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J. Fungi, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 56 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The present review covers patents related to the production of natural products with biomedical and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Epidemiology of Dermatophytoses in Switzerland According to a Survey of Dermatophytes Isolated in Lausanne between 2001 and 2018
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020095 - 26 Jun 2020
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Abstract
Dermatophytes are the most common pathogenic agents of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. Knowledge of their epidemiology can facilitate the prevention of dermatophytosis and improve prophylactic measures. We sought to determine the incidence of the different dermatophyte species diagnosed in Lausanne (Switzerland) [...] Read more.
Dermatophytes are the most common pathogenic agents of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. Knowledge of their epidemiology can facilitate the prevention of dermatophytosis and improve prophylactic measures. We sought to determine the incidence of the different dermatophyte species diagnosed in Lausanne (Switzerland) from 2001 to 2018. In total, 10,958 dermatophytes were isolated from patients and 459 from pets. Overall, 99% of tinea unguium and tinea pedis were caused by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale with a prevalence ratio of 3:1. Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton soudanense were mainly found in tinea capitis in patients of African and Mediterranean origin. Interestingly, while Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton verrucosum were prevalent 50 years ago in an epidemiological analysis carried out in the same laboratory from 1967 to 1970, these two species were rarely detected from 2001 to 2018. Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton benhamiae and Microsporum canis were the prevalent zoophilic pathogenic species in children and young adults. Our investigation of animal samples revealed the main reservoirs of these zoophilic species to be cats and dogs for T. mentagrophytes and M. canis, and Guinea pigs for T. benhamiae. This study provides an epidemiological overview of dermatophytoses in Switzerland to improve their surveillance. Full article
Open AccessReview
Mucorales Species and Macrophages
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020094 - 26 Jun 2020
Viewed by 215
Abstract
Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection caused by Mucorales with an unacceptable high mortality rate. Mucorales is a complex fungal group, including eleven different genera that can infect humans. This heterogeneity is associated with species-specific invasion pathways and responses to the host defense [...] Read more.
Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection caused by Mucorales with an unacceptable high mortality rate. Mucorales is a complex fungal group, including eleven different genera that can infect humans. This heterogeneity is associated with species-specific invasion pathways and responses to the host defense mechanisms. The host innate immune system plays a major role in preventing Mucorales growth and host invasion. In this system, macrophages are the main immune effector cells in controlling these fungi by rapid and efficient phagocytosis of the spores. However, Mucorales have evolved mechanisms to block phagosomal maturation and species-specific mechanisms to either survive as dormant spores inside the macrophage, as Rhizopus species, or geminate and escape, as Mucor species. Classical fungal models of mucormycosis, mostly Rhizopus, have made important contributions to elucidate key aspects of the interaction between Mucorales and macrophages, but they lack robust tools for genetic manipulation. The recent introduction of the genetically tractable Mucor circinelloides as a model of mucormycosis offers the possibility to analyze gene function. This has allowed the identification of regulatory pathways that control the fungal response to phagocytosis, including a non-canonical RNAi pathway (NCRIP) that regulates the expression of most genes regulated by phagocytosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9th Advances Against Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis)
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Open AccessReview
Antifungal Resistance Regarding Malassezia pachydermatis: Where Are We Now?
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020093 - 25 Jun 2020
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast inhabiting the skin and ear canals in healthy dogs. In the presence of various predisposing conditions it can cause otitis and dermatitis, which are treated with multiple antifungal agents, mainly azole derivatives. This manuscript aims to review the [...] Read more.
Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast inhabiting the skin and ear canals in healthy dogs. In the presence of various predisposing conditions it can cause otitis and dermatitis, which are treated with multiple antifungal agents, mainly azole derivatives. This manuscript aims to review the available evidence regarding the occurrence of resistance phenomena in this organism. Various findings support the capacity of M. pachydermatis for developing resistance. These include some reports of treatment failure in dogs, the reduced antifungal activity found against yeast isolates sampled from dogs with exposure to antifungal drugs and strains exposed to antifungal agents in vitro, and the description of resistance mechanisms. At the same time, the data reviewed may suggest that the development of resistance is a rare eventuality in canine practice. For example, only three publications describe confirmed cases of treatment failure due to antifungal resistance, and most claims of resistance made by past studies are based on interpretive breakpoints that lack sound support from the clinical perspective. However, it is possible that resistant cases are underreported in literature, perhaps due to the difficulty of obtaining a laboratory confirmation given that a standard procedure for susceptibility testing of M. pachydermatis is still unavailable. These considerations highlight the need for maintaining surveillance for the possible emergence of clinically relevant resistance, hopefully through a shared strategy put in place by the scientific community. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alginate-Derived Elicitors Enhance β-Glucan Content and Antioxidant Activities in Culinary and Medicinal Mushroom, Sparassis latifolia
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020092 - 25 Jun 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the elicitation effects of alginate oligosaccharides extracted from brown algae (Sargassum species) on β-glucan production in cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia). Sodium alginate was refined from Sargassum fulvellum, S. fusiforme, and S. horneri, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the elicitation effects of alginate oligosaccharides extracted from brown algae (Sargassum species) on β-glucan production in cauliflower mushroom (Sparassis latifolia). Sodium alginate was refined from Sargassum fulvellum, S. fusiforme, and S. horneri, and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), resulting mannuronic acid to guluronic acid (M/G) rationes from 0.64 to 1.38. Three oligosaccharide fractions, ethanol fraction (EF), solid fraction (SF), and liquid fraction (LF), were prepared by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD). The samples of S. fusiforme resulted in the highest hydrolysate in SF and the lowest in LF, which was consistent with its highest M/G ratio. The SF of S. fusiforme and LF of S. horneri were chosen for elicitation on S. latifolia, yielding the highest β-glucan contents of 56.01 ± 3.45% and 59.74 ± 4.49% in the stalk, respectively. Total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activities (2,2’-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity) of aqueous extracts of S. latifolia were greatly stimulated by alginate elicitation. These results demonstrate that alginate oligosaccharides extracted from brown algae may be useful as an elicitor to enhance the nutritional value of mushrooms. Full article
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Open AccessReview
COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA)—From Immunology to Treatment
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020091 - 24 Jun 2020
Viewed by 757
Abstract
Like severe influenza, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has emerged as an important disease that predisposes patients to secondary pulmonary aspergillosis, with 35 cases of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) published until June 2020. The release of danger-associated [...] Read more.
