Next Issue
Volume 6, December
Previous Issue
Volume 6, June

Table of Contents

Vet. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Mycobacterial diseases, like bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis, are characterized by a long [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Effects of Dietary Olive Oil and Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil on Expression of Lipogenic Genes in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Dairy Cows
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030074 - 15 Sep 2019
Viewed by 503
Abstract
The objective of this study was to characterize the long-term transcriptomic effects of lipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of dairy cows supplemented with unsaturated (olive oil; OO) and saturated (hydrogenated vegetable oil; HVO) lipids. Cows were fed a control diet with [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to characterize the long-term transcriptomic effects of lipogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of dairy cows supplemented with unsaturated (olive oil; OO) and saturated (hydrogenated vegetable oil; HVO) lipids. Cows were fed a control diet with no added lipid, or diets containing OO or HVO (n = 5 cows/group) for 63 days. SAT was obtained from the tail-head area at the onset of the study and after 21, 42, and 63 days of supplementation. Treatments had minor effects on expression of measured genes. Both fat supplements reduced expression of PPARG, HVO decreased transcription of the desaturase FADS2 and lipid droplet formation PLIN2, and OO increased transcription of FABP3. Both lipid treatments decreased expression of the transcription regulator SREBF1 and its chaperone (SCAP) during the first 21 days of treatment. Our data indicated that long-term feeding of OO and HVO have a relatively mild effect on expression of lipogenic genes in SAT of mid-lactating cows. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Oral and Subcutaneous Meloxicam Administered to Postpartum Dairy Cows
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030073 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The dairy industry needs evidence-based solutions to mitigate painful procedures and conditions in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of orally versus subcutaneously administered meloxicam in early-lactation dairy cattle. The study was conducted at a commercial [...] Read more.
The dairy industry needs evidence-based solutions to mitigate painful procedures and conditions in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of orally versus subcutaneously administered meloxicam in early-lactation dairy cattle. The study was conducted at a commercial dairy herd in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Twelve postpartum cows were enrolled in the study, receiving either subcutaneous meloxicam (MET) at 0.5 mg/kg body weight (n = 6) or oral meloxicam (MOS) at a higher dose of 1.0 mg/kg body weight (n = 6) immediately following parturition. The predicted half-life (12.5 ± 2.0 vs. 28.5 ± 2.0 h), Cmax (1.59 ± 0.15 vs. 1.95 ± 0.16 μg/mL), Tmax (5.33 vs. 11.7 h), and AUC0→∞ (39.6 ± 7.4 vs. 115.6 ± 19 h * µg/mL) differed significantly between MET and MOS cows, respectively. After controlling for the treatment group, first lactation cows had a significantly higher half-life (4.1 ± 2.1 h), Cmax (0.56 ± 0.2 µg/mL), and AUC0→∞ (21.6 ± h * µg/mL) relative to second lactation or greater cows, respectively. Administration of meloxicam through the subcutaneous or oral route results in appreciable, dose-dependent systemic levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Effects of Undenatured Type II Collagen (UC-II) as Compared to Robenacoxib on the Mobility Impairment Induced by Osteoarthritis in Dogs
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030072 - 04 Sep 2019
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease that requires a multimodal therapeutic approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) as compared to robenacoxib in dogs affected by OA. Our hypothesis was that the two [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease that requires a multimodal therapeutic approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of undenatured type II collagen (UC-II) as compared to robenacoxib in dogs affected by OA. Our hypothesis was that the two compounds would be similar (non-inferiority) in improving mobility. To test this hypothesis, a complete orthopedic examination, x-ray and the Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD) survey were performed in dogs affected by OA before and after the treatments. The study was designed as a clinical, randomized, controlled and prospective study. Sixty client-owned dogs were randomized in the R group (n = 30, robenacoxib 1 mg/kg/day for 30 days) and in the UC-II group (n = 30, UC-II 1 tablet/day for 30 days). Thirty days after the beginning of the treatment (T30), the dogs were reassessed for the LOAD, MOBILITY and CLINICAL scores. Based on the data obtained from the study, a significant reduction in LOAD and MOBILITY scores was recorded between T0 and T30 with a similar magnitude among the two groups (R = 31.5%, p < 0.001; UC-II = 32.7%, p = 0.013). The results of this study showed that UC-II and robenacoxib were able to similarly improve mobility of dogs affected by OA. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessBrief Report
A Cellular Model of Infection with Brucella melitensis in Ovine Macrophages: Novel Insights for Intracellular Bacterial Detection
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030071 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Intracellular bacteria provoking zoonoses, such as those of the genus Brucella, present a host cell tropism mostly limited to the monocyte/macrophage lineage, leading to chronic inflammatory reactions, difficult-to-eradicate-infections, and widespread prevalence among ruminants. Eradication of brucellosis has been based on programs that [...] Read more.
