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Foods, Volume 13, Issue 5 (March-1 2024) – 181 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Legumes are healthy and sustainable protein sources. The development of innovative legume foods facilitates a shift towards a more plant-based and environmentally friendly diet. Legume ingredients are superior raw materials to obtain protein-rich foods produced by high moisture extrusion. However, new challenges emerge: how do nutrient intakes alter along with the increased consumption of legumes? How does processing affect vitamin retention? In this study, flours and protein concentrates provided substantial amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate, but protein isolates were rather poor in these vitamins. The retention of B vitamins in high moisture extrusion was generally excellent. Thus, legume-based foods may have a notable contribution to the daily intake of B vitamins. View this paper
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13 pages, 2884 KiB  
Article
Water Supply via Pedicel Reduces Postharvest Pericarp Browning of Litchi (Litchi chinensis) Fruit
by Fang Fang, Bin Liu, Liyu Fu, Haiyao Tang, Yanlan Li, Xuequn Pang and Zhaoqi Zhang
Foods 2024, 13(5), 814; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050814 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Pericarp browning is the key factor for the extension of shelf life and the maintenance of the commercial value of harvested litchi fruit. Water loss is considered a leading factor of pericarp browning in litchi fruit. In this study, based on the distinct [...] Read more.
Pericarp browning is the key factor for the extension of shelf life and the maintenance of the commercial value of harvested litchi fruit. Water loss is considered a leading factor of pericarp browning in litchi fruit. In this study, based on the distinct structure of litchi fruit, which is a special type of dry fruit with the aril as the edible part, the effects of water supply via pedicel (WSP) treatment on pericarp browning and the fruit quality of litchi were investigated. Compared with the packaging of the control fruit at 25 °C or 4 °C, the WSP treatment was found to significantly reduce pericarp browning and the decay of litchi fruit. The WSP-treated fruit had a higher L* value, total anthocyanin content, and pericarp water content, and the pericarp was thicker. The WSP treatment significantly suppressed the increase in the electrolyte leakage of the pericarp and maintained higher ascorbic acid (AA) contents in the aril. In addition, the WSP treatment was effective in reducing the activity and gene expression of browning-related genes Laccase (ADE/LAC) and Peroxidase (POD) during the storage period. In conclusion, the WSP treatment could be an effective method to delay pericarp browning and maintain the quality of harvested litchi fruit, and this further supports that litchi fruit has dry fruit characteristics. Full article
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15 pages, 1762 KiB  
Article
Improved Cordycepin Production by Cordyceps Militaris Using Corn Steep Liquor Hydrolysate as an Alternative Protein Nitrogen Source
by Ying Chang, Xiaolan Liu, Yan Jiao and Xiqun Zheng
Foods 2024, 13(5), 813; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050813 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Cordycepin production in the submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris was demonstrated using hydrolyzed corn processing protein by-products, known as corn steep liquor hydrolysate (CSLH), as an alternative nitrogen source. The growth, metabolism, and cordycepin production of Cordyceps militaris were evaluated under various concentrations [...] Read more.
Cordycepin production in the submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris was demonstrated using hydrolyzed corn processing protein by-products, known as corn steep liquor hydrolysate (CSLH), as an alternative nitrogen source. The growth, metabolism, and cordycepin production of Cordyceps militaris were evaluated under various concentrations of CSLH induction. The results demonstrated that CSLH addition had positive effects on the growth and cordycepin production with various C. militaris strains. The optimum strain, C. militaris GDMCC5.270, was found to effectively utilize CSLH to promote mycelium growth and cordycepin production. Low concentrations of CSLH (1.5 g/L) in the fermentation broth resulted in 343.03 ± 15.94 mg/L cordycepin production, which was 4.83 times higher than that of the group without CSLH. This also enhanced the metabolism of sugar, amino acids, and nucleotides, leading to improved cordycepin biosynthesis. The increase in key amino acids, such as glutamic acid, alanine, and aspartic acid, in the corn steep liquor hydrolysate significantly enhanced cordycepin yield. The corn steep liquor hydrolysate was confirmed to be a cost-effective accelerator for mycelium growth and cordycepin accumulation in C. militaris, replacing partial peptone as a cheap nitrogen source. It serves as a suitable alternative for efficient cordycepin production at a low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Microbes and Their Products for Sustainable Human Life)
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15 pages, 2150 KiB  
Review
Synchronous Front-Face Fluorescence Spectra: A Review of Milk Fluorophores
by Paulina Freire, Anna Zamora and Manuel Castillo
Foods 2024, 13(5), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050812 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Milk is subjected to different industrial processes, provoking significant physicochemical modifications that impact milk’s functional properties. As a rapid and in-line method, front-face fluorescence can be used to characterize milk instead of conventional analytical tests. However, when applying fluorescence spectroscopy for any application, [...] Read more.