Like severe influenza, coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has emerged as an important disease that predisposes patients to secondary pulmonary aspergillosis, with 35 cases of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) published until June 2020. The release of danger-associated molecular patterns during severe COVID-19 results in both pulmonary epithelial damage and inflammatory disease, which are predisposing risk factors for pulmonary aspergillosis. Moreover, collateral effects of host recognition pathways required for the activation of antiviral immunity may, paradoxically, contribute to a highly permissive inflammatory environment that favors fungal pathogenesis. Diagnosis of CAPA remains challenging, mainly because bronchoalveolar lavage fluid galactomannan testing and culture, which represent the most sensitive diagnostic tests for aspergillosis in the ICU, are hindered by the fact that bronchoscopies are rarely performed in COVID-19 patients due to the risk of disease transmission. Similarly, autopsies are rarely performed, which may result in an underestimation of the prevalence of CAPA. Finally, the treatment of CAPA is complicated by drug–drug interactions associated with broad spectrum azoles, renal tropism and damage caused by SARS-CoV-2, which may challenge the use of liposomal amphotericin B, as well as the emergence of azole-resistance. This clinical reality creates an urgency for new antifungal drugs currently in advanced clinical development with more promising pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections Complicating COVID-19)
Open AccessArticle
Isavuconazole Treatment in a Mixed Patient Cohort with Invasive Fungal Infections: Outcome, Tolerability and Clinical Implications of Isavuconazole Plasma Concentrations
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020090 - 22 Jun 2020
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Isavuconazole (ISA) is a triazole antifungal agent recommended for treatment of invasive aspergillosis or mucormycosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate ISA levels in a real world setting in a mixed patient cohort including patients with non-malignant diseases and extracorporeal treatments, [...] Read more.
Isavuconazole (ISA) is a triazole antifungal agent recommended for treatment of invasive aspergillosis or mucormycosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate ISA levels in a real world setting in a mixed patient cohort including patients with non-malignant diseases and extracorporeal treatments, and to correlate findings with efficacy and safety outcomes. We investigated 33 ISA treatment courses in 32 adult patients with hematological and other underlying diseases and assessed the clinical response, side effects and ISA trough plasma concentrations. ISA treatment led to complete and partial response in 87% of patients and was well tolerated. The median ISA plasma concentration was 3.05 µg/mL (range 1.38–9.1, IQR 1.93–4.35) in patients without renal replacement therapy (RRT) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and significantly lower in patients with RRT including cases with additional ECMO or Cytosorb® adsorber therapy (0.88 µg/mL, range 0.57–2.44, IQR 0.71–1.21). After exclusion of values obtained from four patients with ECMO or Cytosorb® adsorber the median concentration was 0.91 µg/mL (range 0.75–2.44, IQR 0.90–1.36) in the RRT group. In addition to previous recommendations we propose to monitor ISA trough plasma concentrations in certain circumstances including RRT, other extracorporeal treatments and obesity. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Rhizoferrin Glycosylation in Rhizopus microsporus
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020089 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Rhizopus spp. are the most common etiological agents of mucormycosis, causing over 90% mortality in disseminated infections. The diagnosis relies on histopathology, culture, and/or polymerase chain reaction. For the first time, the glycosylation of rhizoferrin (RHF) was described in a Rhizopus microsporus clinical [...] Read more.
Rhizopus spp. are the most common etiological agents of mucormycosis, causing over 90% mortality in disseminated infections. The diagnosis relies on histopathology, culture, and/or polymerase chain reaction. For the first time, the glycosylation of rhizoferrin (RHF) was described in a Rhizopus microsporus clinical isolate by liquid chromatography and accurate tandem mass spectrometry. The fermentation broth lyophilizate contained 345.3 ± 13.5, 1.2 ± 0.03, and 0.03 ± 0.002 mg/g of RHF, imido-RHF, and bis-imido-RHF, respectively. Despite a considerable RHF secretion rate, we did not obtain conclusive RHF detection from a patient with disseminated mucormycosis caused by the same R. microsporus strain. We hypothesize that parallel antimycotic therapy, RHF biotransformation, and metabolism compromised the analysis. On the other hand, the full profile of posaconazole metabolites was retrieved by our in house software CycloBranch. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9th Advances Against Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis)
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Open AccessReview
Aspergillus fumigatus Protease Alkaline Protease 1 (Alp1): A New Therapeutic Target for Fungal Asthma
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020088 - 16 Jun 2020
Viewed by 298
Abstract
We review three recent findings that have fundamentally altered our understanding of causative mechanisms underlying fungal-related asthma. These mechanisms may be partially independent of host inflammatory processes but are strongly dependent upon the actions of Alp1 on lung structural cells. They entail (i) [...] Read more.