Intracellular bacteria provoking zoonoses, such as those of the genus Brucella, present a host cell tropism mostly limited to the monocyte/macrophage lineage, leading to chronic inflammatory reactions, difficult-to-eradicate-infections, and widespread prevalence among ruminants. Eradication of brucellosis has been based on programs that translate into a substantial financial burden for both the authorities and stockbreeders, if not strictly followed. To this end, we sought to create an in vitro cell model that could be utilized as future reference for adequately measuring the number of engulfed brucellae/cell, using peripheral blood-derived sheep macrophages infected with B. melitensis at decimal multiplicities of infection (MOI = 5000-5), to simulate the host cell/microorganism interaction and monitor bacterial loads up to 6 days post-infection. We show that the MOI = 5000 leads to high numbers of engulfed bacteria without affecting macrophages’ viability and that the minimum detection limit of our Real-Time PCR assay was 3.97 ± 5.58 brucellae/cell. Moreover, we observed a time-associated, significant gradual reduction in bacterial loads from Day 2 to Day 6 post-infection (p = 0.0013), as part of the natural bactericidal properties of macrophages. Overall, the work presented here constitutes a reliable in vitro cell model of Brucella melitensis for research purposes that can be utilized to adequately measure the number of engulfed brucellae/cell and provides insights towards future utilization of molecular biology-based methods for detection of Brucella. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pathological Study on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Silicotic Lung Lesions in Rat
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030070 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Silicosis, caused by the inhalation of crystalline silicon dioxide or silica, is one of the most severe occupational diseases. Persistent inflammation and progressive massive pulmonary fibrosis are the most common histological changes caused by silicosis. Association of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hyperplastic type [...] Read more.
Silicosis, caused by the inhalation of crystalline silicon dioxide or silica, is one of the most severe occupational diseases. Persistent inflammation and progressive massive pulmonary fibrosis are the most common histological changes caused by silicosis. Association of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hyperplastic type II epithelial cells with the fibrotic events of pulmonary fibrosis has been suggested in in vitro silica-exposed cultured cell models, patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and bleomycin-induced experimental models. Histological features of EMT, however, are not fully described in silicotic lungs in in vivo. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate EMT of hyperplastic type II epithelial cells in the developmental process of progressive massive pulmonary fibrosis in the lungs of rats exposed to silica. F344 female rats were intratracheally instilled with 20 mg of crystalline silica (Min-U-Sil-5), followed by sacrifice at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after instillation. Fibrosis, characterized by the formation of silicotic nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, and diffuse interstitial fibrosis, was observed in the lungs of the treated rats; the effects of fibrosis intensified in a time-dependent manner. Hyperplasia of the type II epithelial cells, observed in the massive fibrotic lesions, dominated in the lungs of rats at 6 and 12 months after the treatment. Immunohistochemistry of the serial sections of the lung tissues demonstrated positive labeling for cytokeratin, vimentin, and α-smooth muscle actin in spindle cells close to the foci of hyperplasia of type II epithelial cells. Spindle cells, which exhibited features of both epithelial cells and fibroblasts, were also demonstrated with bundles of collagen fibers in the fibrotic lesions, using electron microscopy. Increased expression of TGF-β was shown by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in the lungs of the treated rats. These findings suggested that enhanced TGF-β expression and EMT of hyperplastic type II epithelial cells are involved in the development process of progressive massive pulmonary fibrosis during silicosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of 3 Different Commercial Vaccines Formulations against BVDV and BHV-1 on the Inflammatory Response of Holstein Heifers
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030069 - 26 Aug 2019
Viewed by 846
Abstract
After vaccination, vaccine components must activate the immune response, but the ideal vaccine should not result in undesirable effects in cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory and humoral responses and adverse reactions induced by three adjuvanted commercial vaccines [...] Read more.
