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Vision, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Imagining scenes and objects can help us accomplish everyday tasks and solve problems, such as retracing our steps to find a lost item. Looking at brain activation patterns, we could determine the images that people saw but not those they imagined. Our results suggest that stimulus complexity, task design, and individual differences influences the ability to “read out” imagined images from human brain activity. View this paper.
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Editorial
Recognition for Vision
Vision 2019, 3(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040069 - 17 Dec 2019
Viewed by 745
Abstract
When children grow up, the first word or first step in walking is always a significant event [...] Full article
Article
A Novel Method for Detection and Progress Assessment of Visual Distortion Caused by Macular Disorder: A Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSR) Case Study
Vision 2019, 3(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040068 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 896
Abstract
This paper presents a new mathematical model along with a measurement platform for accurate detection and monitoring of various visual distortions (VD) caused by macular disorders such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This platform projects a series of [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new mathematical model along with a measurement platform for accurate detection and monitoring of various visual distortions (VD) caused by macular disorders such as central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This platform projects a series of graphical patterns on the patient’s retina and calculates the severity of VDs accordingly. The accuracy of this technique relies on the accurate detection of distorted lines by the patient. We also propose a simple mathematical model to evaluate the VD created by CSR. The model is used as a control for the test results achieved from the proposed platform. The proposed platform consists of the required hardware and software for the generation and projection of patterns along with the collection and processing of patients against their standard optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Based on these results, the OCT images agree with the VD test results, and the proposed platform can be used as an alternative home monitoring method for various macular disorders. Full article
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Article
Questions for the Psychology of the Artful Mind
Vision 2019, 3(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040067 - 21 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
This paper reconstructs the “Arnheim’s puzzle” over the psychology of art. It is argued that the long-established psychological theories of art do not account properly for the observable variability of art, which provide the phenomena of interest whose psychological factors need to be [...] Read more.
This paper reconstructs the “Arnheim’s puzzle” over the psychology of art. It is argued that the long-established psychological theories of art do not account properly for the observable variability of art, which provide the phenomena of interest whose psychological factors need to be discovered. The general purpose principles of such theories, the ensuing selective sample of art phenomena, and assumption of conventional properties of aesthetic experience make the predictions and the findings of the theories unrepresentative of art. From the discussion of examples drawn from contemporary visual arts and the presentation of the debate on the emergence of the cognitive capacities of art in paleoanthropology, a construct is presented on the specificity of the cognitive capacities of art and its anchoring to perception, which solves the puzzle and has implications for research and teaching psychology of art. Full article
Article
Errors in Imagined and Executed Typing
Vision 2019, 3(4), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040066 - 20 Nov 2019
Viewed by 955
Abstract
In motor imagery (MI), internal models may predict the action effects. A mismatch between predicted and intended action effects may result in error detection. To compare error detection in MI and motor execution (ME), ten-finger typists and hunt-and-peck typists performed a copy-typing task. [...] Read more.
In motor imagery (MI), internal models may predict the action effects. A mismatch between predicted and intended action effects may result in error detection. To compare error detection in MI and motor execution (ME), ten-finger typists and hunt-and-peck typists performed a copy-typing task. Visibility of the screen and visibility of the keyboard were manipulated. Participants reported what type of error occurred and by which sources they detected the error. With covered screen, fewer errors were reported, showing the importance of distal action effects for error detection. With covered screen, the number of reported higher-order planning errors did not significantly differ between MI and ME. However, the number of reported motor command errors was lower in MI than in ME. Hence, only errors that occur in advance to internal modeling are equally observed in MI and ME. MI may require more attention than ME, leaving fewer resources to monitor motor command errors in MI. In comparison to hunt-and-peck typists, ten-finger typists detected more higher-order planning errors by kinesthesis/touch and fewer motor command errors by vision of the keyboard. The use of sources for error detection did not significantly differ between MI and ME, indicating similar mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Visual Control of Action)
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Article
The Perceptual and Aesthetic Aspects of the Music-Paintings Congruence
Vision 2019, 3(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040065 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of congruence between music and paintings on the aesthetic preference of paintings. Congruence was specified as the similarity in perceived regularity and the complexity of jazz compositions and abstract paintings (the ratings [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of congruence between music and paintings on the aesthetic preference of paintings. Congruence was specified as the similarity in perceived regularity and the complexity of jazz compositions and abstract paintings (the ratings of regularity and complexity in both sets of stimuli were obtained in the pilot study). In the main experiment, 32 participants rated the aesthetic pleasantness of paintings with congruent, incongruent, and no music background. In addition, they rated the music-paintings matching (how well the music goes with the painting). The results show no effect of congruence on aesthetic pleasantness ratings. The effect on the perceived matching was significant; matching is higher in the congruent compared to the incongruent condition. These findings suggest that congruency has a strong effect on the perceptual aspect of the music-paintings compatibility (visuo-auditory similarity) and no effect on the aesthetic aspect (liking). Full article
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Article
On the Aperture Problem of Binocular 3D Motion Perception
Vision 2019, 3(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040064 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Like many predators, humans have forward-facing eyes that are set a short distance apart so that an extensive region of the visual field is seen from two different points of view. The human visual system can establish a three-dimensional (3D) percept from the [...] Read more.
