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Volume 8, April

Tomography, Volume 8, Issue 3 (June 2022) – 14 articles

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Article
Prognostic Accuracy of CTP Summary Maps in Patients with Large Vessel Occlusive Stroke and Poor Revascularization after Mechanical Thrombectomy—Comparison of Three Automated Perfusion Software Applications
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1350-1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030109 - 17 May 2022
Abstract
Background: Innovative automated perfusion software solutions offer support in the management of acute stroke by providing information about the infarct core and penumbra. While the performance of different software solutions has mainly been investigated in patients with successful recanalization, the prognostic accuracy of [...] Read more.
Background: Innovative automated perfusion software solutions offer support in the management of acute stroke by providing information about the infarct core and penumbra. While the performance of different software solutions has mainly been investigated in patients with successful recanalization, the prognostic accuracy of the hypoperfusion maps in cases of futile recanalization has hardly been validated. Methods: In 39 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the anterior circulation and poor revascularization (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 0-2a) after mechanical thrombectomy (MT), hypoperfusion analysis was performed using three different automated perfusion software solutions (A: RAPID, B: Brainomix e-CTP, C: Syngo.via). The hypoperfusion volumes (HV) as Tmax > 6 s were compared with the final infarct volumes (FIV) on follow-up CT 36–48 h after futile recanalization. Bland–Altman analysis was applied to display the levels of agreement and to evaluate systematic differences. Based on the median hypoperfusion intensity ratio (HIR, volumetric ratio of tissue with a Tmax > 10 s and Tmax > 6 s) patients were dichotomized into high- and low-HIR groups. Subgroup analysis with favorable (<0.6) and unfavorable (≥0.6) HIR was performed with respect to the FIV. HIR was correlated to clinical baseline and outcome parameters using Pearson’s correlation. Results: Overall, there was good correlation without significant differences between the HVs and the FIVs with package A (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) being slightly superior to B and C. However, levels of agreement were very wide for all software applications in Bland-Altman analysis. In cases of large infarcts exceeding 150 mL the performance of the automated software solutions generally decreased. Subgroup analysis revealed the FIV to be generally underestimated in patients with HIR ≥ 0.6 (p < 0.05). In the subgroup with favorable HIR, however, there was a trend towards an overestimation of the FIV. Nevertheless, packages A and B showed good correlation between the HVs and FIVs without significant differences (p > 0.2), while only package C significantly overestimated the FIV (−54.6 ± 56.0 mL, p = 0.001). The rate of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0–3 after 3 months was significantly higher in favorable vs. unfavorable HIR (42.1% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.02). Lower HIR was associated with higher Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) at presentation and on follow-up imaging, lower risk of malignant edema, and better outcome (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall, the performance of the automated perfusion software solutions to predict the FIV after futile recanalization is good, with decreasing accuracy in large infarcts exceeding 150 mL. However, depending on the HIR, FIV can be significantly over- and underestimated, with Syngo showing the widest range. Our results indicate that the HIR can serve as valuable parameter for outcome predictions and facilitate the decision whether or not to perform MT in delicate cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Brain Imaging)
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Review
Automated Coronary Optical Coherence Tomography Feature Extraction with Application to Three-Dimensional Reconstruction
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1307-1349; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030108 - 17 May 2022
Abstract
Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intravascular, near-infrared light-based imaging modality capable of reaching axial resolutions of 10–20 µm. This resolution allows for accurate determination of high-risk plaque features, such as thin cap fibroatheroma; however, visualization of morphological features alone still provides [...] Read more.
Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intravascular, near-infrared light-based imaging modality capable of reaching axial resolutions of 10–20 µm. This resolution allows for accurate determination of high-risk plaque features, such as thin cap fibroatheroma; however, visualization of morphological features alone still provides unreliable positive predictive capability for plaque progression or future major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Biomechanical simulation could assist in this prediction, but this requires extracting morphological features from intravascular imaging to construct accurate three-dimensional (3D) simulations of patients’ arteries. Extracting these features is a laborious process, often carried out manually by trained experts. To address this challenge, numerous techniques have emerged to automate these processes while simultaneously overcoming difficulties associated with OCT imaging, such as its limited penetration depth. This systematic review summarizes advances in automated segmentation techniques from the past five years (2016–2021) with a focus on their application to the 3D reconstruction of vessels and their subsequent simulation. We discuss four categories based on the feature being processed, namely: coronary lumen; artery layers; plaque characteristics and subtypes; and stents. Areas for future innovation are also discussed as well as their potential for future translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Imaging)
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Article
The Importance of Correlation between CBCT Analysis of Bone Density and Primary Stability When Choosing the Design of Dental Implants—Ex Vivo Study
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1293-1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030107 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 179
Abstract
This study aims to determine the correlation between the mean value of bone density measured on the CBCT device and the primary stability of dental implants determined by resonant frequency analysis. An experimental study was conducted on a material of animal origin: bovine [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the correlation between the mean value of bone density measured on the CBCT device and the primary stability of dental implants determined by resonant frequency analysis. An experimental study was conducted on a material of animal origin: bovine femur and pig ribs. Two types of implants were used in this study: self-tapping and non-self-tapping of the same dimensions. Results of the experimental study showed a statistically significant correlation between bone density expressed in HU units and the primary stability of self-tapping and non-self- tapping dental implants expressed in ISQ units in bovine femur bones and self-tapping implants and pig rib bones. There was no statistically significant correlation between non-self-tapping dental implants in pig rib bones. Self-tapping and non-self-tapping implants did not show statistical significance in the primary stability in bones of different qualities. The analysis of bone density from CBCT images in the software of the apparatus expressed in HU units can be used to predict the degree of primary stability of self-tapping and non-self-tapping dental implants in bones of densities D1 and D2, and self-tapping dental implants in bones of the lower quality D4. Full article
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Article
Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer for Lactate-Weighted Imaging at 3 T MRI: Comprehensive In Silico, In Vitro, In Situ, and In Vivo Evaluations
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1277-1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030106 - 07 May 2022
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Based on in silico, in vitro, in situ, and in vivo evaluations, this study aims to establish and optimize the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of lactate (Lactate-CEST—LATEST). To this end, we optimized LATEST sequences using Bloch–McConnell simulations for optimal detection of [...] Read more.
Based on in silico, in vitro, in situ, and in vivo evaluations, this study aims to establish and optimize the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of lactate (Lactate-CEST—LATEST). To this end, we optimized LATEST sequences using Bloch–McConnell simulations for optimal detection of lactate with a clinical 3 T MRI scanner. The optimized sequences were used to image variable lactate concentrations in vitro (using phantom measurements), in situ (using nine human cadaveric lower leg specimens), and in vivo (using four healthy volunteers after exertional exercise) that were then statistically analyzed using the non-parametric Friedman test and Kendall Tau-b rank correlation. Within the simulated Bloch–McConnell equations framework, the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym) value was quantified as 0.4% in the lactate-specific range of 0.5–1 ppm, both in vitro and in situ, and served as the imaging surrogate of the lactate level. In situ, significant differences (p < 0.001) and strong correlations (τ = 0.67) were observed between the MTRasym values and standardized intra-muscular lactate concentrations. In vivo, a temporary increase in the MTRasym values was detected after exertional exercise. In this bench-to-bedside comprehensive feasibility study, different lactate concentrations were detected using an optimized LATEST imaging protocol in vitro, in situ, and in vivo at 3 T, which prospectively paves the way towards non-invasive quantification and monitoring of lactate levels across a broad spectrum of diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Imaging in Oncology)
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Article
The Role of Transperineal Ultrasound for the Assessment of the Anorectal Angle and Its Relationship with Levator Ani Muscle Avulsion
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1270-1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030105 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 210
Abstract
The relationship between the anorectal angle (ARA) and the levator ani muscle (LAM) is well known. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that the ARA changes when LAM avulsion occurs after vaginal delivery. This was a secondary, observational retrospective study with data [...] Read more.
