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Vet. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 67 articles

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The life expectancy of dogs has doubled in the last 40 years, due to new therapeutic opportunities, better nutrition, and better diagnostic approaches. This positive effect, however, is coupled with a concomitant increase in neoplasms, particularly in the canine patient. Therefore, veterinarians inevitably face new issues related to these conditions, which were poorly or never investigated in the past. One of these is chemotherapy and its possible side effects on immunity, and one of the least understood aspects to date concerns the success of vaccination in canine cancer patients. Knowing the real protection against the main canine preventable infectious diseases (parvovirus infection, distemper and infectious hepatitis) of cancer dogs undergoing chemotherapy can help veterinarians fully manage their patients at such a delicate time in their and their owners’ lives. View this paper

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9 pages, 856 KiB  
Article
LED Light Applied to the Feeder: Impact on Growth Performances of Chickens under Productive Conditions
by Livio Galosi, Roberto Falconi, Lucia Biagini, Yulaine Corrales Barrios and Alessandra Roncarati
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040306 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1793
Abstract
This study assessed the use of feeders equipped with light-emitting diodes and their effects on the productivity of broiler chickens under productive conditions. A total of 87,200 ROSS 308 chickens, 1-day old, were housed in two poultry houses (CONTROL, F-LED). In CONTROL, 20,000 [...] Read more.
This study assessed the use of feeders equipped with light-emitting diodes and their effects on the productivity of broiler chickens under productive conditions. A total of 87,200 ROSS 308 chickens, 1-day old, were housed in two poultry houses (CONTROL, F-LED). In CONTROL, 20,000 females (mean body weight 41.12 ± 3 g) and 25,000 males (mean body weight 41.56 ± 3 g) were housed, while 19,200 females and 23,000 males of the same genetic make-up and mean body weight were housed in F-LED under the same environmental conditions. In F-LED, to encourage chickens to feed and to redistribute more feed down the feeding line, a feeder equipped with a LED light has been installed at the end of each line. In CONTROL, no light was located on the feeders. At the end of the cycle, the average body weight never showed significant differences both for females (1345 g in CONTROL; 1359 g in F-LED) and for males (2771 g in CONTROL; 2793 g in F-LED). Uniformity improved in F-LED, at 75.2% in females and 54.1% in males, compared to CONTROL, at 65.7% and 48.5%, respectively, for females and males. The feed conversion ratio followed the same trend, being more favorable in chickens reared in F-LED (1.567) compared to those raised in CONTROL (1.608). The application of a single F-LED at the end of each feeding line demonstrated its utility in improving size uniformity and feed conversion. Full article
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11 pages, 5630 KiB  
Article
Anatomical Study of the Nerve Supply of the Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Distal Hindlimb with a Special Reference to the Cutaneous Innervation
by Gamal M. Allouch and Fahad A. Alshanbari
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040305 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1742
Abstract
This study aimed to describe the anatomy of the nerve supply of the hindlimb’s distal portion in a dromedary camel’s foot. In our study, we used ten adult slaughtered dromedary camels (twenty distal hindlimbs) of different sexes and ages (4–6 years). The hindlimbs [...] Read more.
This study aimed to describe the anatomy of the nerve supply of the hindlimb’s distal portion in a dromedary camel’s foot. In our study, we used ten adult slaughtered dromedary camels (twenty distal hindlimbs) of different sexes and ages (4–6 years). The hindlimbs were preserved using 10% formalin for about one week. The distal part of the hindlimb of the camels was dissected with extreme precision to show the group of nerves responsible for the nervous supply to the distal part of the hindlimb in dromedary camels. This study shows the numerous branches of the superficial fibular nerve along its extension to the dorsal surface metatarsus and the abaxial aspect of the third digit. The results show that the tibial nerve possesses many branches along its extension to the plantar surface skin of the metatarsus. Additionally, it provides the axial and abaxial plantar surfaces of the fourth digit and the interdigital surfaces as well as its branches to supply the plantar-abaxial and plantar-axial of the third digit. The present study shows the anatomical nerve supply of the hindlimb’s distal portion that is essential for anesthesia and surgery in this region. Full article
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12 pages, 2013 KiB  
Article
Microbiological Findings and Associated Histopathological Lesions in Neonatal Diarrhoea Cases between 2020 and 2022 in a French Veterinary Pig Practice
by Gwenaël Boulbria, Charlotte Teixeira Costa, Nadia Amenna-Bernard, Sophie Labrut, Valérie Normand, Théo Nicolazo, Florian Chocteau, Céline Chevance, Justine Jeusselin, Mathieu Brissonnier and Arnaud Lebret
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040304 - 21 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1620
Abstract
This retrospective study described the aetiologies of neonatal diarrhoea cases and their associations with histological findings. A total of 106 diarrhoeic neonatal piglets were selected. Cultures, MALDI typings, PCRs and evaluation of intestinal lesions were performed. A total of 51 cases (48.1%) were [...] Read more.
This retrospective study described the aetiologies of neonatal diarrhoea cases and their associations with histological findings. A total of 106 diarrhoeic neonatal piglets were selected. Cultures, MALDI typings, PCRs and evaluation of intestinal lesions were performed. A total of 51 cases (48.1%) were positive for only one pathogen and 54 (50.9%) were positive for more than one pathogen. Clostridium perfringens type A was the most frequently detected pathogen (61.3%), followed by Enterococcus hirae (43.4%), rotavirus type A (38.7%), rotavirus type C (11.3%) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (3.8%). Only lesions in the small intestine were correlated with detected pathogens. The detection of rotavirus was associated with an increased probability of observing villous atrophy (p < 0.001), crypt hyperplasia (p = 0.01) and leucocyte necrosis in the lamina propria (p = 0.05). The detection of Clostridium perfringens type A was associated with an increased probability of observing bacilli in close proximity to the mucosa (p < 0.001) and a decreased probability of observing epithelial necrosis (p = 0.04). Detection of Enterococcus hirae was associated with an increased probability of observing enteroadherent cocci (p < 0.001). Multivariate regression logistic models revealed that epithelial necrosis was more likely to occur in Enterococcus hirae-positive piglets (p < 0.02) and neutrophilic infiltrate was more likely to occur in Clostridium perfringens type A- and Enterococcus hirae-positive piglets (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). Full article
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12 pages, 1156 KiB  
Article
Can Chemotherapy Negatively Affect the Specific Antibody Response toward Core Vaccines in Canine Cancer Patients?
by Paola Dall’Ara, Joel Filipe, Chiara Pilastro, Lauretta Turin, Stefania Lauzi, Elisa Maria Gariboldi and Damiano Stefanello
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040303 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3334
Abstract
The life expectancy of our pets has been getting longer in recent years due to new therapeutic opportunities, better nutrition, and better diagnostic approaches. This positive effect, however, has been accompanied by a concomitant increase in neoplasms, particularly in canine patients. Therefore, veterinarians [...] Read more.