We review three recent findings that have fundamentally altered our understanding of causative mechanisms underlying fungal-related asthma. These mechanisms may be partially independent of host inflammatory processes but are strongly dependent upon the actions of Alp1 on lung structural cells. They entail (i) bronchial epithelial sensing of Alp1; (ii) Alp1-induced airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction; (iii) Alp1-induced airflow obstruction. Collectively, these mechanisms point to Alp1 as a new target for intervention in fungal asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9th Advances Against Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis)
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Open AccessArticle
Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Inoculation of Sphaerosporella brunnea Significantly Increased Stem Biomass of Salix miyabeana and Decreased Lead, Tin, and Zinc, Soil Concentrations during the Phytoremediation of an Industrial Landfill
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020087 - 16 Jun 2020
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Fast growing, high biomass willows (Salix sp.) have been extensively used for the phytoremediation of trace element-contaminated environments, as they have an extensive root system and they tolerate abiotic stressors such as drought and metal toxicity. Being dual mycorrhizal plants, they can [...] Read more.
Fast growing, high biomass willows (Salix sp.) have been extensively used for the phytoremediation of trace element-contaminated environments, as they have an extensive root system and they tolerate abiotic stressors such as drought and metal toxicity. Being dual mycorrhizal plants, they can engage single or simultaneous symbiotic associations with both arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, which can improve overall plant health and growth. The aim of this study was to test the effect of these mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and trace element (TE) extraction potential of willows. A field experiment was carried out where we grew Salix miyabeana clone SX67 on the site of a decommissioned industrial landfill, and inoculated the shrubs with an AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, an EM fungus Sphaerosporella brunnea, or a mixture of both. After two growing seasons, the willows inoculated with the EM fungus S. brunnea produced significantly higher biomass. Ba, Cd and Zn were found to be phytoextracted to the aerial plant biomass, where Cd presented the highest bioconcentration factor values in all treatments. Additionally, the plots where the willows received the S. brunnea inoculation showed a significant decrease of Cu, Pb, and Sn soil concentrations. AM fungi inoculation and dual inoculation did not significantly influence biomass production and soil TE levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Role of CpALS4790 and CpALS0660 in Candida parapsilosis Virulence: Evidence from a Murine Model of Vaginal Candidiasis
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020086 - 12 Jun 2020
Viewed by 278
Abstract
The Candida parapsilosis genome encodes for five agglutinin-like sequence (Als) cell-wall glycoproteins involved in adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces. The work presented here is aimed at analyzing the role of the two still uncharacterized ALS genes in C. parapsilosis, CpALS4790 and CpALS0660 [...] Read more.
The Candida parapsilosis genome encodes for five agglutinin-like sequence (Als) cell-wall glycoproteins involved in adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces. The work presented here is aimed at analyzing the role of the two still uncharacterized ALS genes in C. parapsilosis, CpALS4790 and CpALS0660, by the generation and characterization of CpALS4790 and CpALS066 single mutant strains. Phenotypic characterization showed that both mutant strains behaved as the parental wild type strain regarding growth rate in liquid/solid media supplemented with cell-wall perturbing agents, and in the ability to produce pseudohyphae. Interestingly, the ability of the CpALS0660 null mutant to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells (HBECs) was not altered when compared with the wild-type strain, whereas deletion of CpALS4790 led to a significant loss of the adhesion capability. RT-qPCR analysis performed on the mutant strains in co-incubation with HBECs did not highlight significant changes in the expression levels of others ALS genes. In vivo experiments in a murine model of vaginal candidiasis indicated a significant reduction in CFUs recovered from BALB/C mice infected with each mutant strain in comparison to those infected with the wild type strain, confirming the involvement of CpAls4790 and CpAls5600 proteins in C. parapsilosis vaginal candidiasis in mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
NO Candida auris: Nitric Oxide in Nanotherapeutics to Combat Emerging Fungal Pathogen Candida auris
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020085 - 12 Jun 2020
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Candida auris (C. auris) is an emerging pathogenic fungal species that is especially worrisome due to its high mortality rates and widespread antifungal resistance. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of nitric oxide (NO) nanoparticles on Candida species, and, to our [...] Read more.
Candida auris (C. auris) is an emerging pathogenic fungal species that is especially worrisome due to its high mortality rates and widespread antifungal resistance. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of nitric oxide (NO) nanoparticles on Candida species, and, to our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the antifungal effects of a NO-generating nanoparticle on C. auris. Six C. auris strains were incubated with a nanoparticle (NAC-SNO-np), which releases N-acetylcysteine S-nitrosothiol (NAC-SNO) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and generates NO, through colony forming unit (CFU) assays, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. NAC-SNO-np effectively eradicates planktonic and biofilm C. auris. Across all six strains, 10 mg/mL NAC-SNO-np significantly reduced the number of CFUs (p < 0.05) and demonstrated a >70% decrease in biofilm viability (p < 0.05). NAC-SNO-np effectively eradicates planktonic C. auris and significantly reduces C. auris biofilm formation. Hence, this novel NO-releasing nanoparticle shows promise as a future therapeutic. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Clinical Relevance and Characteristics of Aspergillus calidoustus and Other Aspergillus Species of Section Usti
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020084 - 12 Jun 2020
Viewed by 266
Abstract
The Aspergilli of section Usti (group ustus) are represented by over 20 species, of which Aspergillus calidoustus is the most relevant human pathogen. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by these fungi is rare but could represent an emerging issue among the expanding population [...] Read more.
