of Aluminum Alloys
by Eric Kojo Kweitsu, Dilip Kumar Sarkar and X.-Grant Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043043 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 617
Abstract
Superplastic aluminum (Al) alloys can be used in the forming processes to fabricate complex geometry components for a wide range of applications in the automobile industry, where light weight and high stiffness are needed. Those alloys exhibit extreme tensile elongation of more than [...] Read more.
Superplastic aluminum (Al) alloys can be used in the forming processes to fabricate complex geometry components for a wide range of applications in the automobile industry, where light weight and high stiffness are needed. Those alloys exhibit extreme tensile elongation of more than 300% at a high homologous temperature and appropriate low strain rate. Superplasticity occurs in Al alloys via the mechanisms of grain boundary sliding, solute drag creep and diffusion creep. Grain boundary sliding usually leads to extensive superplasticity. The activation of grain boundary sliding depends on grain size, strain rate sensitivity, deformation temperature and alloy chemical composition. A complete understanding of influencing factors on Al alloy superplasticity is the key to developing novel superplastic Al alloys. This review discusses the superplastic behavior of several Al alloys, especially focusing on Al-Mg 5xxx alloys. It highlights the mechanisms that govern superplasticity of Al alloys at a low and high strain rate. The factors which influence superplasticity are analyzed. As practice industrial applications, high-cycle-time superplastic forming operations such as quick plastic forming and high-speed blow forming are briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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16 pages, 9921 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Characteristics of a Novel Hybrid Densified Wood-Filled Aluminum Tube Dowel for Timber Connections
by Marie-Gabrielle Tétreault, Guillaume Rollo, Marc Oudjene and Mario Fafard
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043044 - 04 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
The structural performance of a novel hybrid dowel, made of a densified wood-filled aluminum tube (DWFAT), for structural timber joints was investigated experimentally, for the first time. Three-point bending tests have been conducted on both hybrid DWFAT dowels and densified wood dowels (DWD) [...] Read more.
The structural performance of a novel hybrid dowel, made of a densified wood-filled aluminum tube (DWFAT), for structural timber joints was investigated experimentally, for the first time. Three-point bending tests have been conducted on both hybrid DWFAT dowels and densified wood dowels (DWD) in order to evaluate their strength and stiffness characteristics as well as their ductility and failure modes. The developed hybrid DWFAT dowels were then used and tested in the context of both slotted-in aluminum plate timber and timber-to-timber double shear connections and the obtained load-slip curves as well as the failure modes were analyzed and compared to their equivalent connections made with conventional steel dowels. The results showed that the developed hybrid DWFAT dowel is promising and can be a potential substitute for conventional steel dowels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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8 pages, 9195 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Dissimilar Joining of High-Strength Steel and Aluminum Alloy Using Resistance Spot Welding with Die- and Punch-Shaped Electrodes
by Muneyoshi Iyota, Takuya Hamaguchi and Yuto Koga
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043045 - 04 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 450
Abstract
In this study, a dissimilar material joining of high-strength steel sheet and aluminum alloy using die- and punch-shaped electrodes was investigated. First, when resistance spot welding was performed using die- and punch-shaped electrodes, it is shown that the joint underwent large plastic deformation [...] Read more.
In this study, a dissimilar material joining of high-strength steel sheet and aluminum alloy using die- and punch-shaped electrodes was investigated. First, when resistance spot welding was performed using die- and punch-shaped electrodes, it is shown that the joint underwent large plastic deformation and that the deformation state changed as the current value was varied. Next, the IMC condition under the appropriate current condition revealed that relatively thin IMCs of 2 μm or less were distributed across the entire joining interface. Finally, the cross-tension strength of the joints was significantly improved compared to conditions using conventional R-type electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 3320 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Fatigue Testing and Analysis of Flare Bevel Groove-Welded Aluminum Joints for Pedestrian Bridge Applications
by Abdullah Abdelbadie and Scott Walbridge
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043046 - 07 Oct 2023
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Flare bevel groove (FBG) welds are used in truss bridges with square hollow structural section (HSS) members. To reduce costs, joints can be welded without bevelling, but this negatively impacts the fatigue performance of the connection. This approach is often used in pedestrian [...] Read more.