The life expectancy of our pets has been getting longer in recent years due to new therapeutic opportunities, better nutrition, and better diagnostic approaches. This positive effect, however, has been accompanied by a concomitant increase in neoplasms, particularly in canine patients. Therefore, veterinarians inevitably face new issues related to these diseases, poorly or never investigated in the past, such as the possible side effects resulting from chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how chemotherapy influences the antibody response against CPV-2, CDV, and CAdV-1 in dogs vaccinated before starting chemotherapy. Twenty-one canine patients with different types of malignancies were sampled before, during, and after different chemotherapy protocols to determine their actual levels of seroprotection against CPV-2, CDV, and CadV-1 by using the in-practice test VacciCheck. Differences related to sex, breed size, type of tumor, and chemotherapy protocol were evaluated. No statistically significant changes in antibody protection emerged for any of the chemotherapy protocol used, suggesting that, contrary to expectation, chemotherapy does not have a marked immunosuppressive effect on the post-vaccine antibody response. These results, although preliminary, may be useful in improving the clinical approach to the canine cancer patient, helping veterinarians fully manage their patients, and enabling owners to feel more confident about their pets’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Microbiology, Parasitology and Immunology)
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13 pages, 586 KiB  
Article
Cardiovascular Effect of Epoprostenol and Intravenous Cardiac Drugs for Acute Heart Failure on Canine Pulmonary Hypertension
by Yunosuke Yuchi, Ryohei Suzuki, Shuji Satomi, Takahiro Saito, Takahiro Teshima and Hirotaka Matsumoto
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040302 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1840
Abstract
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening complication in dogs with cardiopulmonary disease. Epoprostenol is an intravenous pulmonary vasodilator used to treat PH in humans; however, its efficacy in dogs remains unknown. We investigated the cardiovascular effects of epoprostenol and several cardiac agents for [...] Read more.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening complication in dogs with cardiopulmonary disease. Epoprostenol is an intravenous pulmonary vasodilator used to treat PH in humans; however, its efficacy in dogs remains unknown. We investigated the cardiovascular effects of epoprostenol and several cardiac agents for acute heart failure in canine models of chronic PH. Six dogs with chronic PH were anesthetized and underwent right heart catheterization and echocardiography before and after infusion of epoprostenol, dobutamine, dopamine and pimobendane. (The drug administration order was the same for all dogs). High-dose epoprostenol (15–20 ng/kg/min) tended to decrease pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) while significantly decreasing pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance and increasing left and right ventricular (LV and RV, respectively) function. Pimobendan significantly increased LV and RV functions without increasing PAP. Conversely, dobutamine and dopamine significantly increased LV and RV function as well as PAP. This study revealed the efficacy of epoprostenol in treating canine PH through its pulmonary and systemic vasodilating effects. Although catecholamines improve LV and RV function, they might worsen PH pathophysiology, and careful monitoring may be necessary when using these drugs. Pimobendan improved LV and RV function without increasing PAP; however, a stronger vasodilating effect was observed with epoprostenol. Full article
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14 pages, 1774 KiB  
Article
Pharmacokinetics, Milk Residues, and Toxicological Evaluation of a Single High Dose of Meloxicam Administered at 30 mg/kg per os to Lactating Dairy Cattle
by Scott A. Fritz, Steve M. Ensley, Jay R. Lawrence, Nicholas Van Engen, Zhoumeng Lin, Michael D. Kleinhenz, Larry W. Wulf, Somchai Rice, Patrick J. Gorden, Jackie Peterson and Johann F. Coetzee
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040301 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Adverse effects associated with overdose of NSAIDs are rarely reported in cattle, and the risk level is unknown. If high doses of NSAIDs can be safely administered to cattle, this may provide a longer duration of analgesia than using current doses where repeated [...] Read more.
Adverse effects associated with overdose of NSAIDs are rarely reported in cattle, and the risk level is unknown. If high doses of NSAIDs can be safely administered to cattle, this may provide a longer duration of analgesia than using current doses where repeated administration is not practical. Meloxicam was administered to 5 mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows orally at 30 mg/kg, which is 30 times higher than the recommended 1 mg/kg oral dose. Plasma and milk meloxicam concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by using noncompartmental analysis. The geometric mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 91.06 µg/mL at 19.71 h (Tmax), and the terminal elimination half-life (T1/2) was 13.79 h. The geometric mean maximum milk concentration was 33.43 µg/mL at 23.74 h, with a terminal elimination half-life of 12.23 h. A thorough investigation into the potential adverse effects of a meloxicam overdose was performed, with no significant abnormalities reported. The cows were humanely euthanized at 10 d after the treatment, and no gross or histologic lesions were identified. As expected, significantly higher plasma and milk concentrations were attained after the administration of 30 mg/kg meloxicam with similar half-lives to previously published reports. However, no identifiable adverse effects were observed with a drug dose 30 times greater than the industry uses within 10 days of treatment. More research is needed to determine the tissue withdrawal period, safety, and efficacy of meloxicam after a dose of this magnitude in dairy cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology)
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13 pages, 3672 KiB  
Article
Cloning of the RNA m6A Methyltransferase 3 and Its Impact on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Quail Myoblasts
by Jing Liu, Wentao Zhang, Wei Luo, Shuibing Liu, Hongxia Jiang, Sanfeng Liu, Jiguo Xu and Biao Chen
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040300 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Methyltransferase 3 (METTL3), which has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes, is the key enzyme for catalyzing m6A modification in RNA. However, the complete protein sequence of METTL3 in quail has not been annotated, [...] Read more.
