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Vision, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Decoding Images in the Mind’s Eye: The Temporal Dynamics of Visual Imagery
Vision 2019, 3(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040053 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Mental imagery is the ability to generate images in the mind in the absence of sensory input. Both perceptual visual processing and internally generated imagery engage large, overlapping networks of brain regions. However, it is unclear whether they are characterized by similar temporal [...] Read more.
Mental imagery is the ability to generate images in the mind in the absence of sensory input. Both perceptual visual processing and internally generated imagery engage large, overlapping networks of brain regions. However, it is unclear whether they are characterized by similar temporal dynamics. Recent magnetoencephalography work has shown that object category information was decodable from brain activity during mental imagery, but the timing was delayed relative to perception. The current study builds on these findings, using electroencephalography to investigate the dynamics of mental imagery. Sixteen participants viewed two images of the Sydney Harbour Bridge and two images of Santa Claus. On each trial, they viewed a sequence of the four images and were asked to imagine one of them, which was cued retroactively by its temporal location in the sequence. Time-resolved multivariate pattern analysis was used to decode the viewed and imagined stimuli. Although category and exemplar information was decodable for viewed stimuli, there were no informative patterns of activity during mental imagery. The current findings suggest stimulus complexity, task design and individual differences may influence the ability to successfully decode imagined images. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of prior findings of mental imagery. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Perspective Taking on Attention: A Review of the Special Issue on the Reflexive Attentional Shift Phenomenon
Vision 2019, 3(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040052 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 335
Abstract
Attention is a process that alters how cognitive resources are allocated, and it allows individuals to efficiently process information at the attended location. The presence of visual or auditory cues in the environment can direct the focus of attention toward certain stimuli even [...] Read more.
Attention is a process that alters how cognitive resources are allocated, and it allows individuals to efficiently process information at the attended location. The presence of visual or auditory cues in the environment can direct the focus of attention toward certain stimuli even if the cued stimuli are not the individual’s primary target. Samson et al. demonstrated that seeing another person in the scene (i.e., a person-like cue) caused a delay in responding to target stimuli not visible to that person: “alter-centric intrusion.” This phenomenon, they argue, is dependent upon the fact that the cue used resembled a person as opposed to a more generic directional indicator. The characteristics of the cue are the core of the debate of this special issue. Some maintain that the perceptual-directional characteristics of the cue are sufficient to generate the bias while others argue that the cuing is stronger when the cue has social characteristics (relates to what another individual can perceive). The research contained in this issue confirms that human attention is biased by the presence of a directional cue. We discuss and compare the different studies. The pattern that emerges seems to suggest that the social relevance of the cue is necessary in some contexts but not in others, depending on the cognitive demand of the experimental task. One possibility is that the social mechanisms are involved in perspective taking when the task is cognitively demanding, while they may not play a role in automatic attention allocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reflexive Shifts in Visual Attention)
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Open AccessArticle
Rivalry Onset in and around the Fovea: The Role of Visual Field Location and Eye Dominance on Perceptual Dominance Bias
Vision 2019, 3(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040051 - 30 Sep 2019
Viewed by 146
Abstract
When dissimilar images are presented to each eye, the images will alternate every few seconds in a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry. Recent research has found evidence of a bias towards one image at the initial ‘onset’ period of rivalry that varies across [...] Read more.
When dissimilar images are presented to each eye, the images will alternate every few seconds in a phenomenon known as binocular rivalry. Recent research has found evidence of a bias towards one image at the initial ‘onset’ period of rivalry that varies across the peripheral visual field. To determine the role that visual field location plays in and around the fovea at onset, trained observers were presented small orthogonal achromatic grating patches at various locations across the central 3° of visual space for 1-s and 60-s intervals. Results reveal stronger bias at onset than during continuous rivalry, and evidence of temporal hemifield dominance across observers, however, the nature of the hemifield effects differed between individuals and interacted with overall eye dominance. Despite using small grating patches, a high proportion of mixed percept was still reported, with more mixed percept at onset along the vertical midline, in general, and in increasing proportions with eccentricity in the lateral hemifields. Results show that even within the foveal range, onset rivalry bias varies across visual space, and differs in degree and sensitivity to biases in average dominance over continuous viewing. Full article
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Open AccessReview
New Perspectives on Serialism and Parallelism in Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Multi-Constituent Unit Hypothesis
Vision 2019, 3(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040050 - 25 Sep 2019
Viewed by 174
Abstract
Currently there are several computational models of eye movement control that provide a good account of oculomotor behavior during reading of English and other alphabetic languages. I will provide an overview of two dominant models: E-Z Reader and SWIFT, as well as a [...] Read more.
Currently there are several computational models of eye movement control that provide a good account of oculomotor behavior during reading of English and other alphabetic languages. I will provide an overview of two dominant models: E-Z Reader and SWIFT, as well as a recently proposed model: OB1-Reader. I will evaluate a critical issue of controversy among models, namely, whether words are lexically processed serially or in parallel. I will then consider reading in Chinese, a character-based, unspaced language with ambiguous word boundaries. Finally, I will evaluate the concepts of serialism and parallelism of process central to these models, and how these models might function in relation to lexical processing that is operationalized over parafoveal multi-constituent units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements and Visual Cognition)
Open AccessArticle
Saccadic Suppression of Displacement Does Not Reflect a Saccade-Specific Bias to Assume Stability
Vision 2019, 3(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision3040049 - 24 Sep 2019
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Across saccades, small displacements of a visual target are harder to detect and their directions more difficult to discriminate than during steady fixation. Prominent theories of this effect, known as saccadic suppression of displacement, propose that it is due to a bias to [...] Read more.
Across saccades, small displacements of a visual target are harder to detect and their directions more difficult to discriminate than during steady fixation. Prominent theories of this effect, known as saccadic suppression of displacement, propose that it is due to a bias to assume object stability across saccades. Recent studies comparing the saccadic effect to masking effects suggest that suppression of displacement is not saccade-specific. Further evidence for this account is presented from two experiments where participants judged the size of displacements on a continuous scale in saccade and mask conditions, with and without blanking. Saccades and masks both reduced the proportion of correctly perceived displacements and increased the proportion of missed displacements. Blanking improved performance in both conditions by reducing the proportion of missed displacements. Thus, if suppression of displacement reflects a bias for stability, it is not a saccade-specific bias, but a more general stability assumption revealed under conditions of impoverished vision. Specifically, I discuss the potentially decisive role of motion or other transient signals for displacement perception. Without transients or motion, the quality of relative position signals is poor, and saccadic and mask-induced suppression of displacement reflects performance when the decision has to be made on these signals alone. Blanking may improve those position signals by providing a transient onset or a longer time to encode the pre-saccadic target position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eye Movements and Visual Cognition)
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