The Aspergilli of section Usti (group ustus) are represented by over 20 species, of which Aspergillus calidoustus is the most relevant human pathogen. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) caused by these fungi is rare but could represent an emerging issue among the expanding population of patients with long-term immunosuppression receiving antifungal prophylaxis. Clinicians should be aware of this unusual type of IA, which often exhibits distinct clinical features, such as an insidious and prolonged course and a high occurrence of extra-pulmonary manifestations, such as skin/soft tissue or brain lesions. Moreover, these Aspergillus spp. pose a therapeutic challenge because of their decreased susceptibility to azole drugs. In this review, we outline the microbiological and clinical characteristics of IA due to Aspergillus spp. of section Usti and discuss the therapeutic options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9th Advances Against Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis)
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Open AccessCommunication
Antibiotic Activity of a Paraphaeosphaeria sporulosa-Produced Diketopiperazine against Salmonella enterica
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020083 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 324
Abstract
A diketopiperazine has been purified from a culture filtrate of the endophytic fungus Paraphaeosphaeria sporulosa, isolated from healthy tissues of strawberry plants in a survey of microbes as sources of anti-bacterial metabolites. Its structure has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [...] Read more.
A diketopiperazine has been purified from a culture filtrate of the endophytic fungus Paraphaeosphaeria sporulosa, isolated from healthy tissues of strawberry plants in a survey of microbes as sources of anti-bacterial metabolites. Its structure has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analyses and was found to be identical to cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe) purified from species of other fungal genera. This secondary metabolite has been selected following bioguided-assay fractionation against two strains of Salmonella enterica, the causal agent of bovine gastroenteritis. The diketopiperazine cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe), isolated for the first time from Paraphaeosphaeria species, showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 71.3 and 78.6 μg/mL against the two S. enterica strains. This finding may be significant in limiting the use of synthetic antibiotics in animal husbandry and reducing the emergence of bacterial multidrug resistance. Further in vivo experiments of P. sporulosa diketopiperazines are important for the future application of these metabolites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a New Culture Protocol for Enhancing Fungal Detection Rates in Respiratory Samples of Cystic Fibrosis Patients
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020082 - 09 Jun 2020
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Cystic fibrosis (CF) can be complicated by fungal infection of the respiratory tract. Fungal detection rates in CF sputa are highly dependent on the culture protocol and incubation conditions and thus may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of fungal colonization. [...] Read more.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) can be complicated by fungal infection of the respiratory tract. Fungal detection rates in CF sputa are highly dependent on the culture protocol and incubation conditions and thus may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of fungal colonization. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the additional value of mucolytic pre-treatment, increased inoculum (100 μL), additional fungal culture media (Sabouraud agar; SAB, Medium B+, Scedosporium selective agar; SceSel+ and Dichloran-Glycerol agar; DG18) and longer incubation time (3 weeks) compared with our current protocol. Using the new protocol, we prospectively analyzed 216 expectorated sputum samples from adult and pediatric CF patients (n = 77) and compared the culture yield to a three year retrospective cohort that used direct 10 μL loop inoculation on SAB with 5 days incubation (867 sputum samples/103 patients). Detection rates for molds increased from 42% to 76% (p < 0.0001). Twenty-six percent of cultures were polymicrobial in the prospective cohort as opposed to 4.7% in the retrospective cohort (p < 0.0001). Colonization rate with A. fumigatus increased from 36% to 57%. SAB and DG18 showed the highest detection rates for all molds (SAB 58.6%; DG18 56.9%) and DG18 had the best performance for molds other than A. fumigatus. The larger sample volume and longer incubation also contributed to the increased recovery of molds. The introduction of a modified fungal culture protocol leads to a major increase in detection rate and the diversity of molds, which influences fungal epidemiology and may have implications for treatment decisions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Review of Potential Pseudomonas Weaponry, Relevant to the Pseudomonas–Aspergillus Interplay, for the Mycology Community
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020081 - 06 Jun 2020
Viewed by 526
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most prominent opportunistic bacteria in airways of cystic fibrosis patients and in immunocompromised patients. These bacteria share the same polymicrobial niche with other microbes, such as the opportunistic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Their inter-kingdom interactions and diverse exchange [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most prominent opportunistic bacteria in airways of cystic fibrosis patients and in immunocompromised patients. These bacteria share the same polymicrobial niche with other microbes, such as the opportunistic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Their inter-kingdom interactions and diverse exchange of secreted metabolites are responsible for how they both fare in competition for ecological niches. The outcomes of their contests likely determine persistent damage and degeneration of lung function. With a myriad of virulence factors and metabolites of promising antifungal activity, P. aeruginosa products or their derivatives may prove useful in prophylaxis and therapy against A. fumigatus. Quorum sensing underlies the primary virulence strategy of P. aeruginosa, which serves as cell–cell communication and ultimately leads to the production of multiple virulence factors. Understanding the quorum-sensing-related pathogenic mechanisms of P. aeruginosa is a first step for understanding intermicrobial competition. In this review, we provide a basic overview of some of the central virulence factors of P. aeruginosa that are regulated by quorum-sensing response pathways and briefly discuss the hitherto known antifungal properties of these virulence factors. This review also addresses the role of the bacterial secretion machinery regarding virulence factor secretion and maintenance of cell–cell communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9th Advances Against Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis)