Methyltransferase 3 (METTL3), which has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes, is the key enzyme for catalyzing m6A modification in RNA. However, the complete protein sequence of METTL3 in quail has not been annotated, and its function in skeletal muscle of quails remains unknown. In the current study, the full-length coding sequence of the quail METTL3 was obtained through the 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3’ RACE) and its homology with that of other species was predicted based on a generated phylogenetic tree. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and flow cytometry in a quail myoblast cell line (QM7) demonstrated that METTL3 promotes myoblast proliferation. The overexpression of METTL3 in QM7 cells significantly increased the expression levels of the myoblast differentiation markers myogenin (MYOG), myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1), and myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), further demonstrating that METTL3 promotes myoblast differentiation. Additionally, transcriptome sequencing following METTL3 overexpression revealed that METTL3 controls the expression of various genes involved in RNA splicing and the regulation of gene expression, as well as pathways such as the MAPK signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that METTL3 plays a vital function in quail myoblast proliferation and differentiation and that the METTL3-mediated RNA m6A modification represents an important epigenetic regulatory mechanism in poultry skeletal muscle development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Analysis in Domestic Animal Breeds and Performance)
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13 pages, 575 KiB  
Article
Rice Bran as an Alternative Feedstuff in Broiler Nutrition and Impact of Liposorb® and Vitamin E-Se on Sustainability of Performance, Carcass Traits, Blood Biochemistry, and Antioxidant Indices
by Youssef A. Attia, Elwy A. Ashour, Sameer A. Nagadi, Mayada R. Farag, Fulvia Bovera and Mahmoud Alagawany
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040299 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4514
Abstract
The impact of dietary rice bran with or without feed additives on the performance, carcasses, and blood profiles of chickens was examined. A total of 245 unsexed one-week-old broiler chicks were divided into seven groups, with seven replications of five chicks each. The [...] Read more.
The impact of dietary rice bran with or without feed additives on the performance, carcasses, and blood profiles of chickens was examined. A total of 245 unsexed one-week-old broiler chicks were divided into seven groups, with seven replications of five chicks each. The treatments were: (1) control, (2) 5% rice bran, (3) 5% rice bran + 0.5 g/kg of Liposorb®, (4) 5% rice bran + 1 g/kg of vitamin E-Se, (5) 10% rice bran, (6) 10% rice bran + 0.5 g/kg Liposorb®, and (7) 10% rice bran + 1 g/kg of vitamin E–selenium. Considering the entire experimental period, it did not affect the in vivo performance of the broilers. However, all the experimental diets decreased dressing % compared with the control (p < 0.01) and the worst values were obtained for the 10% RB groups (75.7, 75.9, and 75.8%, respectively, for 10%RB, 10%RB + Liposorb, and 10%RB + Vit. E-Se groups). All the experimental diets decreased (p < 0.01) the albumin/globulin ratio due to an increased level of serum globulins. Differences in lipid profiles, antioxidants, and immunity parameters in plasma were not related to dietary treatments. In conclusion, the use of rice bran up to 10% in diets had no harmful effect on the overall growth performance of the broilers from 1 to 5 weeks of age. Still, carcass characteristics were negatively affected, except for heart percentage. In addition, the supplementation of Liposorb® or vitamin E-Se to rice bran diets did not recover these harmful effects. Thus, rice bran could be utilized at 10% in broiler diets when growth performance was considered; further research is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Poultry Nutrition, Breeding and Health)
12 pages, 1341 KiB  
Article
Peculiarities in the Amino Acid Composition of Sow Colostrum and Milk, and Their Potential Relevance to Piglet Development
by Renjie Yao, An Cools, Anneleen Matthijs, Peter P. De Deyn, Dominiek Maes and Geert P. J. Janssens
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040298 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2035
Abstract
The composition of mother’s milk is considered the ideal diet for neonates. This study investigated how conserved or variable the amino acid profile of sow colostrum and milk is throughout lactation, compared with other studies in sows and other species. Twenty-five sows (parity [...] Read more.
The composition of mother’s milk is considered the ideal diet for neonates. This study investigated how conserved or variable the amino acid profile of sow colostrum and milk is throughout lactation, compared with other studies in sows and other species. Twenty-five sows (parity one to seven) from one farm with gestation lengths of 114 to 116 d were sampled on d 0, 3, and 10 after parturition. The total amino acid profile of the samples was analyzed through ion-exchange chromatography, and the results were displayed as the percentage of total amino acid and compared with literature data. Most of the amino acid concentrations in sow milk decreased significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the lactation period, while the amino acid profile generally showed a conserved pattern, especially from d 3 to d 10, and was rather similar across different studies. Glutamine + glutamate was the most abundant amino acid in milk at all sampling moments, accounting for 14–17% of total amino acids. The proportions of proline, valine, and glycine in sow milk nearly accounted for 11%, 7%, and 6% respectively, and were higher compared to human, cow, and goat milk, while the methionine proportion was less than the other three. Compared to the large variations often reported in macronutrient concentrations, the amino acid profile of sow milk in the present study, as well as in others, seems well conserved across the lactation period. Similarities with characteristic differences were also observed between sow milk and piglet body composition, which might reflect the nutrition requirements of preweaning piglets. This study warrants further research exploring the link between the whole amino acid profile and the particular amino acids for suckling piglets and could facilitate insight for optimizing creep feed. Full article
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7 pages, 1926 KiB  
Communication
Prevalence of Cardiac Lesions in Cases of Bovine Blackleg in Tennessee (USA), 2004–2018
by Chika C. Okafor, Francisco A. Uzal, Caitlin M. Culligan and Kim M. Newkirk
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040297 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 3486
Abstract
Blackleg is a common cause of death in cattle, mostly caused by the bacterium Clostridium chauvoei. Cardiac lesions were traditionally considered uncommon in cases of blackleg in cattle until a 2018 study reported otherwise. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence [...] Read more.
Blackleg is a common cause of death in cattle, mostly caused by the bacterium Clostridium chauvoei. Cardiac lesions were traditionally considered uncommon in cases of blackleg in cattle until a 2018 study reported otherwise. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of cardiac disease among cattle that died of blackleg in Tennessee, USA. The outcome of this study would reinforce the importance of assessing cardiac lesions in suspected cases of blackleg in cattle. The University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center database searched for cattle with a confirmed diagnosis of blackleg necropsied between 2004 and 2018. Of the 120 necropsy reports, 37 had a diagnosis of blackleg. Histology slides of skeletal muscle (26/37) and the heart (26/37) were reviewed to confirm the presence of supportive lesions. Of the 37 cases of blackleg identified, 26 animals (70.3%) had cardiac lesions, including 4 (10.8%) that had only cardiac involvement without skeletal muscle lesions. Specifically, (5.4%; 2/37) had only necrotizing myocarditis; (13.5%; 5/37) had only fibrinous or fibrinosuppurative pericarditis, epicarditis, or endocarditis; (51.4%; 19/26) had a combination of myocarditis and pericarditis, epicarditis, or endocarditis; and (29.7%; 11/37) had no lesions. Furthermore, of the 26 cases with cardiac lesions, 24 cases had gross lesions, while 2 cases were identified only by microscopic examination. This indicates that gross examination alone is insufficient to identify cardiac involvement in blackleg cases in cattle. Contrary to traditional perceptions, cardiac lesions in cases of bovine blackleg could be as high as 70% and are most often associated with skeletal muscle lesions. The prevalence of cardiac lesions in cases of blackleg in cattle may be higher when the heart is examined microscopically than if it is only evaluated grossly. Pathologists should specifically evaluate the heart for lesions in suspected cases of blackleg in cattle and utilize microscopic examination when gross lesions are absent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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21 pages, 4967 KiB  
Review
Bibliographical Mapping of Research into the Relationship between In Ovo Injection Practice and Hatchability in Poultry
by Gabriel da Silva Oliveira, Concepta McManus, Cristiane Batista Salgado and Vinícius Machado dos Santos
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040296 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Recent advances in poultry practice have produced new tools enabling the poultry industry to increase productivity. Aiming at increasing production quality, varying protocols of in ovo injection facilitate the introduction of exogenous substances into the egg to complement the nutrients that support embryonic [...] Read more.
Recent advances in poultry practice have produced new tools enabling the poultry industry to increase productivity. Aiming at increasing production quality, varying protocols of in ovo injection facilitate the introduction of exogenous substances into the egg to complement the nutrients that support embryonic development up to hatching, which are already available in the internal and external compartments. Due to embryonic sensitivity, adding any substance into the egg can be either advantageous or disadvantageous for embryonic survival and can influence hatch rates. Thus, understanding the relationship between poultry practices and production rates is the first step towards successful commercial application. This review aims to assess the influence on hatch rates of injecting different substances in ovo, including effects on embryo and chick health parameters where these are reported. Bibliographic mappings of co-authorship of citations, co-occurrence of keywords, and bibliographic coupling based on the in ovo injection technique and hatchability parameters were also performed. Using the Scopus database, 242 papers were retrieved, reviewed, and submitted for bibliographic mapping using the VOSviewer® software. This review provides a broad overview of just over 38 years’ research on the subject, revealing that studies have significantly increased and peaked in 2020, being produced primarily by US researchers and published primarily in the journal Poultry Science. It also reveals that despite negative reports relating to some substances in the embryo, in ovo delivery of substances may possibly change the poultry industry for the better in terms of production rates (hatchability) and/or poultry health. Full article
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14 pages, 648 KiB  
Article
Zinc Status of Horses and Ponies: Relevance of Health, Horse Type, Sex, Age, and Test Material
by Sarah van Bömmel-Wegmann, Heidrun Gehlen, Ann-Kristin Barton, Kathrin Büttner, Jürgen Zentek and Nadine Paßlack
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040295 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
Little is known about the animal- and diet-related factors that could interfere with the plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations of equines. Additionally, the adequacy of plasma to reflect changes in the Zn intake is unclear. In the first part of this study, the plasma [...] Read more.
Little is known about the animal- and diet-related factors that could interfere with the plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations of equines. Additionally, the adequacy of plasma to reflect changes in the Zn intake is unclear. In the first part of this study, the plasma Zn concentrations of hospitalized horses and ponies (n = 538) were measured and evaluated for the impact of the age, sex, horse type, and internal diseases of the animals. In the second part, the effects of increasing dietary Zn chloride hydroxide and Zn methionine supplementations were assessed on the plasma and mane hair Zn concentrations of healthy horses (n = 2) and ponies (n = 8). Part 1: The age, sex, and horse type did not influence the plasma Zn concentrations. No effect of internal diseases was observed, with the exception of higher plasma Zn concentrations in animals with metabolic disorders compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Part 2: Both Zn supplements dose-dependently increased the Zn concentrations in the mane hair (p = 0.003), but not in the plasma of the horses and ponies. In conclusion, the plasma Zn concentrations were widely unaffected by nutritional and non-nutritional factors in equines, while mane hair samples better reflected the dietary Zn supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Biomedical Sciences)
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7 pages, 237 KiB  
Brief Report
PRRSV Detection by qPCR on Serum Samples Collected in Due-to-Wean Piglets in Five Positive Stable Breeding Herds Following a Sow Mass Vaccination with a Modified Live Vaccine: A Descriptive Study
by Arnaud Lebret, Valérie Normand, Charlotte Teixeira Costa, Ingrid Messager, Pauline Berton, Mathieu Brissonnier, Théo Nicolazo and Gwenaël Boulbria
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040294 - 15 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1592
Abstract
Data concerning PRRSV-1 vaccine virus strains dissemination within vaccinated sow herds are scarce. However, it is a big concern for swine practitioners when designing the PRRSV diagnostics strategy in vaccinated farms. At the same time, the possibility of vaccine virus transmission from sows [...] Read more.
Data concerning PRRSV-1 vaccine virus strains dissemination within vaccinated sow herds are scarce. However, it is a big concern for swine practitioners when designing the PRRSV diagnostics strategy in vaccinated farms. At the same time, the possibility of vaccine virus transmission from sows to their offspring is important to have in mind in order to limit the risk of recombination between different PPRSV-1 modified live virus vaccine (MLV1) when both sows and piglets have to be vaccinated. This study was conducted in five PRRSV-stable breeding herds. The selected farms presented different characteristics regarding production parameters and biosecurity management practices in order to be, as much as possible, representative of French swine production herds. In four different batches following a sow mass vaccination with a PRRSV-1 modified live virus vaccine (ReproCyc® PRRS EU, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany), we failed to detect the vaccine virus in due-to-wean piglets in all of the herds. This should mean that the dissemination of the vaccinal strain is a rare event, even just after a sow vaccination, at least for the vaccine tested in our study. Full article
20 pages, 343 KiB  
Article
Knowledge and Practices of Cypriot Bovine Farmers towards Effective and Safe Manure Management
by Soteris Christophe, Kristina Pentieva and George Botsaris
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040293 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1682
Abstract
Manure from bovine farms is commonly used as an organic fertiliser. However, if not properly managed, it can spread significant biological and chemical hazards, threatening both human and animal health. The effectiveness of risk control hugely relies on farmers’ knowledge regarding safe manure [...] Read more.
Manure from bovine farms is commonly used as an organic fertiliser. However, if not properly managed, it can spread significant biological and chemical hazards, threatening both human and animal health. The effectiveness of risk control hugely relies on farmers’ knowledge regarding safe manure management and on the application of suitable management practices. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge and practices of Cypriot bovine farmers towards safer manure management, from its generation to its final use, in line with the One Health approach. Factors affecting farmers’ knowledge and applied practices are also investigated through a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was developed and sent to all eligible bovine farmers in Cyprus (n = 353), and 30% (n = 105) of them returned the completed questionnaire. Results revealed there are some gaps in farmers’ knowledge. The use of manure for fertilising crops dominated. Only half of the farmers stored manure in appropriate facilities, with 28.5% of them using a dedicated area with cement floors and 21.5% utilising leakproof tanks. The majority (65.7%) stored manure for more than three months before its use as a fertiliser in a dried form. In multiple regression analysis, education level and farming purpose were significant determinants of farmer knowledge. In conclusion, Cypriot farmers’ knowledge must be reinforced to ensure proper manure management. The results highlight the importance of providing relevant training to farmers. Although the current practices partially decrease manure pathogens, interventions to promote the use of more effective treatment methods, such as biogas transformation and composting, would be beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Food Safety and Zoonosis)
15 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
Urinary Proteins of Female Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) during Ovarian Cycle
by Martyna Woszczyło, Paweł Pasikowski, Sankarganesh Devaraj, Agata Kokocińska, Antoni Szumny, Marcin J. Skwark, Wojciech Niżański and Michał Dzięcioł
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040292 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2178
Abstract
The presence and identity of non-volatile chemical signals remain elusive in canines. In this study, we aim to evaluate the urinary proteins of female domestic dogs in the estrus and anestrus phases to evidence the presence of non-volatile chemical signals and to elucidate [...] Read more.
The presence and identity of non-volatile chemical signals remain elusive in canines. In this study, we aim to evaluate the urinary proteins of female domestic dogs in the estrus and anestrus phases to evidence the presence of non-volatile chemical signals and to elucidate their identities. We collected urine samples from eight female dogs in the estrus and anestrus phases. A total of 240 proteins were identified in the urine samples using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS analysis). The comparison of the proteins revealed a significant difference between the estrus and anestrus urine. We identified proteins belonging to the lipocalin family of canines (beta-lactoglobulin-1 and beta-lactoglobulin-2, P33685 and P33686, respectively), one of whose function was the transport of pheromones and which was present only in the estrus urine samples. Moreover, proteins such as Clusterin (CLU), Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), and Proenkephalin (PENK) were more abundant in the estrus urine when compared to the anestrus urine. LEAP2 was recently described as a ghrelin receptor antagonist and implicated in regulating food intake and body weight in humans and mice. Proenkephalin, a polypeptide hormone cleaved into opioid peptides, was also recognized as a candidate to determine kidney function. As of yet, none of these have played a role in chemical communication. Clusterin, an extracellular chaperone protecting from protein aggregation implicated in stress-induced cell apoptosis, is a plausible candidate in chemical communication, which is a claim that needs to be ascertained further. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD040418. Full article
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14 pages, 7261 KiB  
Article
Histopathological Analysis of Selected Organs of Rats with Congenital Babesiosis Caused by Babesia microti
by Krzysztof Jasik, Anna Kleczka and Sandra Filipowska
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040291 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease with an increasing number of cases each year. Due to the non-specific symptoms of babesiosis, insightful analyses of the pathogenesis of babesiosis are still very important. Transmission of the disease occurs in a few ways, which makes laboratory [...] Read more.
Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease with an increasing number of cases each year. Due to the non-specific symptoms of babesiosis, insightful analyses of the pathogenesis of babesiosis are still very important. Transmission of the disease occurs in a few ways, which makes laboratory diagnosis of piroplasmosis important. Complications associated with the infection can be tragic, especially in patients with immunological disorders. The aim of this study was the histopathological analysis of the spleen and kidney of young Wistar rats infected transplacentally with Babesia microti. Female rats were infected with a reference strain of B. microti (ATCC 30221), and then, birth 3-week-old males were euthanized with isoflurane. Subsequently, the material was collected at autopsy for microscopic and ultrastructural examination. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis of the spleen and kidney showed degenerative changes within the organ parenchyma and the capsules surrounding the organ. Regenerative and reparative changes through mitotic divisions of parenchymal cells were also evident. Merozoites of B. microti were visible in the section of erythrocytes and the cells building the organ stroma. The results presented in this study proved the negative effects of B. microti on cells and tissues in rats with congenital babesiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Borne Diseases and Their Control)
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11 pages, 629 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Current Applications of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Horses
by Maimaiti Tuniyazi, Wenqing Wang and Naisheng Zhang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040290 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2209
Abstract
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a technique involving transferring fecal matter from a healthy donor to a recipient, with the goal of reinstating a healthy microbiome in the recipient’s gut. FMT has been used in horses to manage various gastrointestinal disorders, such as [...] Read more.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a technique involving transferring fecal matter from a healthy donor to a recipient, with the goal of reinstating a healthy microbiome in the recipient’s gut. FMT has been used in horses to manage various gastrointestinal disorders, such as colitis and diarrhea. To evaluate the current literature on the use of FMT in horses, including its efficacy, safety, and potential applications, the authors conducted an extensive search of several databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, published up to 11 January 2023. The authors identified seven studies that met their inclusion criteria, all of which investigated the FMT application as a treatment for gastrointestinal disorders such as colitis and diarrhea. The authors demonstrated that FMT was generally effective in treating these conditions. However, the authors noted that the quality of the studies was generally suboptimal and characterized by small sample sizes and a lack of control groups. The authors concluded that FMT is a promising treatment option for certain gastrointestinal disorders in horses. Nevertheless, more research is required to determine the optimal donor selection, dosing, and administration protocols, as well as the long-term safety and efficacy of FMT in horses. Full article
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10 pages, 1255 KiB  
Article
Ex Vivo Biomechanical Assessment of Various Repair Techniques in a Rabbit Calcaneal Tendon Avulsion Model: Application of Polycaprolactone Plate
by Zheng Huidan, Jinsu Kang, Namsoo Kim and Suyoung Heo
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040289 - 12 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1361
Abstract
This study was aimed at evaluating the biomechanical properties and gapping characteristics of tendon repair methods using a combination of a three-loop pulley (3LP) pattern, a titanium plate, and a polycaprolactone (PCL) plate in a rabbit gastrocnemius tendon (GT) model (n = [...] Read more.
This study was aimed at evaluating the biomechanical properties and gapping characteristics of tendon repair methods using a combination of a three-loop pulley (3LP) pattern, a titanium plate, and a polycaprolactone (PCL) plate in a rabbit gastrocnemius tendon (GT) model (n = 50). GTs were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10/group). Transected GTs were repaired with a 3LP pattern alone or in conjunction with an epitendinous suture (ES), a 5-hole 1 mm PCL plate, a 5-hole 2 mm PCL plate, or a 5-hole 1.5 mm titanium plate. The yield, peak, and failure force, as well as the occurrence and force of 1-mm and 3-mm gapping were examined. The mean yield, peak, and failure force of the 3LP + titanium plate group were higher than that of other groups. The biomechanical properties of a 3LP + a 2 mm PCL plate were similar to 3LP + ES constructs in this model. In all specimens in all groups, 1 mm gap formation was observed. The frequency of 3 mm gap formation was 70% and 90% in the 3LP + 2 mm PCL plate group and the 3LP + 1.5 mm titanium plate group, respectively. Additional studies evaluating PCL plates to determine the effect on the healing and blood supply of tendon are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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13 pages, 1585 KiB  
Article
16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing of Gut Microbiota Affected by Four Probiotic Strains in Mice
by Jianwei Ren, Fang He, Detao Yu, Hang Xu, Nianfeng Li, Zhi Cao and Jianxin Wen
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040288 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1585
Abstract
Probiotics, also referred to as “living microorganisms,” are mostly present in the genitals and the guts of animals. They can increase an animal’s immunity, aid in digestion and absorption, control gut microbiota, protect against sickness, and even fight cancer. However, the differences in [...] Read more.
Probiotics, also referred to as “living microorganisms,” are mostly present in the genitals and the guts of animals. They can increase an animal’s immunity, aid in digestion and absorption, control gut microbiota, protect against sickness, and even fight cancer. However, the differences in the effects of different types of probiotics on host gut microbiota composition are still unclear. In this study, 21-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice were gavaged with Lactobacillus acidophilus (La), Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (Lp), Bacillus subtilis (Bs), Enterococcus faecalis (Ef), LB broth medium, and MRS broth medium. We sequenced 16S rRNA from fecal samples from each group 14 d after gavaging. According to the results, there were significant differences among the six groups of samples in Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Desferribacter (p < 0.01) at the phylum level. Lactobacillus, Erysipelaceae Clostridium, Bacteroides, Brautella, Trichospiraceae Clostridium, Verummicroaceae Ruminococcus, Ruminococcus, Prevotella, Shigella, and Clostridium Clostridium differed significantly at the genus level (p < 0.01). Four kinds of probiotic changes in the composition and structure of the gut microbiota in mice were observed, but they did not cause changes in the diversity of the gut microbiota. In conclusion, the use of different probiotics resulted in different changes in the gut microbiota of the mice, including genera that some probiotics decreased and genera that some pathogens increased. According to the results of this study, different probiotic strains have different effects on the gut microbiota of mice, which may provide new ideas for the mechanism of action and application of microecological agents. Full article
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2 pages, 199 KiB  
Editorial
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in Domestic Mammals
by Salvador Ruiz, Juan Carlos Gardón and Jordi Miró
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040287 - 11 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1228
Abstract
As guest editors, we are pleased to present this Special Issue entitled “Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in Domestic Mammals”, comprising 10 articles of relevant interest in the field of animal reproduction [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in Domestic Mammals)
12 pages, 1556 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review: Is Porcine Kobuvirus Causing Gastrointestinal Disease in Young Pigs?
by Esben Østergaard Eriksen
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040286 - 11 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Since porcine kobuvirus (PKV) was first described in 2008, researchers have speculated whether the virus is of clinical importance. This systematic literature review answers the question: Is porcine kobuvirus a cause of gastrointestinal disease in young pigs? A case-control study showed that PKV [...] Read more.
Since porcine kobuvirus (PKV) was first described in 2008, researchers have speculated whether the virus is of clinical importance. This systematic literature review answers the question: Is porcine kobuvirus a cause of gastrointestinal disease in young pigs? A case-control study showed that PKV was not associated with neonatal diarrhea. A cohort study suffered from a very small sample size (n = 5), and in an experimental trial, the effect of PKV inoculation could not be separated from the effect of being inoculated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. In 13 poorly defined observational studies, more than 4000 young pigs had been assigned a diarrhea status and their feces analyzed for PKV. Unfortunately, the studies lacked well-characterized unbiased samples, and thus the strongest possible inference from these studies was that a very strong association between PKV and diarrhea is unlikely. PKV was commonly detected in non-diarrheic pigs, and this could indicate that PKV is not a sufficient cause in itself or that reinfection of individuals with some immunological protection due to previous infections is common. Conclusively, there is a lack of good evidence of PKV being a cause of gastrointestinal disease, but the sparse available evidence suggests that PKV is of limited clinical importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scientific Prevention and Control of Porcine Viral Diarrhea)
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11 pages, 4182 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Comparison between Inverted Triangle and Vertical Configurations of Three Kirschner Wires for Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation in Dogs: A Cadaveric Study
by Seonghyeon Heo, Haebeom Lee, Yoonho Roh and Jaemin Jeong
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040285 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare single-cycle axial load and stiffness between inverted triangle and vertical configurations of three Kirschner wires (K-wires) for femoral neck fracture fixation in small dog cadaveric models. In each of the eight cadavers, the basilar femoral [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare single-cycle axial load and stiffness between inverted triangle and vertical configurations of three Kirschner wires (K-wires) for femoral neck fracture fixation in small dog cadaveric models. In each of the eight cadavers, the basilar femoral neck fracture model was prepared on both sides of the femur. One side of the femur was stabilized with three 1.0 mm K-wires of an inverted triangle configuration (group T), and the other femur was stabilized with a vertical configuration (group V). Postoperatively, the placement of the K-wires was evaluated with radiographic and computed tomography (CT) images, and static vertical compressive loading tests were performed. The mean yield load and the lateral spread were significantly higher in group T compared to group V (p = 0.023 and <0.001). On the cross-section of femoral neck at the level of the fracture line, the surface area between K-wires was significantly larger (p < 0.001) and the mean number of cortical supports was significantly higher in group T (p = 0.007). In this experimental comparison, the inverted triangle configuration of three K-wires was more resistant to failure under axial loading than the vertical configuration for canine femoral neck fracture fixation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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8 pages, 410 KiB  
Brief Report
Comparative Evaluation between Visual and Automated Dipstick Urinalyses in Dogs
by Erasmia D. Smyroglou, Labrini V. Athanasiou, Rania D. Baka and Zoe S. Polizopoulou
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040284 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1943
Abstract
Urine test strips are commercially available and can be assessed with semi-automated analyzers or by visual assessment. This study aimed to compare the visual and automated evaluations of dipstick variables in canine urine samples. One hundred and nineteen urine samples were evaluated. Automated [...] Read more.
Urine test strips are commercially available and can be assessed with semi-automated analyzers or by visual assessment. This study aimed to compare the visual and automated evaluations of dipstick variables in canine urine samples. One hundred and nineteen urine samples were evaluated. Automated analysis was performed on a veterinary urine analyzer URIT-50Vet (URIT Medical Electronic) with UC VET13 Plus strips. Multistix 10 SG dipsticks (Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany) were used for visual evaluation, along with a refractometer (Clinical Refractometer Atago T2-Ne, Atago Co., Tokyo, Japan) for urine specific gravity measurements. A linear relationship was observed between the pH measurements (p = 0.2) of the two methods; the Passing–Bablok procedure was valid since neither proportional nor systematic significant errors were observed. Comparing the two methods, the correlation for urine specific gravity was poor (p = 0.01, CI 0.667–1.000). Moderate agreement was demonstrated for proteins (κ = 0.431), bilirubin (κ = 0.434) and glucose (κ = 0.450). Agreement was substantial for blood (κ = 0.620) and poor for leukocytes (κ = 0.100). Poor agreement was observed for ketones (κ = −0.006). Apart from the pH analysis, visual and automated dipstick urinalyses should not be used interchangeably. Multiple urine samples obtained from the same dog during the day should be evaluated using the same method to overcome erroneous results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Clinical Pathology and Diagnostic Research)
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14 pages, 2907 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Various Facial Expressions of Horses as a Welfare Indicator Using Deep Learning
by Su Min Kim and Gil Jae Cho
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040283 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
This study aimed to prove that deep learning can be effectively used for identifying various equine facial expressions as welfare indicators. In this study, a total of 749 horses (healthy: 586 and experiencing pain: 163) were investigated. Moreover, a model for recognizing facial [...] Read more.
This study aimed to prove that deep learning can be effectively used for identifying various equine facial expressions as welfare indicators. In this study, a total of 749 horses (healthy: 586 and experiencing pain: 163) were investigated. Moreover, a model for recognizing facial expressions based on images and their classification into four categories, i.e., resting horses (RH), horses with pain (HP), horses immediately after exercise (HE), and horseshoeing horses (HH), was developed. The normalization of equine facial posture revealed that the profile (99.45%) had higher accuracy than the front (97.59%). The eyes–nose–ears detection model achieved an accuracy of 98.75% in training, 81.44% in validation, and 88.1% in testing, with an average accuracy of 89.43%. Overall, the average classification accuracy was high; however, the accuracy of pain classification was low. These results imply that various facial expressions in addition to pain may exist in horses depending on the situation, degree of pain, and type of pain experienced by horses. Furthermore, automatic pain and stress recognition would greatly enhance the identification of pain and other emotional states, thereby improving the quality of equine welfare. Full article
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7 pages, 4086 KiB  
Case Report
Unusual Canine Cutaneous Melanoma Presenting Parietal Bone Metastasis: A Case Report
by Ozana-Maria Hritcu, Florentina Bocaneti Daraban, Fabian Dominic Bacusca and Aurelian-Sorin Pasca
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040282 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2031
Abstract
Melanocytic tumour anatomic location is considered an important prognostic indicator. The cutaneous forms are generally considered benign and may show various biological behaviours. This work reports a rare case of canine cutaneous melanoma showing parietal bone metastasis. Bone invasion in melanocytic tumours is [...] Read more.
Melanocytic tumour anatomic location is considered an important prognostic indicator. The cutaneous forms are generally considered benign and may show various biological behaviours. This work reports a rare case of canine cutaneous melanoma showing parietal bone metastasis. Bone invasion in melanocytic tumours is often described in oral or visceral melanomas, but not in cutaneous forms. The patient (dog, male, mixed breed, 12 years) was initially presented for the surgical removal of a cutaneous tumour located on the skin of the carpal region of the right forelimb. Four months after, the patient returned with enlarged lymph nodes and acute respiratory failure. The patient was euthanized due to a decline in physical condition. The necropsy showed metastases in the affected forelimb, regional lymph node, splanchnic organs, parietal bone and meninges. Histopathological examination of tumour tissue samples revealed a mixture of pigmented and non-pigmented spindle and epithelioid melanocytes, while according to immunohistochemistry, the tumours showed a strong immunopositivity for VEGF and MMP-10, and a moderate positivity for MMP-2 expression. This case shows that cutaneous melanocytic tumours may show an aggressive malignant form with positive immunohistochemical reactions for multiple invasiveness factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Oncology and Veterinary Cancer Surveillance)
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19 pages, 933 KiB  
Review
Current Status and Conservation Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources in Bhutan
by Jigme Tenzin, Vibuntita Chankitisakul and Wuttigrai Boonkum
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040281 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
Farm Animal Genetic Resources (FAnGR) ensures food security and maintains genetic diversity. The efforts to conserve FAnGR are minimal in Bhutan. In the pursuit of increasing livestock productivity, farmers are rearing livestock that narrows the range of genetic diversity. This review attempts to [...] Read more.
Farm Animal Genetic Resources (FAnGR) ensures food security and maintains genetic diversity. The efforts to conserve FAnGR are minimal in Bhutan. In the pursuit of increasing livestock productivity, farmers are rearing livestock that narrows the range of genetic diversity. This review attempts to summarize the status of FAnGR and the efforts to conserve them. Some unique livestock breeds in Bhutan are Nublang (cattle breed), Yak, Saphak (pig breed), Yuta (horse breed), Merak-Saktenpa (horse breed), and Belochem (chicken breed). There was a drop in the yak, buffalo, equine, pig, sheep, and goat populations. Both in situ and ex situ conservation measures are in place for some of the breeds and strains (e.g., Nublang and traditional chicken). Conservation efforts are limited to the government, but other individuals, stakeholders and non-government organizations must play an increasing role in preserving genetic diversity. It is pertinent that Bhutan comes up with a policy framework to conserve its indigenous cattle. Full article
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12 pages, 8174 KiB  
Article
Quality Assurance and Cost Reduction in Histopathology Laboratories Using Tissue Microarrays
by Daniela Gologan, Alina Elena Ștefan, Manuella Militaru, Andreea Cristina Sanda, Suzana Arjan, Sorin Mușat, Matthew Okerlund Leavitt and Raluca Stan
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040280 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
In the context of cost increases of both labor and consumables, cheaper and faster histopathology methods are needed. We implemented in our research laboratory the use of tissue microarrays (TMA) for the parallel processing and analysis of tissue samples. In this study, we [...] Read more.
In the context of cost increases of both labor and consumables, cheaper and faster histopathology methods are needed. We implemented in our research laboratory the use of tissue microarrays (TMA) for the parallel processing and analysis of tissue samples. In this study, we used seven pre-processed, paraffinated biomimetic sectionable support matrices serving as “recipient” paraffin blocks to embed a total of 196 tissue cores from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples (serving as “donor” paraffin blocks) from seven different rabbit organs. These tissue samples were obtained using four different processing protocols: two 6 h protocols with xylene as the transition solvent, and two using butanol instead (one 10 h in duration and the other 72 h long). While the samples from protocols 1 and 2 (with xylene) quite regularly generated peeling of some of the cores from the slides (most likely because of substandard paraffin infiltration), butanol processing performed flawlessly for both processing protocols. Our proposed technique of using TMAs in the research laboratory brings with it a significant reduction in time and consumable costs (up to 77 and 64%, respectively), but also new challenges for all the upstream processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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11 pages, 1676 KiB  
Article
Development of a Real-Time TaqMan RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of NADC34-like Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
by Teng Tu, Maonan Pang, Dike Jiang, You Zhou, Xulong Wu, Xueping Yao, Yan Luo, Zexiao Yang, Meishen Ren, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang, Yuanyuan Yu and Yin Wang
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040279 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
NADC34-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus first appeared in 2017 in a herd of pigs in Liaoning Province, China. The virus was subsequently found in other provinces. Given the potential for this virus to cause an epidemic, rapid, sensitive, and specific detection [...] Read more.
NADC34-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus first appeared in 2017 in a herd of pigs in Liaoning Province, China. The virus was subsequently found in other provinces. Given the potential for this virus to cause an epidemic, rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of NADC34-like PRRSV is required. The virus’ ORF5 gene was artificially synthesized based on a Chinese reference strain, and specific primers/probes for the ORF5 gene were designed. Then, the amplified target fragment was cloned into the pMD19-T vector, and a series of diluted recombinant plasmids were used to generate a standard curve. An optimized real-time TaqMan RT-PCR method was established. The method was highly specific for NADC34-like PRRSV, without cross-reactions with other non-targeted pig viruses. The detection limit of this assay was 101 copies/μL. The method had an efficiency of 98.8%, a squared regression value (R2) of 0.999, and showed a linear range of 103–108 copies/μL of DNA per reaction. This method was shown to be analytically specific and sensitive with a low intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation (<1.40%). A total of 321 clinical samples were tested using the established method, and four were shown to be positive (1.24%). This study confirmed the existence of NADC34-like PRRSV and HP-PRRSV co-infection in Sichuan and provided a promising alternative tool for the rapid detection of NADC34-like PRRSV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and Re-emerging Swine Viral Diseases)
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10 pages, 1036 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Hemodynamic Effects of Dobutamine and Ephedrine Infusions in Isoflurane-Anesthetized Horses
by Sergio Grandisoli Garcia Filho, Felipe Silveira Rego Monteiro de Andrade, Rosana Souza Thurler dos Santos, Lucas Alaião Gonçalves, Marco Aurélio Amador Pereira, Anderson Fernando de Souza, Aline Magalhães Ambrósio and Denise Tabacchi Fantoni
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040278 - 6 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1824
Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the hemodynamic effects of dobutamine and ephedrine during the management of anesthesia-related hypotension in healthy horses. Thirteen horses underwent general anesthesia with isoflurane and were randomly divided into two different groups, one of which received [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to compare the hemodynamic effects of dobutamine and ephedrine during the management of anesthesia-related hypotension in healthy horses. Thirteen horses underwent general anesthesia with isoflurane and were randomly divided into two different groups, one of which received a dobutamine constant rate infusion (CRI) (1 µg/kg bwt/min) and the other received an ephedrine CRI (20 µg/kg bwt/min) when hypotension (<60 mmHg) was identified, following up to 15 min after the blood pressure reached 70 mmHg. All horses were equipped with a pulmonary artery catheter and a peripheral artery catheter, and multiparameter monitoring commenced as soon as they were under mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded, while tissue perfusion markers (peripheral oxygen saturation, arterial oxygen partial pressure, arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, arterial pH, arterial plasma bicarbonate concentration, arterial oxygen saturation, mixed venous oxygen saturation, mixed venous oxygen content, arterial oxygen content, arteriovenous oxygen difference, oxygen delivery index, oxygen consumption index, and oxygen extraction ratio), serum lactate concentration, and troponin I concentrations were analyzed before the start of infusions (T0), when the blood pressure reached 70 mmHg (T1), and 15 min after T1 (T2). The time to restore the arterial pressure was similar in both groups (p > 0.05); however, the heart rate was higher in the ephedrine group (p = 0.0098), and sinus bradyarrhythmia occurred in the dobutamine group. Furthermore, both experimental protocols increased cardiac output (p = 0.0012), cardiac index (p = 0.0013), systemic vascular resistance (p = 0.008), systemic vascular resistance index (p < 0.001), and ameliorated perfusion markers. In the dobutamine group, the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (p < 0.001) and systolic index (p = 0.003) were elevated, while the arteriovenous oxygen difference was reduced in the ephedrine group (p = 0.02). Troponin I was used as a myocardial injury indicator, and did not differ between moments or between groups (p > 0.05). We concluded that both drugs were effective and safe to treat anesthetic hypotension under the conditions of this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Surgery)
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15 pages, 3149 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Blood Microbiome and Comparison with the Fecal Microbiome in Healthy Dogs and Dogs with Gastrointestinal Disease
by Elisa Scarsella, Giorgia Meineri, Misa Sandri, Holly H. Ganz and Bruno Stefanon
Vet. Sci. 2023, 10(4), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci10040277 - 5 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2584
Abstract
Recent studies have found bacterial DNA in the blood of healthy individuals. To date, most studies on the blood microbiome have focused on human health, but this topic is an expanding research area in animal health as well. This study aims to characterize [...] Read more.
Recent studies have found bacterial DNA in the blood of healthy individuals. To date, most studies on the blood microbiome have focused on human health, but this topic is an expanding research area in animal health as well. This study aims to characterize the blood microbiome of both healthy dogs and those with chronic gastro-enteropathies. For this study, blood and fecal samples were collected from 18 healthy and 19 sick subjects, DNA was extracted through commercial kits, and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced on the Illumina platform. The sequences were analyzed for taxonomic annotation and statistical analysis. Alpha and beta diversities of fecal microbiome were significantly different between the two groups of dogs. Principal coordinates analysis revealed that healthy and sick subjects were significantly clustered for both blood and fecal microbiome samples. Moreover, bacterial translocation from the gut to the bloodstream has been suggested because of found shared taxa. Further studies are needed to determine the origin of the blood microbiome and the bacteria viability. The characterization of a blood core microbiome in healthy dogs has potential for use as a diagnostic tool to monitor for the development of gastro-intestinal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effects of Microbiota on Animal Health)
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