The relationship between the anorectal angle (ARA) and the levator ani muscle (LAM) is well known. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that the ARA changes when LAM avulsion occurs after vaginal delivery. This was a secondary, observational retrospective study with data obtained from three previous studies. Using transperineal ultrasound, the presence of avulsion was assessed when abnormal insertion of the LAM was observed in three central slices. In addition, the ARA was assessed in the midsagittal plane (at rest, in Valsalva and at maximum contraction) as the angle between the posterior border of the distal part of the rectum and the central axis of the anal canal. The ARA was higher in patients with bilateral LAM avulsion than in patients without LAM avulsion at rest (131.8 ± 14.1 vs. 136.2 ± 13.8), in Valsalva (129.4 ± 15.5 vs. 136.5 ± 14.4) and at maximum contraction (125.7 ± 15.5 vs. 132.3 ± 13.2). The differences between both groups expressed as the odds ratio (OR) adjusted for maternal age were 1.031 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.001–1.061; p = 0.041) at rest, 1.036 (95% CI, 1.008–1.064; p = 0.012) in Valsalva and 1.031 (95% CI, 1.003–1.059; p = 0.027) at maximum contraction. In conclusion, LAM avulsion produces an increase in the ARA at rest, during contraction and in Valsalva, especially in cases of bilateral LAM avulsion. Full article
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Article
Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) for ASPECT Scoring in Acute Stroke Patients Selection: Comparison to rCBV and Follow-Up Imaging
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1260-1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030104 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Background: To compare a model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) versus a hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) for initial and final Alberta Stroke Program Early Ct Score (ASPECT) scoring in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We hypothesized that MBIR designed for brain computed tomography (CT) could perform [...] Read more.
Background: To compare a model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) versus a hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) for initial and final Alberta Stroke Program Early Ct Score (ASPECT) scoring in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We hypothesized that MBIR designed for brain computed tomography (CT) could perform better than HIR for ASPECT scoring. Methods: Among patients who had undergone CT perfusion for AIS between April 2018 and October 2019 with a follow-up imaging within 7 days, we designed a cohort of representative ASPECTS. Two readers assessed regional-cerebral-blood-volume-ASPECT (rCBV-ASPECTS) on the initial exam and final-ASPECTS on the follow-up non-contrast-CT (NCCT) in consensus. Four readers performed independently MBIR and HIR ASPECT scoring on baseline NCCT. Results: In total, 294 hemispheres from 147 participants (average age of 69.59 ± 15.63 SD) were analyzed. Overall raters’ agreement between rCBV-map and MBIR and HIR ranged from moderate to moderate (κ = 0.54 to κ = 0.57) with HIR and moderate to substantial (κ = 0.52 to κ = 0.74) with MBIR. Overall raters’ agreement between follow-up imaging and HIR/MBIR ranged from moderate to moderate (κ = 0.55 to κ = 0.59) with HIR and moderate to almost perfect (κ = 0.48 to κ = 0.82) with MBIR. Conclusions: ASPECT scoring with MBIR more closely matched with initial and final infarct extent than classical HIR NCCT reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuroimaging)
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Article
Generation of Synthetic-Pseudo MR Images from Real CT Images
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1244-1259; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030103 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 298
Abstract
This study aimed to generate synthetic MR images from real CT images. CT# mean and standard deviation of a moving window across every pixel in the reconstructed CT images were mapped to their corresponding tissue-mimicking types. Identification of the tissue enabled remapping it [...] Read more.
This study aimed to generate synthetic MR images from real CT images. CT# mean and standard deviation of a moving window across every pixel in the reconstructed CT images were mapped to their corresponding tissue-mimicking types. Identification of the tissue enabled remapping it to its corresponding intrinsic parameters: T1, T2, and proton density (ρ). Lastly, synthetic weighted MR images of a selected slice were generated by simulating a spin-echo sequence using the intrinsic parameters and proper contrast parameters (TE and TR). Experiments were performed on a 3D multimodality abdominal phantom and on human knees at different TE and TR parameters to confirm the clinical effectiveness of the approach. Results demonstrated the validity of the approach of generating synthetic MR images at different weightings using only CT images and the three predefined mapping functions. The slope of the fitting line and percentage root-mean-square difference (PRD) between real and synthetic image vector representations were (0.73, 10%), (0.9, 18%), and (0.2, 8.7%) for T1-, T2-, and ρ-weighted images of the phantom, respectively. The slope and PRD for human knee images, on average, were 0.89% and 18.8%, respectively. The generated MR images provide valuable guidance for physicians with regard to deciding whether acquiring real MR images is crucial. Full article
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Editorial
The H Index Myth: A Form of Fanaticism or a Simple Misconception?