After vaccination, vaccine components must activate the immune response, but the ideal vaccine should not result in undesirable effects in cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory and humoral responses and adverse reactions induced by three adjuvanted commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). Holstein heifers (n = 35) were divided into four groups by adjuvant compounds: Vaccine A (Alum; n = 9), Vaccine B (Oil-in-water; n = 10), Vaccine C (Amphigen/Quil A cholesterol and dimethyl-dioctadecyl ammonium (DDA) bromide (QAD; n = 10), and Control (n = 6). Heifers were assessed at 0 h, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h post-vaccination; serology was evaluated at first dose (D0), booster (D21) and D42. Heifers vaccinated with Vaccine B (p = 0.0001) and C (p = 0.0001) had a more intense local reaction, while there was a higher rectal temperature detected in heifers vaccinated with Vaccine C (p = 0.020). There was greater systemic reaction observed for heifers vaccinated with Vaccines B and C at 48 h (p = 0.002) after a second dose. Clinical pathology parameters [white blood count (WBC) (p = 0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.0001) and haptoglobin concentrations (p = 0.0001)] were higher in animals vaccinated with Vaccine C. Neutralizing Abs against BVDV type 1 strains, NADL and Singer, were detected in animals vaccinated with Vaccines A or C at D42, while BVDV-2 antibodies were detected only in animals vaccinated with Vaccine C. A BHV-1 antibody was detected in all three vaccine groups (Vaccines A, B or C) at day 42 (21 days post booster vaccination). The findings of this research were based on three different commercial laboratory formulations and also according to the conditions which the study was conducted. In this context, vaccine containing mineral oil or Amphigen/QAD presented greater local reactivity and induced a significant systemic inflammatory response. Vaccinated heifers with Alum and Amphigen/QAD commercial vaccines enhanced humoral immune response against BVDV and BHV-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Does Double Centrifugation Lead to Premature Platelet Aggregation and Decreased TGF-β1 Concentrations in Equine Platelet-Rich Plasma?
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030068 - 21 Aug 2019
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Blood-derived autologous products are frequently used in both human and equine medicine to treat musculoskeletal disorders. These products, especially the platelet-rich plasma (PRP), may contain high concentrations of growth factors (GFs), and thus improve healing in several tissues. Nevertheless, the procedures for preparation [...] Read more.
Blood-derived autologous products are frequently used in both human and equine medicine to treat musculoskeletal disorders. These products, especially the platelet-rich plasma (PRP), may contain high concentrations of growth factors (GFs), and thus improve healing in several tissues. Nevertheless, the procedures for preparation of PRP are currently non-standardized. Several protocols, which are based on distinct centrifugation patterns (rotation speed and time), result in PRPs with different characteristics, concerning platelet and GFs concentrations, as well as platelet activation. The aim of the present study was to compare two different protocols for PRP preparation: protocol (A) that is based on a single-centrifugation step; protocol (B), which included two sequential centrifugation steps (double-centrifugation). The results here reported show that the double-centrifugation protocol resulted in higher platelet concentration, while leukocytes were not concentrated by this procedure. Although platelet activation and aggregation were increased in this protocol in comparison to the single-centrifugation one, the TGF-β1 concentration was also higher. Pearson’s correlation coefficients gave a significant, positive correlation between the platelet counts and TGF-β1 concentration. In conclusion, although the double-centrifugation protocol caused premature platelet aggregation, it seems to be an effective method for preparation of PRP with high platelet and TGF-β1 concentrations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report
Case Reports of Situs Inversus Totalis and Dextrocardia in Sprague Dawley Rats
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030067 - 15 Aug 2019
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Situs inversus totalis is a condition where there is a transposition of all internal organs from their normal anatomical location. This infrequent and rare congenital condition has been described in several species of mammals. Dextorcardia is a series of conditions associated with an [...] Read more.