Flare bevel groove (FBG) welds are used in truss bridges with square hollow structural section (HSS) members. To reduce costs, joints can be welded without bevelling, but this negatively impacts the fatigue performance of the connection. This approach is often used in pedestrian bridges made from steel or aluminum. To investigate the fatigue performance of FBG welds, a study was conducted on T-joints made from aluminum square HSS members. The goal was to establish an S–N curve for these welds and present a numerical fatigue life prediction methodology. The study involved cyclic tests supplemented by a fatigue life prediction using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) coupled with finite element (FE) analysis using the software ABAQUS. Several parameters were varied, including the HSS section size and the corner radius (as extruded and hand ground). Six identical samples were tested for each combination of parameters to generate an S–N curve. The paper ends by drawing conclusions regarding the fatigue performance of aluminum FBG welds and their suitability for use in cyclically loaded structures such as pedestrian bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 5251 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Weldability and Mechanical Properties of Fe/Al Dissimilar Joints by Resistance Spot Weld Bonding
by Shoma Sakurai, Yuto Ike, Kiichi Yoshida and Muneyoshi Iyota
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043047 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 400
Abstract
In this study, weldability and mechanical properties of resistance spot weld bonding were investigated when adhesives with different properties were used. The results show that weldability is improved in resistance spot weld bonding when the adhesive is discharged from the weld zone by [...] Read more.
In this study, weldability and mechanical properties of resistance spot weld bonding were investigated when adhesives with different properties were used. The results show that weldability is improved in resistance spot weld bonding when the adhesive is discharged from the weld zone by using a multi-stage current application technique. In terms of mechanical properties, weld-bonded joints using high-strength adhesives showed improved strength because both the weld and the adhesive are subjected to loads. On the other hand, when a low-strength adhesive is used, the adhesive and the weld fail separately, and the CTS is not improved. In addition, in the resistance spot weld bonding of Fe-Al, the IMC formation area is expanded, and the CTS is improved by using a 3-stage current application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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9 pages, 2290 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Different Static Mechanical Properties and Inclined Welding on the Fatigue Strength of Welded Aluminum Details
by Dorina Siebert and Christina Radlbeck
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043048 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Civil engineering structures are often loaded cyclically in addition to static loading. For the design of cyclic-loaded aluminum structures, EN 1999-1-3 provides several notch cases for a verification based on the nominal stress concept. These notch cases do not distinguish between the different [...] Read more.
Civil engineering structures are often loaded cyclically in addition to static loading. For the design of cyclic-loaded aluminum structures, EN 1999-1-3 provides several notch cases for a verification based on the nominal stress concept. These notch cases do not distinguish between the different available alloys exhibiting varying characteristics, such as static mechanical properties in the heat-affected zone. Furthermore, for welded details only longitudinal or transverse welding is covered without the possibility for considering inclined welding with multiaxial stress states. However, load-controlled fatigue testing of two different alloys and specimens out of base material, specimens with 45° welding and transverse welding, respectively, have shown the clear influence of alloy and weld angle on the fatigue strength of welded aluminum details. In this paper, the respective experimental and numerical results of two alloys, EN AW-6082 T6 and EN AW-5754 O/H111, and two weld angles, 45° and 90°, are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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7 pages, 3306 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Antimicrobial Aluminum Surfaces for Curbing Healthcare-Associated Infections—A Short Review
by Henry Agbe, Dilip Kumar Sarkar and X.-Grant Chen
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043049 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Healthcare-associated infections are serious public health problem. Besides antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral therapies, one potential strategy for breaking the chain of infection transmission is via the installation of antibacterial surfaces. Aluminum is an attractive material for fabricating frequently touched surfaces such as doorknobs, [...] Read more.
Healthcare-associated infections are serious public health problem. Besides antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral therapies, one potential strategy for breaking the chain of infection transmission is via the installation of antibacterial surfaces. Aluminum is an attractive material for fabricating frequently touched surfaces such as doorknobs, push plate, bedrails, etc. Recently, our research group and others have demonstrated that by utilizing appropriate surface treatment technologies, such as anodization, low-surface-energy passivation, and electrochemical surface modification, on an AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy, aluminum could be rendered antimicrobial. Such surface technologies can be efficient in antimicrobial activities, and they also show advantages in terms of robustness and durability. These novel surfaces have been shown to reduce the microbial burden of clinically relevant pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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10 pages, 6707 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Friction Stir Welding Parameters Development of AA6061-T6 Extruded Alloy Using a Bobbin Tool
by Kenza Marianne Sipereh Tinguery, Ahmed Rahem, François Nadeau and Mario Fafard
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043050 - 09 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
Bobbin tool friction stir welding (BT-FSW), or self-reacting tool friction stir welding (SR-FSW), refers to a solid-state welding process which that uses two opposing rotating shoulders (top and lower of the workpiece) connected with a fully penetrated pin. In fact, the bottom shoulder [...] Read more.