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Open AccessArticle
Native Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Characterization from Saline Lands in Arid Oases, Northwest China
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020080 - 06 Jun 2020
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize land plants in almost every ecosystem, even in extreme conditions, such as saline soils. In the present work, we report the mycorrhizal capacity of rhizosphere soils collected in the dry desert region of the Minqin Oasis, located in [...] Read more.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonize land plants in almost every ecosystem, even in extreme conditions, such as saline soils. In the present work, we report the mycorrhizal capacity of rhizosphere soils collected in the dry desert region of the Minqin Oasis, located in the northwest of China (Gansu province), which is characterized by several halophytes. Lycium spp. and Peganum nigellastrum were used as trap plants in a greenhouse experiment to identify autochthonous AMF associated with the halophytes’ rhizospheres. Morphological observations showed the typical AMF structures inside roots. Twenty-six molecularly distinct AMF taxa were recovered from soil and root DNA. The taxonomical diversity mirrors the several AMF adapted to extreme environmental conditions, such as the saline soil of central China. Knowledge of the AMF associated with halophytes may contribute to select specific fungal isolates to set up agriculture strategies for protecting non-halophyte crop plants in saline soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plants)
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Open AccessCase Report
Azole-Resistant COVID-19-Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis in an Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020079 - 06 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a recently described disease entity affecting patients with severe pulmonary abnormalities treated in intensive care units. Delays in diagnosis contribute to a delayed start of antifungal therapy. In addition, the emergence of resistance to triazole antifungal agents puts [...] Read more.
COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a recently described disease entity affecting patients with severe pulmonary abnormalities treated in intensive care units. Delays in diagnosis contribute to a delayed start of antifungal therapy. In addition, the emergence of resistance to triazole antifungal agents puts emphasis on early surveillance for azole-resistant Aspergillus species. We present a patient with putative CAPA due to Aspergillus fumigatus with identification of a triazole-resistant isolate during therapy. We underline the challenges faced in the management of these cases, the importance of early diagnosis and need for surveillance given the emergence of triazole resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infections Complicating COVID-19)
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Open AccessReview
Saccharomyces boulardii: What Makes It Tick as Successful Probiotic?
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020078 - 04 Jun 2020
Viewed by 362
Abstract
Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic yeast often used for the treatment of GI tract disorders such as diarrhea symptoms. It is genetically close to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its classification as a distinct species or a S. cerevisiae variant has long [...] Read more.
Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic yeast often used for the treatment of GI tract disorders such as diarrhea symptoms. It is genetically close to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its classification as a distinct species or a S. cerevisiae variant has long been discussed. Here, we review the main genetic divergencies between S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae as a strategy to uncover the ability to adapt to the host physiological conditions by the probiotic. S. boulardii does possess discernible phenotypic traits and physiological properties that underlie its success as probiotic, such as optimal growth temperature, resistance to the gastric environment and viability at low pH. Its probiotic activity has been elucidated as a conjunction of multiple pathways, ranging from improvement of gut barrier function, pathogen competitive exclusion, production of antimicrobial peptides, immune modulation, and trophic effects. This review summarizes the participation of S. boulardii in these mechanisms and the multifactorial nature by which this yeast modulates the host microbiome and intestinal function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Studies on the Properties of the Sporulation Specific Protein Dit1 and Its Product Formyl Tyrosine
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020077 - 03 Jun 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
The dityrosine layer is a unique structure present in the spore wall of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary constituent of this layer is bisformyl dityrosine. A sporulation-specific protein, Dit1 is localized in the spore cytosol and produces a precursor of [...] Read more.
The dityrosine layer is a unique structure present in the spore wall of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary constituent of this layer is bisformyl dityrosine. A sporulation-specific protein, Dit1 is localized in the spore cytosol and produces a precursor of bisformyl dityrosine. Although Dit1 is similar to isocyanide synthases, the loss of Dit1 is not rescued by heterologous expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isocyanide synthase, PvcA, indicating that Dit1 does not mediate isocyanidation. The product of Dit1 is most likely formyl tyrosine. Dit1 can produce its product when it is expressed in vegetative cells; however, formyl tyrosine was not detected in the crude cell lysate. We reasoned that formyl tyrosine is unstable and reacts with some molecule to form formyl tyrosine-containing molecules in the cell lysate. In support of this hypothesis, formyl tyrosine was detected when the lysate was hydrolyzed with a mild acid. The same property was also found for bisformyl dityrosine. Bisformyl dityrosine molecules assemble to form the dityrosine layer by an unknown mechanism. Given that bisformyl dityrosine can be released from the spore wall by mild hydrolysis, the process of formyl tyrosine-containing molecule formation may resemble the assembly of the dityrosine layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formation and Function of Fungal Ascospores)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Usefulness of Susceptibility Breakpoints for Yeasts in the Treatment of Candidemia: A Noninterventional Study
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020076 - 02 Jun 2020
Viewed by 377
Abstract
This prospective noninterventional study evaluated whether antifungal susceptibility data (MIC) provided for Candida clinical isolates on the basis of recently established breakpoints are taken into account by clinicians to guide their treatment decision making process, and assessed the response in MIC- and non-MIC-based [...] Read more.