Situs inversus totalis is a condition where there is a transposition of all internal organs from their normal anatomical location. This infrequent and rare congenital condition has been described in several species of mammals. Dextorcardia is a series of conditions associated with an abnormal congenital positioning of the heart, and is often associated with situs inversus totalis. Here we report a case of situs inversus totalis and two cases of dextrocardia identified in Sprague Dawley rats during gross necropsy evaluations at both the Health Sciences North Research Institute (HSNRI) in Canada and Finlay Institute of Vaccine Research and Production in Cuba. The intent of this report is to share our findings and aid in the accumulation of data on these rare conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Detection of Bovine Leukemia Virus RNA in Blood Samples of Naturally Infected Dairy Cattle
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030066 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606 | Correction
Abstract
The viral expression in vivo, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle, is considered to be restricted to extremely low levels, and the mitosis of infected B lymphocytes is regarded as the main mode of virus persistence within the infected host. In this study, [...] Read more.
The viral expression in vivo, in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle, is considered to be restricted to extremely low levels, and the mitosis of infected B lymphocytes is regarded as the main mode of virus persistence within the infected host. In this study, the presence of BLV RNA in whole blood from seven asymptomatic cows naturally infected with BLV during one year, including a complete milking cycle and two delivery time points, was investigated by nested-PCR using the oligonucleotides complementary to the tax and pol gene. BLV RNA was detected in four cows at different time points, especially in high blood proviral load cows and around delivery time. This study describes the detection of free BLV RNA in blood from BLV-infected asymptomatic cows. The results obtained suggest the occurrence of persistent low-level expression of the tax and pol genes that could be a result of viral reactivation, within the asymptomatic period. This finding may be important in the pathogenesis of BLV infection, associated with the delivery period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report
Metastatic Cardiac Hemangiosarcoma in a 6 Year Old Wheaten Terrier Mix
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030065 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 716
Abstract
A 6 year old Wheaten Terrier mix with a history of collapse and lethargy was referred for evaluation of pericardial effusion. The echocardiogram identified pericardial effusion and a right auricular mass. No sign of metastasis was noted at this time in thoracic radiographs [...] Read more.
A 6 year old Wheaten Terrier mix with a history of collapse and lethargy was referred for evaluation of pericardial effusion. The echocardiogram identified pericardial effusion and a right auricular mass. No sign of metastasis was noted at this time in thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasounds. The patient underwent the right auriculectomy via right lateral thoracotomy. Several metastatic masses were located in the visceral aspect of the pericardium at the time of surgery and were all excised. The right auricular mass and pericardial masses were diagnosed as hemangiosarcoma with a sign of metastasis. The patient recovered from surgery uneventfully and was discharged the sixth day after surgery. The patient received doxorubicin followed by cyclophosphamide, piroxicam and Coriolus versicolor extract postoperatively. Pulmonary metastases were noted 229 days and the dog was euthanized 318 days after surgery. No clinical signs were noted until 309 days postoperatively. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication
A Multi-Hemagglutinin-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to Serologically Detect Influenza A Virus Infection in Animals
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030064 - 22 Jul 2019
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Mammals can play a role as an intermediate host in the emergence of mammalian-adapted reassortants or mutants of avian influenza A viruses, with pandemic potential. Therefore, detecting viral infection in animals followed by assessment of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtype of the agent is [...] Read more.
