Background: 18F-fluciclovine is a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer approved for the detection of prostate cancer recurrence. No effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on its performance has been established. Purpose: To study the impact of concurrent ADT on disease detection with 18F-fluciclovine PET in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Data from patients with prostate cancer who had been receiving ADT for ≥3 months at the time of undergoing an 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Seventy-three scans from 71 patients were included. The scans indicated rising prostate-specific antigen (n
= 58), staging advanced disease (n
= 4) or therapeutic monitoring (n
= 9). Patients’ medical records provided baseline clinical data and post-scan outcomes (median follow-up 40 months). Results: Malignant lesions with increased uptake of 18F-fluciclovine were detected in 60/73 (82%) scans; 33 (45%) had lesions in the prostate/bed and 46 (63%) in extraprostatic sites. Patients received ADT for a median of 2 years (range 3 months to >10 years) pre-scan. The time on ADT did not influence detection; the detection rates were 89% for patients who had received ADT for <1 year, 63% for a treatment period of 1–<2 years, 83% for 2–4 years, 78% for >4–10 years, and 67% for a treatment period of >10 years. Conclusion: 18F-fluciclovine detected recurrent or metastatic lesions in 82% of patients with prostate cancer receiving ADT. The rates achieved in the present study are consistent with widely reported data for 18F-fluciclovine PET/CT, suggesting that withdrawal of ADT before scanning is not necessary.
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