Bobbin tool friction stir welding (BT-FSW), or self-reacting tool friction stir welding (SR-FSW), refers to a solid-state welding process which that uses two opposing rotating shoulders (top and lower of the workpiece) connected with a fully penetrated pin. In fact, the bottom shoulder in the BT-FSW design replaced the backing plate used in the conventional tool friction stir welding (CT-FSW) to promote symmetrical solid-state joints. Compared to CT-FSW, the BT-FSW process has many advantages over the use of a conventional tool such as the welded structure is symmetric in thickness, low distortion of weld joint can be obtained, the elimination of root for welds, a backing plate is not required, and high force is not required for fixing the weld plates and possibility welding a closed or a hollow section (U and H shapes). The welding parameters of BT-FSW, such as tool pin profile, rotational speed, welding speed, and axial force, have a considerable effect on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the resulting assembly. In the current study, two extrusions of aluminum alloy 6061-T6 with 8 mm were joined by the BT-FSW technique with a tool pin with threads and eight different welding parameters (tool rotation speed and welding speed). The maximum value of tensile strength was achieved using optimum welding conditions of a tool rotation speed of 850 rpm/min and a welding speed of 650 mm/min. The study also investigated the joint efficiency of the friction stir welded joint, defects at the weld zone, and fatigue life of BT-FSW samples at the optimized level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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8 pages, 2123 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Optimization-Based Case Study of Aluminum Pedestrian Bridge Decks
by Peter Nilsson Strand, Emelie Falkenberg, Markus Fredriksson, Mohammad Al-Emrani, Benoit Cusson and Henrik Nyström
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043051 - 09 Oct 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
In Sweden, steel bridges are the most common solution regarding prefabricated short-span (15–35 m) pedestrian bridges. The most common bridge type for this application is a carbon steel truss bridge with an orthotropic deck consisting of a 10–12 mm deck plate and trapezoidal [...] Read more.
In Sweden, steel bridges are the most common solution regarding prefabricated short-span (15–35 m) pedestrian bridges. The most common bridge type for this application is a carbon steel truss bridge with an orthotropic deck consisting of a 10–12 mm deck plate and trapezoidal stiffeners. For these bridges, the deck is the main driver regarding economic and environmental costs, originating from, e.g., high material consumption and maintenance activities. This paper aims to compare the economic aspects between a conventional steel deck and an extruded aluminum deck from an investment cost perspective. The aluminum deck is homogenous, i.e., containing no mechanical connections. To perform this case study, an optimization routine is developed and executed for the aluminum alternative. This optimization study targets the minimum weight and is constrained by the Eurocode design code. A sub-model approach is adopted for the numerical analysis, based on shell and solid elements. The procedure to go from a cross-section defined by a set of parameters to reach the optimized bridge deck is presented. The studies that are reported in this paper show that the developed optimization routine gives satisfactory results. Furthermore, they indicate that homogenous extruded aluminum decks can be a viable deck option for pedestrian bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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7 pages, 18240 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mechanical Properties of Resistance-Spot-Welded Joints of Aluminum Castings and Wrought Alloys
by Takeshi Matsukage, Shoma Sakurai, Taishi Traui and Muneyoshi Iyota
Eng. Proc. 2023, 43(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023043052 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 407
Abstract
Joint strength was measured as a mechanical property of spot-welded joints of casting and wrought aluminum alloys. It was confirmed that the joints of casting alloys, wrought alloys and combinations of casting and wrought alloys exhibited different joint strengths. In addition, hardness measurements [...] Read more.
Joint strength was measured as a mechanical property of spot-welded joints of casting and wrought aluminum alloys. It was confirmed that the joints of casting alloys, wrought alloys and combinations of casting and wrought alloys exhibited different joint strengths. In addition, hardness measurements and microstructural observations of the melting zone revealed that the melt properties affected the joint strength of spot-welded joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 15th International Aluminium Conference)
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