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1241-1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030102 - 01 May 2022
Viewed by 271
Abstract
Bibliometry represents a branch of library and information sciences that uses statistical methods to analyse publications [...] Full article
Article
Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hematoma Treated with Percutaneous Transarterial Embolization in COVID-19 Era: Diagnostic Findings and Procedural Outcome
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1228-1240; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030101 - 01 May 2022
Viewed by 254
Abstract
(1) Background: Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematomas are a relatively common occurrence in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 related pneumonia, and endovascular treatment of trans-arterial embolization (TAE) may be a life-saving procedure after failure of medical and supportive therapy. The aim of our study was to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematomas are a relatively common occurrence in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 related pneumonia, and endovascular treatment of trans-arterial embolization (TAE) may be a life-saving procedure after failure of medical and supportive therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate spontaneous retroperitoneal hematomas in the COVID-19 era, focusing on their imaging features at CTA and DSA and on the safety, as well as technical and clinical success, of TAE, comparing patients affected by COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. (2) Materials and Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 24 patients with spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma who underwent TAE; of these, 10 were hospitalized for COVID-19-related pneumonia, while the other 14 were without COVID-19 infection. We evaluated the demographic data, hemoglobin values before and after the procedure, preprocedural aPTT, preprocedural INR, diagnostic and interventional imaging findings, procedural outcome (technical success) and survival periprocedural (clinical success), and major and minor complications. (3) Results: The mean age of the study population was 72.7 ± 11.2 years. CTA revealed signs of active bleeding in 20 patients (83%). DSA showed signs of active bleeding in 20 patients (83%). In four patients (17%), blind embolization was performed. The overall technical success rate was 100%. Clinical success was achieved in 17 patients (71%), while seven patients (29%) rebled within 96 h, and all of them were retreated. No major periprocedural complication was reported. The comparison between the two groups did not show statistically significant differences for gender, mean age, mean pre- and postprocedural hemoglobin, aPTT and INR, mean hematoma volume (cm3), or mean delay between CT and DSA. Active bleeding at CTA was detected in 90% of COVID-19 patients and 79% of non-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.61). At DSA, active bleeding was assessed in eight out of 10 (80%) patients in the COVID-19 group and 12 out of 14 (86%) patients in the non-COVID-19 group (p = 1). Technical success was obtained in 100% of patients in both groups. Clinical success rates were 70% for COVID-19 group and 71% for the non-COVID-19 group. We found no statistical significance between the clinical success rates of retroperitoneal spontaneous hematoma embolization in patients with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection. (4) Conclusions: We suggest that, similar to what has been reported in other studies in non-COVID-19 patients, TAE should be considered an important safe, effective, and potentially life-saving option for the management and the treatment of patients affected by COVID-19 who present with spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma and who could not benefit from conservative treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging in Non-Traumatic Emergencies)
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Article
Diagnostic Accuracy of Chest Digital Tomosynthesis in Patients Recovering after COVID-19 Pneumonia
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1221-1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030100 - 24 Apr 2022
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of traditional chest X-ray (CXR) and digital tomosynthesis (DTS) compared to computed tomography (CT) in detecting pulmonary interstitial changes in patients having recovered from severe COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study, and received [...] Read more.
Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of traditional chest X-ray (CXR) and digital tomosynthesis (DTS) compared to computed tomography (CT) in detecting pulmonary interstitial changes in patients having recovered from severe COVID-19. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective observational study, and received local ethics committee approval. Patients suspected of having COVID-19 pneumonia upon emergency department admission between 1 March and 31 August 2020, and who underwent CXR followed by DTS and CT, were considered. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) patients with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection proven by a positive RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs performed upon admission to the hospital, and with complete clinical recovery; (2) a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS, according to the Berlin criteria, during hospitalization; (3) no recent history of other lung disease; and (4) complete imaging follow-up by CXR, DTS, and CT for at least 6 months and up to one year. Analysis of DTS images was carried out independently by two radiologists with 16 and 10 years of experience in chest imaging, respectively. The following findings were evaluated: (1) ground-glass opacities (GGOs); (2) air-space consolidations with or without air bronchogram; (3) reticulations; and (4) linear consolidation. Indicators of diagnostic performance of RX and digital tomosynthesis were calculated using CT as a reference. All data were analyzed using R statistical software (version 4.0.2, 2020). Results: Out of 44 patients initially included, 25 patients (17 M/8 F), with a mean age of 64 years (standard deviation (SD): 12), met the criteria and were included. The overall average numbers of findings confirmed by CT were GGOs in 11 patients, lung consolidations in 8 patients, 7 lung interstitial reticulations, and linear consolidation in 20 patients. DTS showed a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy compared to CXR in recognizing interstitial lung abnormalities—especially GGOs (p = 0.0412) and linear consolidations (p = 0.0009). The average dose for chest X-ray was 0.10 mSv (0.07–0.32), for DTS was 1.03 mSv (0.74–2.00), and for CT scan was 3 mSv. Conclusions: According to our results, DTS possesses a high diagnostic accuracy, compared with CXR, in revealing lung fibrotic changes in patients who have recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. Full article
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Article
Effect of Inter-Reader Variability on Diffusion-Weighted MRI Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Measurements and Prediction of Pathologic Complete Response for Breast Cancer
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1208-1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030099 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 268
Abstract
This study evaluated the inter-reader agreement of tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements performed on breast diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for assessing treatment response in a multi-center clinical trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer. DWIs from 103 breast cancer patients (mean age: [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the inter-reader agreement of tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements performed on breast diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for assessing treatment response in a multi-center clinical trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer. DWIs from 103 breast cancer patients (mean age: 46 ± 11 years) acquired at baseline and after 3 weeks of treatment were evaluated independently by two readers. Three types of tumor regions of interests (ROIs) were delineated: multiple-slice restricted, single-slice restricted and single-slice tumor ROIs. Compared to tumor ROIs, restricted ROIs were limited to low ADC areas of enhancing tumor only. We found excellent agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] ranged from 0.94 to 0.98) for mean ADC. Higher ICCs were observed in multiple-slice restricted ROIs (range: 0.97 to 0.98) than in other two ROI types (both in the range of 0.94 to 0.98). Among the three ROI types, the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were observed for mean ADC of multiple-slice restricted ROIs (0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52–0.79 and 0.67, 95% CI: 0.53–0.81 for Reader 1 and Reader 2, respectively). In conclusion, mean ADC values of multiple-slice restricted ROI showed excellent agreement and similar predictive performance for pathologic complete response between the two readers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Imaging Network)
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Article
Predictors of Metastatic Lymph Nodes at Preoperative Staging CT in Gastric Adenocarcinoma
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1196-1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030098 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Background. The aim of this study was to identify the most accurate computed-tomography (CT) dimensional criteria of loco-regional lymph nodes (LNs) for detecting nodal metastases in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Methods. Staging CTs of surgically resected GC were jointly reviewed by two radiologists, [...] Read more.