This prospective noninterventional study evaluated whether antifungal susceptibility data (MIC) provided for Candida clinical isolates on the basis of recently established breakpoints are taken into account by clinicians to guide their treatment decision making process, and assessed the response in MIC- and non-MIC-based treatment groups. During a six month period, the usage of systemic antifungals was recorded in detail and compared with mycological data (Candida species and MICs) in candidemia patients. Patients were assigned to a susceptible or resistant infection group based on European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints; treatment decisions were under the professional discretion of the treating physicians. 123 patients were evaluated with Candida albicans accounting for 59%, Candida glabrata for 19%, Candida parapsilosis for 15%, Candida tropicalis for 4% and Candida krusei for 3%. Antifungal treatment correlated with species and MICs in 80% (n = 99 patients), high MICs and species-dependent guideline recommendations were ignored in 20% (n = 24 patients); the overall outcome of candidemia cases in our study population was excellent, as by day 14, all patients were cleared from fungal blood stream infection (mean 5.6 days, range 2–12). The current variability in antifungal usage and the delay in initiating appropriate therapy indicate a need for antifungal stewardship to improve the management of invasive fungal infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology, Diagnosis of Fungal Infections)
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Open AccessReview
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Notes for a Clinician in a Resource-Limited Setting Where There Is No Mycologist
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020075 - 02 Jun 2020
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a spectrum of several progressive disease manifestations caused by Aspergillus species in patients with underlying structural lung diseases. Duration of symptoms longer than three months distinguishes CPA from acute and subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. CPA affects over 3 [...] Read more.
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a spectrum of several progressive disease manifestations caused by Aspergillus species in patients with underlying structural lung diseases. Duration of symptoms longer than three months distinguishes CPA from acute and subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. CPA affects over 3 million individuals worldwide. Its diagnostic approach requires a thorough Clinical, Radiological, Immunological and Mycological (CRIM) assessment. The diagnosis of CPA requires (1) demonstration of one or more cavities with or without a fungal ball present or nodules on chest imaging, (2) direct evidence of Aspergillus infection or an immunological response to Aspergillus species and (3) exclusion of alternative diagnoses, although CPA and mycobacterial disease can be synchronous. Aspergillus antibody is elevated in over 90% of patients and is the cornerstone for CPA diagnosis. Long-term oral antifungal therapy improves quality of life, arrests haemoptysis and prevents disease progression. Itraconazole and voriconazole are alternative first-line agents; voriconazole is preferred for patients with contra-indications to itraconazole and in those with severe disease (including large aspergilloma). In patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB), it is not possible to treat TB with rifampicin and concurrently administer azoles, because of profound drug interactions. In those with pan-azole resistance or intolerance or progressive disease while on oral triazoles, short-term courses of intravenous liposomal amphotericin B or micafungin is used. Surgery benefits patients with well-circumscribed simple aspergillomas and should be offered earlier in low-resource settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis)
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Open AccessReview
Airway Mycosis and the Regulation of Type 2 Immunity
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020074 - 29 May 2020
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus genus and others have long been linked to the induction of type 2 immunity that underlies IgE-mediated hypersensitivity responses. This unique immune response is characterized by the production of the allergy-associated T helper cell type 2 (Th2) and [...] Read more.
Filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus genus and others have long been linked to the induction of type 2 immunity that underlies IgE-mediated hypersensitivity responses. This unique immune response is characterized by the production of the allergy-associated T helper cell type 2 (Th2) and Th17 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13, and IL-17 that drive IgE, eosinophilia, airway hyperresponsiveness and other manifestations of asthma. Proteinases secreted by filamentous fungi promote type 2 immunity, but the mechanism by which this occurs has long remained obscure. Through detailed biochemical analysis of household dust, microbiological dissection of human airway secretions, and extensive modeling in mice, our laboratory has assembled a detailed mechanistic description of how type 2 immunity evolves after exposure to fungi. In this review we summarize three key discoveries: (1) fungal proteinases drive the type 2 immune response; (2) the relationship between fungi, proteinases, and type 2 immunity is explained by airway mycosis, a form of non-invasive fungal infection of the airway lumen; and (3) the innate component of proteinase-driven type 2 immunity is mediated by cleavage of the clotting protein fibrinogen. Despite these advances, additional work is required to understand how Th2 and Th17 responses evolve and the role that non-filamentous fungi potentially play in allergic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9th Advances Against Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis)
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Open AccessReview
Siderophore-Based Molecular Imaging of Fungal and Bacterial Infections—Current Status and Future Perspectives
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020073 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 478
Abstract
Invasive fungal infections such as aspergillosis are life-threatening diseases mainly affecting immuno-compromised patients. The diagnosis of fungal infections is difficult, lacking specificity and sensitivity. This review covers findings on the preclinical use of siderophores for the molecular imaging of infections. Siderophores are low [...] Read more.
Invasive fungal infections such as aspergillosis are life-threatening diseases mainly affecting immuno-compromised patients. The diagnosis of fungal infections is difficult, lacking specificity and sensitivity. This review covers findings on the preclinical use of siderophores for the molecular imaging of infections. Siderophores are low molecular mass chelators produced by bacteria and fungi to scavenge the essential metal iron. Replacing iron in siderophores by radionuclides such as gallium-68 allowed the targeted imaging of infection by positron emission tomography (PET). The proof of principle was the imaging of pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection using [68Ga]Ga-triacetylfusarinine C. Recently, this approach was expanded to imaging of bacterial infections, i.e., with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, the conjugation of siderophores and fluorescent dyes enabled the generation of hybrid imaging compounds, allowing the combination of PET and optical imaging. Nevertheless, the high potential of these imaging probes still awaits translation into clinics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 9th Advances Against Aspergillosis and Mucormycosis)
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Validation of an in-House Library of Colombian Candida auris Strains with MALDI-TOF MS to Improve Yeast Identification
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020072 - 27 May 2020
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Background: Candida auris is characterized for having a high genetic variability among species. MALDI-TOF MS library contains spectra from only three strains of C. auris, which makes difficult the identification process and gives low scores at the species level. Our aim was [...] Read more.
