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Article

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer for Lactate-Weighted Imaging at 3 T MRI: Comprehensive In Silico, In Vitro, In Situ, and In Vivo Evaluations

1
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, University Dusseldorf, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
2
Siemens Healthcare GmbH, D-91052 Erlangen, Germany
3
Institute of Anatomy I, Heinrich-Heine-University, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
4
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Aachen, D-52074 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wonmo Sung
Tomography 2022, 8(3), 1277-1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030106
Received: 24 March 2022 / Revised: 29 April 2022 / Accepted: 4 May 2022 / Published: 7 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Imaging in Oncology)
Based on in silico, in vitro, in situ, and in vivo evaluations, this study aims to establish and optimize the chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of lactate (Lactate-CEST—LATEST). To this end, we optimized LATEST sequences using Bloch–McConnell simulations for optimal detection of lactate with a clinical 3 T MRI scanner. The optimized sequences were used to image variable lactate concentrations in vitro (using phantom measurements), in situ (using nine human cadaveric lower leg specimens), and in vivo (using four healthy volunteers after exertional exercise) that were then statistically analyzed using the non-parametric Friedman test and Kendall Tau-b rank correlation. Within the simulated Bloch–McConnell equations framework, the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym) value was quantified as 0.4% in the lactate-specific range of 0.5–1 ppm, both in vitro and in situ, and served as the imaging surrogate of the lactate level. In situ, significant differences (p < 0.001) and strong correlations (τ = 0.67) were observed between the MTRasym values and standardized intra-muscular lactate concentrations. In vivo, a temporary increase in the MTRasym values was detected after exertional exercise. In this bench-to-bedside comprehensive feasibility study, different lactate concentrations were detected using an optimized LATEST imaging protocol in vitro, in situ, and in vivo at 3 T, which prospectively paves the way towards non-invasive quantification and monitoring of lactate levels across a broad spectrum of diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; molecular imaging; simulation; CEST; LATEST; lactate; in silico; in vitro; in situ; in vivo magnetic resonance imaging; molecular imaging; simulation; CEST; LATEST; lactate; in silico; in vitro; in situ; in vivo
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MDPI and ACS Style

Radke, K.L.; Abrar, D.B.; Frenken, M.; Wilms, L.M.; Kamp, B.; Boschheidgen, M.; Liebig, P.; Ljimani, A.; Filler, T.J.; Antoch, G.; Nebelung, S.; Wittsack, H.-J.; Müller-Lutz, A. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer for Lactate-Weighted Imaging at 3 T MRI: Comprehensive In Silico, In Vitro, In Situ, and In Vivo Evaluations. Tomography 2022, 8, 1277-1292. https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030106

AMA Style

Radke KL, Abrar DB, Frenken M, Wilms LM, Kamp B, Boschheidgen M, Liebig P, Ljimani A, Filler TJ, Antoch G, Nebelung S, Wittsack H-J, Müller-Lutz A. Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer for Lactate-Weighted Imaging at 3 T MRI: Comprehensive In Silico, In Vitro, In Situ, and In Vivo Evaluations. Tomography. 2022; 8(3):1277-1292. https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030106

Chicago/Turabian Style

Radke, Karl L., Daniel B. Abrar, Miriam Frenken, Lena M. Wilms, Benedikt Kamp, Matthias Boschheidgen, Patrick Liebig, Alexandra Ljimani, Timm J. Filler, Gerald Antoch, Sven Nebelung, Hans-Jörg Wittsack, and Anja Müller-Lutz. 2022. "Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer for Lactate-Weighted Imaging at 3 T MRI: Comprehensive In Silico, In Vitro, In Situ, and In Vivo Evaluations" Tomography 8, no. 3: 1277-1292. https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8030106

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