Background. The aim of this study was to identify the most accurate computed-tomography (CT) dimensional criteria of loco-regional lymph nodes (LNs) for detecting nodal metastases in gastric cancer (GC) patients. Methods. Staging CTs of surgically resected GC were jointly reviewed by two radiologists, considering only loco-regional LNs with a long axis (LA) ≥ 5 mm. For each nodal group, the short axis (SA), volume and SA/LA ratio of the largest LN, the sum of the SAs of all LNs, and the mean of the SA/LA ratios were plotted in ROC curves, taking the presence/absence of metastases at histopathology for reference. On a per-patient basis, the sums of the SAs of all LNs, and the sums of the SAs, volumes, and SA/LA ratios of the largest LNs in all nodal groups were also plotted, taking the presence/absence of metastatic LNs in each patient for reference. Results. Four hundred and forty-three nodal groups were harvested during surgery from 107 patients with GC, and 173 (39.1%) were metastatic at histopathology. By nodal group, the sum of the SAs showed the best Area Under the Curve (AUC), with a sensitivity/specificity of 62.4/72.6% using Youden’s index with a >8 mm cutoff. In the per-patient analysis, the sum of the SAs of all LNs in the loco-regional nodal groups showed the best AUC with a sensitivity/specificity of 65.6%/83.7%, using Youden’s index with a >39 mm cutoff. Conclusion. In patients with GC, the sum of the SAs of all the LNs at staging CT is the best predictor among dimensional LNs criteria of both metastatic invasion of the nodal group and the presence of metastatic LNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment: Imaging Assessment)
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Article
Follow-Up CT Patterns of Residual Lung Abnormalities in Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia Survivors: A Multicenter Retrospective Study
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1184-1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030097 - 20 Apr 2022
Viewed by 282
Abstract
Prior studies variably reported residual chest CT abnormalities after COVID-19. This study evaluates the CT patterns of residual abnormalities in severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. All consecutive COVID-19 survivors who received a CT scan 5–7 months after severe pneumonia in two Italian hospitals (Reggio [...] Read more.
Prior studies variably reported residual chest CT abnormalities after COVID-19. This study evaluates the CT patterns of residual abnormalities in severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. All consecutive COVID-19 survivors who received a CT scan 5–7 months after severe pneumonia in two Italian hospitals (Reggio Emilia and Parma) were enrolled. Individual CT findings were retrospectively collected and follow-up CT scans were categorized as: resolution, residual non-fibrotic abnormalities, or residual fibrotic abnormalities according to CT patterns classified following standard definitions and international guidelines. In 225/405 (55.6%) patients, follow-up CT scans were normal or barely normal, whereas in 152/405 (37.5%) and 18/405 (4.4%) patients, non-fibrotic and fibrotic abnormalities were respectively found, and 10/405 (2.5%) had post-ventilatory changes (cicatricial emphysema and bronchiectasis in the anterior regions of upper lobes). Among non-fibrotic changes, either barely visible (n = 110/152) or overt (n = 20/152) ground-glass opacities (GGO), resembling non-fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with or without organizing pneumonia features, represented the most common findings. The most frequent fibrotic abnormalities were subpleural reticulation (15/18), traction bronchiectasis (16/18) and GGO (14/18), resembling a fibrotic NSIP pattern. When multiple timepoints were available until 12 months (n = 65), residual abnormalities extension decreased over time. NSIP, more frequently without fibrotic features, represents the most common CT appearance of post-severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Challenge of Advanced Medical Imaging Data Analysis in COVID-19)
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Case Report
Breath-Hold Diving-Related Decompression Sickness with Brain Involvement: From Neuroimaging to Pathophysiology
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1172-1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030096 - 19 Apr 2022
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Central nervous system involvement related to decompression sickness (DCS) is a very rare complication of breath-hold diving. So far, it has been postulated that repeated dives with short surface intervals represent a key factor in the development of breath-holding-related DCS. We report the [...] Read more.
Central nervous system involvement related to decompression sickness (DCS) is a very rare complication of breath-hold diving. So far, it has been postulated that repeated dives with short surface intervals represent a key factor in the development of breath-holding-related DCS. We report the case of a breath-hold diver who, after repeated immersion, developed DCS with brain involvement. After treatment in a hyperbaric chamber, there was a clinical improvement in the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hyperintense lesions in long-time repetition sequences (FLAIR, T2WI) in the left frontal and right temporal lobes. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map were characteristic of vasogenic edema, allowing us to exclude the ischemic nature of the process. These findings, together with the acute clinical presentation, the resolution of lesions in evolutionary radiological controls and the possible involvement of blood–brain barrier/endothelial dysfunction in DCS, could suggest a new form of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)-like presentation of DCS. This would represent a novel mechanism to explain the pathophysiology of this entity. We conducted a literature review, analyzing the pathophysiological and neuroimaging characteristics of DCS in breath-hold diving based on a case of this rare disease. Full article
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