Mammals can play a role as an intermediate host in the emergence of mammalian-adapted reassortants or mutants of avian influenza A viruses, with pandemic potential. Therefore, detecting viral infection in animals followed by assessment of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtype of the agent is an indispensable process for risk assessment in pandemic preparedness. In this study, we tested the potential of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a rapid diagnosis method, using a panel of HA subtype antigens. By analyzing reference immune sera, we found that this novel assay could detect HA subtype-specific antibodies without considerable inter-subtypic cross-reactivities, contributing to diagnosis of influenza virus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Cross-Sectional Survey on Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Cattle, Sheep, and Goats in Algeria: Seroprevalence and Risk Factors
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030063 - 10 Jul 2019
Viewed by 760
Abstract
A cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence and identifying the risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, sheep, and goats in eight provinces located in two main Algerian agro-ecological zones was carried out from October 2015 to March 2018. Blood sera [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence and identifying the risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle, sheep, and goats in eight provinces located in two main Algerian agro-ecological zones was carried out from October 2015 to March 2018. Blood sera from 4074 animals of both sexes were tested for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, using the indirect, enzyme-linked, immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). Moreover, to identify the potential risk factors of T. gondii infection, a survey through a breeders’ questionnaires was conducted. Nearly one-fourth of the total number of animals tested (1024/4074)—i.e., 25.1%—were seropositive. The seroprevalence in cattle, sheep, and goats was 28.7%, 25.6%, and 11.9%, respectively. The area, sex, age, and herd size were identified as risk factors for T. gondii infection. Higher seropositivity rates were recorded in cows and goats (odds ratio (OR) = 1.63 and 6.4), in old animals (cattle, OR = 2.1; sheep, OR = 1.9; and goat, OR = 3.9), and in small size herds (cattle, OR = 2.5; sheep, OR = 1.9; goat, OR = 2.2). In conclusion, there is widespread T. gondii infection in cattle, sheep, and goats in these two strategic agricultural areas. The identification of the risk factors determines the type of measures and strategies to be undertaken to reduce, control, and prevent T. gondii infection in domestic animals, and thereby reduce human infection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Age and Environment on Adaptive Immune Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Vaccination in Dairy Goats in Relation to Paratuberculosis Control Strategies
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030062 - 01 Jul 2019
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Paratuberculosis infection is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the Netherlands, 75% herd level prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis has been estimated, and vaccination is the principal control strategy applied. Most goat dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis systematically vaccinate goat kids in [...] Read more.
Paratuberculosis infection is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the Netherlands, 75% herd level prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis has been estimated, and vaccination is the principal control strategy applied. Most goat dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis systematically vaccinate goat kids in the first months of life with a commercially available whole cell MAP vaccine. We hypothesized that the development of adaptive immune responses in goats vaccinated at young age depends on the environment they are raised in, and this has implications for the application of immune diagnostic tests in vaccinated dairy goats. We evaluated the early immune response to vaccination in young goat kids sourced from a MAP unsuspected non-vaccinated herd and raised in a MAP-free environment. Subsequently we compared these with responses observed in birth year and vaccination matched adult goats raised on farms with endemic paratuberculosis. Results indicated that initial adaptive immune responses to vaccination are limited in a MAP-free environment. In addition, adult antibody positive vaccinated goats raised in a MAP endemic environment are less likely to be IS900 PCR-positive as compared to antibody negative herd mates. We conclude that test-and-cull strategies in a vaccinated herd are currently not feasible using available immune diagnostic tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of a Commercial PCV2a Vaccine with a Two-Dose Regimen Against PCV2d
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030061 - 28 Jun 2019
Viewed by 782
Abstract
Porcine circovirus type 2, the causative agent of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD), consists of three major genotypes PCV2a, 2b and 2d. Current commercial vaccines contain the first-identified PCV2a’s capsid protein or whole virions. Outbreaks of PCVAD, caused by the recently identified PCV2d [...] Read more.
