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2,4-Thiazolidinedione in Well-Fed Lactating Dairy Goats: I. Effect on Adiposity and Milk Fat Synthesis
Open AccessArticle

2,4-Thiazolidinedione in Well-Fed Lactating Dairy Goats: II. Response to Intra-Mammary Infection

Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Department of Animal Science, University of Guilan, Kilometer 5 of Rasht-Qazvin Highway, Rasht 4199613776, Iran
Department of Animal Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, KNU Ave 1, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea
Department of Animal Sciences, Food and Nutrition (DIANA), Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, 29122 Piacenza PC, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Box 2104, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.
Current address: Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, 1200 N. University Drive, Pine Bluff, AR 71601, USA.
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 52;
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 1 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
In a prior experiment, treatment of goats with the putative PPARγ agonist 2,4-thiazolidinedione (2,4-TZD) ameliorated the response to intramammary infection without evidence of PPARγ activation. The lack of PPARγ activation was possibly due to deficiency of vitamin A and/or a poor body condition of the animals. Therefore, the present study hypothesized that activation of PPARγ by 2,4-TZD in goats supplemented with adequate amounts of vitamin A can improve the response to sub-clinical mastitis. Lactating goats receiving a diet that met National Research Council requirements, including vitamin A, were injected with 8 mg/kg BW of 2,4-TZD (n = 6) or saline (n = 6; control (CTR)) daily. Two weeks into treatment, all goats received Streptococcus uberis (IMI) in the right mammary gland. Blood biomarkers of metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative status plus leukocytes phagocytosis were measured. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) and macrophages were isolated from milk and liver tissue collected for gene expression analysis. Milk fat was maintained by treatment with 2,4-TZD, but decreased in CTR, after IMI. Haptoglobin was increased after IMI only in 2,4-TZD without any effect on negative acute phase proteins, indicating an improved liver function. 2,4-TZD vs. CTR had a greater amount of globulin. The expression of inflammation-related genes was increased by IMI in both macrophages and MEC. Except for decreasing expression of SCD1 in MEC, 2,4-TZD did not affect the expression of measured genes. Results confirmed the successful induction of sub-clinical mastitis but did not confirm the positive effect of 2,4-TZD on the response to IMI in well-fed goats. View Full-Text
Keywords: 2,4-thiazolidinedione; goat; mastitis; macrophages; mammary epithelial cells 2,4-thiazolidinedione; goat; mastitis; macrophages; mammary epithelial cells
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Rosa, F.; Moridi, M.; Osorio, J.S.; Lohakare, J.; Trevisi, E.; Filley, S.; Estill, C.; Bionaz, M. 2,4-Thiazolidinedione in Well-Fed Lactating Dairy Goats: II. Response to Intra-Mammary Infection. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 52.

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