Background: Candida auris is characterized for having a high genetic variability among species. MALDI-TOF MS library contains spectra from only three strains of C. auris, which makes difficult the identification process and gives low scores at the species level. Our aim was to construct and validate an internal library to improve C. auris identification with Colombian clinical strains. Methods: From 30 clinical strains, 770 mass spectra were obtained for the construction of the database. The validation was performed with 300 strains to compare the identification results in the BDAL and C. auris Colombia libraries. Results: Our library allowed a complete, 100% identification of the evaluated strains and a significant improvement in the scores obtained, showing a better performance compared to the Bruker BDAL library. Conclusions: The strengthening of the database is a great opportunity to improve the scoring and C. auris identification. Library data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD016387. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comprehensive Gene Expression Profile of Pectin Degradation Enzymes Reveals the Molecular Events during Cell Wall Degradation and Pathogenesis of Rice Sheath Blight Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020071 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Sheath blight disease of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) remains a global challenge due to the absence of reliable resistance genes and poor understanding of pathogen biology. Pectin, one of the most vital constituents of the plant cell [...] Read more.
Sheath blight disease of rice caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) remains a global challenge due to the absence of reliable resistance genes and poor understanding of pathogen biology. Pectin, one of the most vital constituents of the plant cell wall, is targeted by pectin methylesterases, polygalacturonases, and few other enzymes of fungal pathogens. In this study, we catalogued the expressed genes of the fungal genome from RNAseq of R. solani infected four rice genotypes. Analysis of RNAseq revealed 3325 pathogen genes commonly expressed in all rice genotypes, in which 49, 490, and 83 genes were specific to BPT5204, Tetep, and Pankaj genotypes, respectively. To identify the early and late responding genes of R. solani during plant cell wall degradation, a real-time PCR analysis of 30 pectinolytic enzymes was done at six different time points after inoculation. The majority of these genes showed maximum induction at the 72 h time point, suggesting that it is the most crucial stage of infection. Pankaj showed lesser induction of these genes as compared to other genotypes. Leaf-blade tissue and 45 days old-growth stage are more favorable for the expression of pectin degradation genes of R. solani. Additionally, the expression analysis of these genes from four different strains of R. solani suggested differential regulation of genes but no distinct expression pattern between highly virulent and mild strains. The implications of the differential regulation of these genes in disease development have been discussed. This study provides the first such comprehensive analysis of R. solani genes encoding pectin degrading enzymes, which would help to decipher the pathogen biology and sheath blight disease development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Fungal Pathogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
Candida-Associated Denture Stomatitis and Murine Models: What Is the Importance and Scientific Evidence?
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020070 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Considering the high prevalence and recurrence of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS), in vivo studies in animal models are necessary before those in humans to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to review the literature on murine models of CADS induction using [...] Read more.
Considering the high prevalence and recurrence of Candida-associated denture stomatitis (CADS), in vivo studies in animal models are necessary before those in humans to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to review the literature on murine models of CADS induction using acrylic intraoral devices simulating dentures. Rats are recommended as experimental animals in these models as well as the adoption of a pasty diet. For maintenance in the proper position during the experiments, intraoral appliances must be obtained by individual impressions, using and retained exclusively by cementation on the molars. The region of interest for histopathological analysis was standardized as that corresponding to the area between the first molars. However, there is no consensus among the studies on the CADS induction rat models in relation to the Candida albicans inoculation and need for immunosuppression and/or administration of antibacterial drugs of animals. The greatest difficulty of the available models refers to maintaining the course of the lesion for a sufficient period to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed treatment, considering the rapid and efficient murine immune response to candidal colonization. Therefore, future studies are necessary for the development of a robust and reproducible CADS model. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Improving Nutritive Value of Purple Field Corn Residue and Rice Straw by Culturing with White-Rot Fungi
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020069 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 426
Abstract
It was hypothesized that white-rot fungus fermented with rice straw and purple field corn improves nutrient utilization via enhanced digestibility and lowers methane (CH4) production due to the effects of the lovastatin compound. The aim of the current experiment was to [...] Read more.