Porcine circovirus type 2, the causative agent of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD), consists of three major genotypes PCV2a, 2b and 2d. Current commercial vaccines contain the first-identified PCV2a’s capsid protein or whole virions. Outbreaks of PCVAD, caused by the recently identified PCV2d in vaccinated herds have raised concerns regarding the efficacy of current PCV2a vaccines against PCV2d. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a two-dose regimen for the recently reformulated Fostera PCV MetaStim vaccine, to determine if reformulation with the squalene oil adjuvant and two-dose regimen improves the threshold of protection enough to eliminate viremia in a vaccination and challenge model. Two groups of seven pigs each were vaccinated with the commercial vaccine or PBS, and challenged with the PCV2d virus. Strong pre-challenge virus neutralizing responses were detected against all three genotypes. Post-challenge viremia was not completely eliminated as expected but a 2 log10 mean reduction in viral load was achieved in vaccinated pigs. Vaccinated pigs had a mean score of 0 for pathological evaluation, while unvaccinated pigs had a score of 6.6. In conclusion, the reformulated Fostera PCV MetaStim PCV2a-based vaccine provided significant heterologous protection and was effective against PCV2d. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report
Long-Term Survival of a Cat with Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030060 - 27 Jun 2019
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Primary bladder leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a four-year-old, mixed-breed, spayed female cat that presented with lethargy, stranguria, polyuria, hematuria, urinary incontinence and abdominal sensitivity. On abdominal ultrasound, the urinary bladder was observed to have a preserved anatomical position and a hyperechoic mass. The [...] Read more.
Primary bladder leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a four-year-old, mixed-breed, spayed female cat that presented with lethargy, stranguria, polyuria, hematuria, urinary incontinence and abdominal sensitivity. On abdominal ultrasound, the urinary bladder was observed to have a preserved anatomical position and a hyperechoic mass. The mass measured approximately 1.5 cm, was irregular, and arose from the mucosa of the bladder wall. Due to the evidence of a primary tumor in the urinary bladder, we conducted a partial cystectomy with a 1.0 cm surgical margin and performed histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The histopathology revealed a poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm, characterized by the proliferation of spindle cells with moderate nuclear pleomorphism, suggestive of leiomyosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the histopathological diagnosis, showing positive staining for vimentin, desmin and alpha-smooth muscle actin and negative staining for S100, pan-cytokeratin and MyoD1. We also assessed the proliferative index by Ki67 staining and found that 57% of the neoplastic cells were positive for Ki67. We conducted clinical follow-ups every three months in the first year and every six months thereafter. The patient showed no signs of recurrence after 48 months. The surgery was sufficient to treat the leiomyosarcoma, and adjuvant chemotherapy was not necessary in this case. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Application of Transcriptomics to Enhance Early Diagnostics of Mycobacterial Infections, with an Emphasis on Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6030059 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
Mycobacteria cause a wide variety of disease in human and animals. Species that infect ruminants include M. bovis and M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants, which is a chronic granulomatous enteric infection that leads [...] Read more.
Mycobacteria cause a wide variety of disease in human and animals. Species that infect ruminants include M. bovis and M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP is the causative agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants, which is a chronic granulomatous enteric infection that leads to severe economic losses worldwide. Characteristic of MAP infection is the long, latent phase in which intermittent shedding can take place, while diagnostic tests are unable to reliably detect an infection in this stage. This leads to unnoticed dissemination within herds and the presence of many undetected, silent carriers, which makes the eradication of Johne’s disease difficult. To improve the control of MAP infection, research is aimed at improving early diagnosis. Transcriptomic approaches can be applied to characterize host-pathogen interactions during infection, and to develop novel biomarkers using transcriptional profiles. Studies have focused on the identification of specific RNAs that are expressed in different infection stages, which will assist in the development and clinical implementation of early diagnostic tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop