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Risk Factors for Development of Canine and Human Osteosarcoma: A Comparative Review

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Animal Cancer Care and Research Program, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
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Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
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Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
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Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA
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Institute of Health Informatics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
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Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
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Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
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Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
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Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci6020048
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor of bone. Osteosarcomas are rare in humans, but occur more commonly in dogs. A comparative approach to studying osteosarcoma has highlighted many clinical and biologic aspects of the disease that are similar between dogs and humans; however, important species-specific differences are becoming increasingly recognized. In this review, we describe risk factors for the development of osteosarcoma in dogs and humans, including height and body size, genetics, and conditions that increase turnover of bone-forming cells, underscoring the concept that stochastic mutational events associated with cellular replication are likely to be the major molecular drivers of this disease. We also discuss adaptive, cancer-protective traits that have evolved in large, long-lived mammals, and how increasing size and longevity in the absence of natural selection can account for the elevated bone cancer risk in modern domestic dogs. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone cancer; osteosarcoma; dog; human; pediatric; comparative oncology; genetics; risk factors bone cancer; osteosarcoma; dog; human; pediatric; comparative oncology; genetics; risk factors
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Makielski, K.M.; Mills, L.J.; Sarver, A.L.; Henson, M.S.; Spector, L.G.; Naik, S.; Modiano, J.F. Risk Factors for Development of Canine and Human Osteosarcoma: A Comparative Review. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 48.

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