It was hypothesized that white-rot fungus fermented with rice straw and purple field corn improves nutrient utilization via enhanced digestibility and lowers methane (CH4) production due to the effects of the lovastatin compound. The aim of the current experiment was to investigate the effect of inoculation of two fungi belonging to white-rot fungus type on feed value and ruminal fermentation characteristic. The experiment was carried out according to a completely randomized 3 × 3 factorial design: three roughage sources (rice straw, purple corn stover, and purple corn field cob) for three inoculation methods (untreated, P. ostreatus treated, and V. volvacea treated). The two fungi increased concentration of lovastatin when compared to the untreated, and P. ostreatus had higher lovastatin production potential than V. volvacea (p < 0.05). The yield of lovastatin was obtained from rice straw fermentation with P. ostreatus. The monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC) in untreated purple field corn cobs was higher than in the fermentation groups. Ruminal fermentation gas production from soluble fractions ranged from −2.47 to 1.14 and differed among the treatments (p < 0.01). In comparison to all treatments, the gas production rate for the insoluble fraction was significantly highest (p < 0.01) in treatment alone, in which purple field corn stover was fermented with P. ostreatus and V. volvacea. There was significant interaction in in vitro dry matter digestibility at 12 h of incubation. Purple field corn cob had a higher significant effect on in vitro DM digestibility at 12 and 24 h after incubation when compared to that of other groups. Moreover, current research has found that roughage fermented with P. ostreatus and V. volvacea increased in vitro DM digestibility at 24 h after incubation. Fermenting roughage with fungi did not affect rumen pH, which ranged from 6.60 to 6.91 (p > 0.05), while P. ostreatus resulted in increased levels of ruminal ammonia-nitrogen concentrations. Propionic acid increased in all roughages fermented with P. ostreatus or V. volvacea after 8 h of ruminal fermentation testing. The two fungi fermented as substrate treatments had significantly lower (p < 0.05) CH4 production. Based on the improved rumen DM digestibility and reduced CH4 production, P. ostreatus and V. volvacea could be utilized for enhancing feeding efficiency of roughage. Full article
Open AccessReview
Fungal Pigments: Potential Coloring Compounds for Wide Ranging Applications in Textile Dyeing
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020068 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Synthetic pigments/non-renewable coloring sources used normally in the textile industry release toxic substances into the environment, causing perilous ecological challenges. To be safer from such challenges of synthetic colorants, academia and industries have explored the use of natural colorants such as microbial pigments. [...] Read more.
Synthetic pigments/non-renewable coloring sources used normally in the textile industry release toxic substances into the environment, causing perilous ecological challenges. To be safer from such challenges of synthetic colorants, academia and industries have explored the use of natural colorants such as microbial pigments. Such explorations have created a fervent interest among textile stakeholders to undertake the dyeing of textile fabrics, especially with fungal pigments. The biodegradable and sustainable production of natural colorants from fungal sources stand as being comparatively advantageous to synthetic dyes. The prospective scope of fungal pigments has emerged in the opening of many new avenues in textile colorants for wide ranging applications. Applying the biotechnological processes, fungal pigments like carotenoids, melanins, flavins, phenazines, quinones, monascins, violacein, indigo, etc. could be extracted on an industrial scale. This review appraises the studies and applications of various fungal pigments in dyeing textile fabrics and is furthermore shedding light on the importance of toxicity testing, genetic manipulations of fungal pigments, and their future perspectives under biotechnological approaches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
High-Frequency Direct Detection of Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus from Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Fungal Diseases in India
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020067 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 451
Abstract
Aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is a worldwide problem with major therapeutic implications. In patients with invasive aspergillosis, a low yield of fungal cultures results in underestimation of azole resistance. To detect azole resistance in A. fumigatus, we applied the AsperGenius [...] Read more.
Aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus is a worldwide problem with major therapeutic implications. In patients with invasive aspergillosis, a low yield of fungal cultures results in underestimation of azole resistance. To detect azole resistance in A. fumigatus, we applied the AsperGenius® Resistance multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect TR34/L98H, and TR46/T289A/Y121F mutations and the AsperGenius® G54/M220 RUO PCR assay to detect G54/M220 mutations directly in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples of 160 patients with chronic respiratory diseases in Delhi, India. Only 23% of samples were culture-positive compared to 83% positivity by A. fumigatus species PCR highlighting concerns about the low yield of cultures. Notably, 25% of BAL samples (33/160 patients) had azole resistance-associated mutation by direct detection using PCR assay. Detection of resistance-associated mutations was found mainly in 59% and 43% patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), respectively. Overall, a G54 mutation, conferring itraconazole resistance, was the predominant finding in 87.5% and 67% of patients with CPA and ABPA, respectively. In culture-negative, PCR-positive samples, we detected azole-resistant mutations in 34% of BAL samples. Azole resistance in chronic Aspergillus diseases remains undiagnosed, warranting standardization of respiratory culture and inclusion of rapid techniques to detect resistance markers directly in respiratory samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aspergillus Infection)
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Open AccessReview
Encochleated Amphotericin B: Is the Oral Availability of Amphotericin B Finally Reached?
J. Fungi 2020, 6(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6020066 - 18 May 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
As the oldest and for many decades the only available agent for the treatment of life-threatening invasive fungal diseases, amphotericin B (AmB) is known for its broad-spectrum fungicidal activity against a wide range of yeasts and molds. However, the main drawback of the [...] Read more.
As the oldest and for many decades the only available agent for the treatment of life-threatening invasive fungal diseases, amphotericin B (AmB) is known for its broad-spectrum fungicidal activity against a wide range of yeasts and molds. However, the main drawback of the present formulations remains its toxicity, the limited use to intravenous administration, and the higher costs associated with the better tolerated lipid formulations. The novel nanoparticle-based encochleated AmB (CAmB) formulation encapsulates, protects, and delivers its cargo molecule AmB in the interior of a calcium-phospholipid anhydrous crystal. Protecting AmB from harsh environmental conditions and gastrointestinal degradation, CAmB offers oral availability in conjunction with reduced toxicity. Matinas BioPharma, Bedminster, NJ is on the way to develop CAmB named MAT2203, currently undergoing Phase II clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antifungal Agents Recently Approved or Under Development)
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