Like many predators, humans have forward-facing eyes that are set a short distance apart so that an extensive region of the visual field is seen from two different points of view. The human visual system can establish a three-dimensional (3D) percept from the projection of images into the left and right eye. How the visual system integrates local motion and binocular depth in order to accomplish 3D motion perception is still under investigation. Here, we propose a geometric-statistical model that combines noisy velocity constraints with a spherical motion prior to solve the aperture problem in 3D. In two psychophysical experiments, it is shown that instantiations of this model can explain how human observers disambiguate 3D line motion direction behind a circular aperture. We discuss the implications of our results for the processing of motion and dynamic depth in the visual system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the Scottish Vision Group Meeting 2019)
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Article
Hughes’s Reverspectives: Radical Uses of Linear Perspective on Non-Coplanar Surfaces
Vision 2019, 3(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040063 - 18 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Two major uses of linear perspective are in planar paintings—the flat canvas is incongruent with the painted 3-D scene—and in forced perspectives, such as theater stages that are concave truncated pyramids, where the physical geometry and the depicted scene are congruent. Patrick Hughes [...] Read more.
Two major uses of linear perspective are in planar paintings—the flat canvas is incongruent with the painted 3-D scene—and in forced perspectives, such as theater stages that are concave truncated pyramids, where the physical geometry and the depicted scene are congruent. Patrick Hughes pioneered a third major art form, the reverse perspective, where the depicted scene opposes the physical geometry. Reverse perspectives comprise solid forms composed of multiple planar surfaces (truncated pyramids and prisms) jutting toward the viewer, thus forming concave spaces between the solids. The solids are painted in reverse perspective: as an example, the left and right trapezoids of a truncated pyramid are painted as rows of houses; the bottom trapezoid is painted as the road between them and the top forms the sky. This elicits the percept of a street receding away, even though it physically juts toward the viewer. Under this illusion, the concave void spaces between the solids are transformed into convex volumes. This depth inversion creates a concomitant motion illusion: when a viewer moves in front of the art piece, the scene appears to move vividly. Two additional contributions by the artist are discussed, in which he combines reverse-perspective parts with forced and planar-perspective parts on the same art piece. The effect is spectacular, creating objects on the same planar surface that move in different directions, thus “breaking” the surface apart, demonstrating the superiority of objects over surfaces. We conclude with a discussion on the value of these art pieces in vision science. Full article
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Article
Vision and Hyper-Responsiveness in Migraine
Vision 2019, 3(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040062 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
We investigated contrast processing in relation to visual comfort from coloured light in individuals with migraine. In Experiment 1, 24 individuals who experienced migraine with aura (MA), 15 migraine without aura (MO), and 23 healthy controls, identified which of four patterns, one in [...] Read more.
We investigated contrast processing in relation to visual comfort from coloured light in individuals with migraine. In Experiment 1, 24 individuals who experienced migraine with aura (MA), 15 migraine without aura (MO), and 23 healthy controls, identified which of four patterns, one in each quadrant, had the greatest contrast. Although there were no significant differences between groups, contrast discrimination was superior in the visual field affected by aura in all eight participants in whom the aura was consistently lateralised. In Experiment 2, 20 participants without aura and 20 controls selected comfortable light with a chromaticity close to the daylight (Planckian) locus, whilst 20 individuals with aura chose more strongly saturated colours, mostly distant from the locus. In Experiment 3, nine participants with consistently unilateral aura undertook the contrast discrimination task wearing (a) lenses that provided a comfortable colour of light and (b) grey lenses of similar transmission. With grey lenses, seven of the nine individuals with unilateral aura showed a superior performance in the affected field, as before. With lenses providing a comfortable colour, however, the performance was relatively poor for the nine individuals with unilateral aura, but not for the 10 controls. This was the case in both visual fields. The cortical hyper-responsiveness with which migraine is associated may improve the perception of contrast. The perception is poorer (and more normal) with ophthalmic lenses having a comfortable colour. Full article
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Article
A Three-Feature Model to Predict Colour Change Blindness
Vision 2019, 3(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040061 - 10 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Change blindness is a striking shortcoming of our visual system which is exploited in the popular ‘Spot the difference’ game, as it makes us unable to notice large visual changes happening right before our eyes. Change blindness illustrates the fact that we see [...] Read more.
Change blindness is a striking shortcoming of our visual system which is exploited in the popular ‘Spot the difference’ game, as it makes us unable to notice large visual changes happening right before our eyes. Change blindness illustrates the fact that we see much less than we think we do. In this paper, we introduce a fully automated model to predict colour change blindness in cartoon images based on image complexity, change magnitude and observer experience. Using linear regression with only three parameters, the predictions of the proposed model correlate significantly with measured detection times. We also demonstrate the efficacy of the model to classify stimuli in terms of difficulty. Full article
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Review
The Horizontal Raphe of the Human Retina and its Watershed Zones
Vision 2019, 3(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040060 - 08 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1360
Abstract
The horizontal raphe (HR) as a demarcation line dividing the retina and choroid into separate vascular hemispheres is well established, but its development has never been discussed in the context of new findings of the last decades. Although factors for axon guidance are [...] Read more.
The horizontal raphe (HR) as a demarcation line dividing the retina and choroid into separate vascular hemispheres is well established, but its development has never been discussed in the context of new findings of the last decades. Although factors for axon guidance are established (e.g., slit-robo pathway, ephrin-protein-receptor pathway) they do not explain HR formation. Early morphological organization, too, fails to establish a HR. The development of the HR is most likely induced by the long posterior ciliary arteries which form a horizontal line prior to retinal organization. The maintenance might then be supported by several biochemical factors. The circulation separate superior and inferior vascular hemispheres communicates across the HR only through their anastomosing capillary beds resulting in watershed zones on either side of the HR. Visual field changes along the HR could clearly be demonstrated in vascular occlusive diseases affecting the optic nerve head, the retina or the choroid. The watershed zone of the HR is ideally protective for central visual acuity in vascular occlusive diseases but can lead to distinct pathological features. Full article
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Article
Effect of Visual Feedback on the Eye Position Stability of Patients with AMD
Vision 2019, 3(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040059 - 04 Nov 2019
Viewed by 783
Abstract
The sources of the reduced fixation stability exhibited by patients with central vision loss in the light are relatively well understood, but we have no information on how they control eye position in complete darkness, in the absence of visual error signals. We [...] Read more.
The sources of the reduced fixation stability exhibited by patients with central vision loss in the light are relatively well understood, but we have no information on how they control eye position in complete darkness, in the absence of visual error signals. We therefore explored the effect of visual feedback on eye position stability by testing patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and controls with normal vision in the light and in complete darkness. Nine patients (ages 67 to 92 years) and 16 controls (ages 16 to 74 years) were tested binocularly in the light and in complete darkness while remembering the location of a now invisible target. Binocular eye position was recorded with a video-based eye tracker. Results show that eye position stability both in the light and in the dark is worse for patients than for controls and that, for the two groups, eye position stability in the dark is, on average, 5.9 times worse than in the light. Large instability of fixation in patients with AMD was found even in absolute darkness when the scotoma cannot impair vision. These data reflect permanent changes in the oculomotor reference of patients with AMD. Full article
Review
What Neuroscientific Studies Tell Us about Inhibition of Return
Vision 2019, 3(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040058 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
An inhibitory aftermath of orienting, inhibition of return (IOR), has intrigued scholars since its discovery about 40 years ago. Since then, the phenomenon has been subjected to a wide range of neuroscientific methods and the results of these are reviewed in this paper. [...] Read more.
An inhibitory aftermath of orienting, inhibition of return (IOR), has intrigued scholars since its discovery about 40 years ago. Since then, the phenomenon has been subjected to a wide range of neuroscientific methods and the results of these are reviewed in this paper. These include direct manipulations of brain structures (which occur naturally in brain damage and disease or experimentally as in TMS and lesion studies) and measurements of brain activity (in humans using EEG and fMRI and in animals using single unit recording). A variety of less direct methods (e.g., computational modeling, developmental studies, etc.) have also been used. The findings from this wide range of methods support the critical role of subcortical and cortical oculomotor pathways in the generation and nature of IOR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements and Visual Cognition)
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Article
The Louder, the Longer: Object Length Perception Is Influenced by Loudness, but Not by Pitch
Vision 2019, 3(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040057 - 28 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Sound by itself can be a reliable source of information about an object’s size. For instance, we are able to estimate the size of objects merely on the basis of the sound they make when falling on the floor. Moreover, loudness and pitch [...] Read more.
Sound by itself can be a reliable source of information about an object’s size. For instance, we are able to estimate the size of objects merely on the basis of the sound they make when falling on the floor. Moreover, loudness and pitch are crossmodally linked to size. We investigated if sound has an effect on size estimation even in the presence of visual information, that is if the manipulation of the sound produced by a falling object influences visual length estimation. Participants watched videos of wooden dowels hitting a hard floor and estimated their lengths. Sound was manipulated by (A) increasing (decreasing) overall sound pressure level, (B) swapping sounds among the different dowel lengths, and (C) increasing (decreasing) pitch. Results showed that dowels were perceived to be longer with increased sound pressure level (SPL), but there was no effect of swapped sounds or pitch manipulation. However, in a sound-only-condition, main effects of length and pitch manipulation were found. We conclude that we are able to perceive subtle differences in the acoustic properties of impact sounds and use them to deduce object size when visual cues are eliminated. In contrast, when visual cues are available, only loudness is potent enough to exercise a crossmodal influence on length perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multisensory Modulation of Vision)
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Review
Salience Models: A Computational Cognitive Neuroscience Review
Vision 2019, 3(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040056 - 25 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1718
Abstract
The seminal model by Laurent Itti and Cristoph Koch demonstrated that we can compute the entire flow of visual processing from input to resulting fixations. Despite many replications and follow-ups, few have matched the impact of the original model—so what made this model [...] Read more.
The seminal model by Laurent Itti and Cristoph Koch demonstrated that we can compute the entire flow of visual processing from input to resulting fixations. Despite many replications and follow-ups, few have matched the impact of the original model—so what made this model so groundbreaking? We have selected five key contributions that distinguish the original salience model by Itti and Koch; namely, its contribution to our theoretical, neural, and computational understanding of visual processing, as well as the spatial and temporal predictions for fixation distributions. During the last 20 years, advances in the field have brought up various techniques and approaches to salience modelling, many of which tried to improve or add to the initial Itti and Koch model. One of the most recent trends has been to adopt the computational power of deep learning neural networks; however, this has also shifted their primary focus to spatial classification. We present a review of recent approaches to modelling salience, starting from direct variations of the Itti and Koch salience model to sophisticated deep-learning architectures, and discuss the models from the point of view of their contribution to computational cognitive neuroscience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements and Visual Cognition)
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Article
Development of Open-source Software and Gaze Data Repositories for Performance Evaluation of Eye Tracking Systems
Vision 2019, 3(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040055 - 22 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1651
Abstract
In this paper, a range of open-source tools, datasets, and software that have been developed for quantitative and in-depth evaluation of eye gaze data quality are presented. Eye tracking systems in contemporary vision research and applications face major challenges due to variable operating [...] Read more.
In this paper, a range of open-source tools, datasets, and software that have been developed for quantitative and in-depth evaluation of eye gaze data quality are presented. Eye tracking systems in contemporary vision research and applications face major challenges due to variable operating conditions such as user distance, head pose, and movements of the eye tracker platform. However, there is a lack of open-source tools and datasets that could be used for quantitatively evaluating an eye tracker’s data quality, comparing performance of multiple trackers, or studying the impact of various operating conditions on a tracker’s accuracy. To address these issues, an open-source code repository named GazeVisual-Lib is developed that contains a number of algorithms, visualizations, and software tools for detailed and quantitative analysis of an eye tracker’s performance and data quality. In addition, a new labelled eye gaze dataset that is collected from multiple user platforms and operating conditions is presented in an open data repository for benchmark comparison of gaze data from different eye tracking systems. The paper presents the concept, development, and organization of these two repositories that are envisioned to improve the performance analysis and reliability of eye tracking systems. Full article
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Article
An Unexpected Spontaneous Motion-In-Depth Pulfrich Phenomenon in Amblyopia
Vision 2019, 3(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040054 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
The binocular viewing of a fronto-parallel pendulum with a reduced luminance in one eye results in the illusory tridimensional percept of the pendulum following an elliptical orbit in depth, the so-called Pulfrich phenomenon. A small percentage of mild anisometropic amblyopes who have rudimentary [...] Read more.
The binocular viewing of a fronto-parallel pendulum with a reduced luminance in one eye results in the illusory tridimensional percept of the pendulum following an elliptical orbit in depth, the so-called Pulfrich phenomenon. A small percentage of mild anisometropic amblyopes who have rudimentary stereo are known to experience a spontaneous Pulfrich phenomenon, which posits a delay in the cortical processing of information involving their amblyopic eye. The purpose of this study is to characterize this spontaneous Pulfrich phenomenon in the mild amblyopic population. In order to assess this posited delay, we used a paradigm where a cylinder rotating in depth, defined by moving Gabor patches at different disparities (i.e., at different interocular phases), generates a strong to ambiguous depth percept. This paradigm allows one to accurately measure a spontaneous Pulfrich phenomenon and to determine how it depends on the spatio-temporal properties of stimulus. We observed a spontaneous Pulfrich phenomenon in anisometropic, strabismic, and mixed amblyopia, which is posited to be due to an interocular delay associated with amblyopic processing. Surprisingly, the posited delay was not always observed in the amblyopic eye, was not a consequence of the reduced contrast sensitivity of the amblyopic eye, and displayed a large variability across amblyopic observers. Increasing the density, decreasing the spatial frequency, or increasing the speed of the stimulus tended to reduce the observed delay. The spontaneous Pulfrich phenomenon seen by some amblyopes was variable and depended on the spatio-temporal properties of the stimulus. We suggest it could involve two conflicting components: an amblyopic delay and a blur-based acceleration. Full article
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Article
Decoding Images in the Mind’s Eye: The Temporal Dynamics of Visual Imagery
Vision 2019, 3(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040053 - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1835
Abstract
Mental imagery is the ability to generate images in the mind in the absence of sensory input. Both perceptual visual processing and internally generated imagery engage large, overlapping networks of brain regions. However, it is unclear whether they are characterized by similar temporal [...] Read more.
Mental imagery is the ability to generate images in the mind in the absence of sensory input. Both perceptual visual processing and internally generated imagery engage large, overlapping networks of brain regions. However, it is unclear whether they are characterized by similar temporal dynamics. Recent magnetoencephalography work has shown that object category information was decodable from brain activity during mental imagery, but the timing was delayed relative to perception. The current study builds on these findings, using electroencephalography to investigate the dynamics of mental imagery. Sixteen participants viewed two images of the Sydney Harbour Bridge and two images of Santa Claus. On each trial, they viewed a sequence of the four images and were asked to imagine one of them, which was cued retroactively by its temporal location in the sequence. Time-resolved multivariate pattern analysis was used to decode the viewed and imagined stimuli. Although category and exemplar information was decodable for viewed stimuli, there were no informative patterns of activity during mental imagery. The current findings suggest stimulus complexity, task design and individual differences may influence the ability to successfully decode imagined images. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of prior findings of mental imagery. Full article
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Review
The Role of Perspective Taking on Attention: A Review of the Special Issue on the Reflexive Attentional Shift Phenomenon
Vision 2019, 3(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040052 - 09 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1947
Abstract
Attention is a process that alters how cognitive resources are allocated, and it allows individuals to efficiently process information at the attended location. The presence of visual or auditory cues in the environment can direct the focus of attention toward certain stimuli even [...] Read more.
Attention is a process that alters how cognitive resources are allocated, and it allows individuals to efficiently process information at the attended location. The presence of visual or auditory cues in the environment can direct the focus of attention toward certain stimuli even if the cued stimuli are not the individual’s primary target. Samson et al. demonstrated that seeing another person in the scene (i.e., a person-like cue) caused a delay in responding to target stimuli not visible to that person: “alter-centric intrusion.” This phenomenon, they argue, is dependent upon the fact that the cue used resembled a person as opposed to a more generic directional indicator. The characteristics of the cue are the core of the debate of this special issue. Some maintain that the perceptual-directional characteristics of the cue are sufficient to generate the bias while others argue that the cuing is stronger when the cue has social characteristics (relates to what another individual can perceive). The research contained in this issue confirms that human attention is biased by the presence of a directional cue. We discuss and compare the different studies. The pattern that emerges seems to suggest that the social relevance of the cue is necessary in some contexts but not in others, depending on the cognitive demand of the experimental task. One possibility is that the social mechanisms are involved in perspective taking when the task is cognitively demanding, while they may not play a role in automatic attention allocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reflexive Shifts in Visual Attention)
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Article
Rivalry Onset in and around the Fovea: The Role of Visual Field Location and Eye Dominance on Perceptual Dominance Bias
Vision 2019, 3(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040051 - 30 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1020
Abstract
When dissimilar images are presented to each eye, the images will alternate every few seconds in a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry. Recent research has found evidence of a bias towards one image at the initial ‘onset’ period of rivalry that varies across [...] Read more.
When dissimilar images are presented to each eye, the images will alternate every few seconds in a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry. Recent research has found evidence of a bias towards one image at the initial ‘onset’ period of rivalry that varies across the peripheral visual field. To determine the role that visual field location plays in and around the fovea at onset, trained observers were presented small orthogonal achromatic grating patches at various locations across the central 3° of visual space for 1-s and 60-s intervals. Results reveal stronger bias at onset than during continuous rivalry, and evidence of temporal hemifield dominance across observers, however, the nature of the hemifield effects differed between individuals and interacted with overall eye dominance. Despite using small grating patches, a high proportion of mixed percept was still reported, with more mixed percept at onset along the vertical midline, in general, and in increasing proportions with eccentricity in the lateral hemifields. Results show that even within the foveal range, onset rivalry bias varies across visual space, and differs in degree and sensitivity to biases in average dominance over continuous viewing. Full article
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Review
New Perspectives on Serialism and Parallelism in Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Multi-Constituent Unit Hypothesis
Vision 2019, 3(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040050 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1090
Abstract
Currently there are several computational models of eye movement control that provide a good account of oculomotor behavior during reading of English and other alphabetic languages. I will provide an overview of two dominant models: E-Z Reader and SWIFT, as well as a [...] Read more.
Currently there are several computational models of eye movement control that provide a good account of oculomotor behavior during reading of English and other alphabetic languages. I will provide an overview of two dominant models: E-Z Reader and SWIFT, as well as a recently proposed model: OB1-Reader. I will evaluate a critical issue of controversy among models, namely, whether words are lexically processed serially or in parallel. I will then consider reading in Chinese, a character-based, unspaced language with ambiguous word boundaries. Finally, I will evaluate the concepts of serialism and parallelism of process central to these models, and how these models might function in relation to lexical processing that is operationalized over parafoveal multi-constituent units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements and Visual Cognition)
Article
Saccadic Suppression of Displacement Does Not Reflect a Saccade-Specific Bias to Assume Stability
Vision 2019, 3(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040049 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Across saccades, small displacements of a visual target are harder to detect and their directions more difficult to discriminate than during steady fixation. Prominent theories of this effect, known as saccadic suppression of displacement, propose that it is due to a bias to [...] Read more.
Across saccades, small displacements of a visual target are harder to detect and their directions more difficult to discriminate than during steady fixation. Prominent theories of this effect, known as saccadic suppression of displacement, propose that it is due to a bias to assume object stability across saccades. Recent studies comparing the saccadic effect to masking effects suggest that suppression of displacement is not saccade-specific. Further evidence for this account is presented from two experiments where participants judged the size of displacements on a continuous scale in saccade and mask conditions, with and without blanking. Saccades and masks both reduced the proportion of correctly perceived displacements and increased the proportion of missed displacements. Blanking improved performance in both conditions by reducing the proportion of missed displacements. Thus, if suppression of displacement reflects a bias for stability, it is not a saccade-specific bias, but a more general stability assumption revealed under conditions of impoverished vision. Specifically, I discuss the potentially decisive role of motion or other transient signals for displacement perception. Without transients or motion, the quality of relative position signals is poor, and saccadic and mask-induced suppression of displacement reflects performance when the decision has to be made on these signals alone. Blanking may improve those position signals by providing a transient onset or a longer time to encode the pre-saccadic target position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements and Visual Cognition)
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