Milk is subjected to different industrial processes, provoking significant physicochemical modifications that impact milk’s functional properties. As a rapid and in-line method, front-face fluorescence can be used to characterize milk instead of conventional analytical tests. However, when applying fluorescence spectroscopy for any application, it is not always necessary to determine which compound is responsible for each fluorescent response. In complex matrixes such as milk where several variables are interdependent, the unique identification of compounds can be challenging. Thus, few efforts have been made on the chemical characterization of milk’ fluorescent spectrum and the current information is dispersed. This review aims to organize research findings by dividing the milk spectra into areas and concatenating each area with at least one fluorophore. Designations are discussed by providing specific information on the fluorescent properties of each compound. In addition, a summary table of all fluorophores and references cited in this work by area is provided. This review provides a solid foundation for further research and could serve as a central reference. Full article
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15 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Inclusion of Beef Heart in Ground Beef Patties Alters Quality Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability as Assessed by the Application of Electronic Nose and Tongue Technology
by Savannah L. Douglas, Gabriela M. Bernardez-Morales, Brooks W. Nichols, Gabriella F. Johnson, Linda S. Barahona-Dominguez, Ainsley P. Jessup, Aeriel D. Belk, Jase J. Ball, Sungeun Cho and Jason T. Sawyer
Foods 2024, 13(5), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050811 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Consumer purchasing of beef is often driven by the trinity of flavor, palatability, and convenience. Currently, beef patties in the United States are manufactured with fat and lean trimmings derived from skeletal muscles. A reduction in total beef supply may require the use [...] Read more.
Consumer purchasing of beef is often driven by the trinity of flavor, palatability, and convenience. Currently, beef patties in the United States are manufactured with fat and lean trimmings derived from skeletal muscles. A reduction in total beef supply may require the use of animal by-product utilization such as variety meats to achieve patty formulations. The current study aimed to assess textural, color, and flavor characteristics in addition to volatile compounds through electronic technology, e-nose and e-tongue, of ground beef patties formulated with beef heart. Ground beef patties were manufactured with 0%, 6%, 12%, or 18% beef heart, with the remainder of the meat block being shoulder clod-derived ground beef. Patties (n = 65/batch/treatment) within each batch (n = 3) with each treatment were randomly allocated to cooked color (n = 17/batch/treatment), Allo–Kramer shear force (AKSF; n = 17/batch/treatment), texture profile analysis (TPA; n = 6/batch/treatment), cooking loss (n = 17/batch/treatment), consumer panel (n = 3/batch/treatment), e-nose (n = 1/batch/treatment), and e-tongue (n = 1/batch/treatment) analysis groups. Patties containing beef heart did not require additional cooking time (p = 0.1325) nor exhibit greater cooking loss (p = 0.0803). Additionally, inclusion rates of beef heart increased hardness (p = 0.0030) and chewiness values (p = 0.0316) in TPA, were internally redder (p = 0.0001), and reduced overall liking by consumer panelists (p = 0.0367). Lastly, patties containing beef heart exhibited greater red-to-brown (p = 0.0003) and hue angle (p = 0.0001) values than control patties. The results suggest that beef heart inclusion does alter ground beef quality characteristics and consumer acceptability. Full article
15 pages, 3754 KiB  
Article
A Novel Molecularly Imprinted Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor Based on Erbium Molybdate Incorporating Sulfur-Doped Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Dimethoate Determination in Apple Juice Samples
by Neslihan Özdemir, Betül Karslıoğlu, Bahar Bankoğlu Yola, Necip Atar and Mehmet Lütfi Yola
Foods 2024, 13(5), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050810 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Dimethoate (DIM) as an organophosphorus pesticide is widely utilized especially in the cultivation of vegetables and fruits due to its killing effect on harmful insects. However, unconscious use of DIM in large amounts can also cause serious health problems. For these reasons, rapid [...] Read more.
Dimethoate (DIM) as an organophosphorus pesticide is widely utilized especially in the cultivation of vegetables and fruits due to its killing effect on harmful insects. However, unconscious use of DIM in large amounts can also cause serious health problems. For these reasons, rapid and reliable detection of DIM from food samples is significant. In this study, a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor based on erbium molybdate incorporating sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride (EM/S-g-C3N4) and a molecularly imprinting polymer (MIP) was designed for DIM detection in apple juice samples. Firstly, an EM/S-g-C3N4 nanocomposite with high purity was prepared under hydrothermal conditions at high temperatures over a long period of time. After the modification of the EM/S-g-C3N4 nanocomposite on a QCM chip, the polymerization solution including N,N′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker, methacryloylamidoglutamic acid (MAGA) as a monomer, and DIM as an analyte was prepared. Then, the polymerization solution was dropped on an EM/S-g-C3N4 nanocomposite modified QCM chip and an ultraviolet polymerization process was applied for the formation of the DIM-imprinted polymers on the EM/S-g-C3N4 nanocomposite modified QCM chip. After the polymerization treatment, some characterization studies, including electrochemical, microscopic, and spectroscopic methods, were performed to illuminate the surface properties of the nanocomposite and the prepared QCM sensor. The values of the limit of quantification (LOQ) and the detection limit (LOD) of the prepared QCM sensor were as 1.0 × 10−9 M and 3.3 × 10−10 M, respectively. In addition, high selectivity, stability, reproducibility, and repeatability of the developed sensor was observed, providing highly reliable analysis results. Finally, thanks to the prepared sensor, it may be possible to detect pesticides from different food and environmental samples in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Biosensor Technology for Food Applications)
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17 pages, 3324 KiB  
Article
Effects of Thermosonication on the Antioxidant Capacity and Physicochemical, Bioactive, Microbiological, and Sensory Qualities of Blackcurrant Juice
by Xiaokun Qiu, Jiajia Su, Jiangli Nie, Zhuo Zhang, Junhan Ren, Shiyi Wang, Yi Pei and Xihong Li
Foods 2024, 13(5), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050809 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of thermosonication (TS) on the quality of blackcurrant juice, along with its physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, and microbiological and sensory qualities. The treatments included raw juice (RJ), pasteurized juice (90 °C, 1 min, PJ), and thermosonicated [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of thermosonication (TS) on the quality of blackcurrant juice, along with its physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, and microbiological and sensory qualities. The treatments included raw juice (RJ), pasteurized juice (90 °C, 1 min, PJ), and thermosonicated juice (480 W, 40 kHz at 40, 50, or 60 °C, for 10, 20, 30, or 40 min, TJ). The results indicated that the effects of pasteurization and thermosonication on the pH, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity of the juice were not significant (p > 0.05). However, the cloudiness, browning index, and viscosity were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and the color properties of the blackcurrant juice were improved. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of TJ (treated at 50 °C for 30 min) were increased by 12.6%, 20.9%, and 40.4%, respectively, and there was a notable decline in ascorbic acid content after the pasteurization treatment, while the loss was minor in all TJ samples compared with RJ. The scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-pyridyl and hydroxyl radicals increased to 52.77% and 50.52%, respectively, which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in the RJ and PJ samples. In addition, both pasteurization and thermosonication resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in microbial counts, while there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in the sensory parameters compared with the RJ samples. In conclusion, this study suggests that TS is an effective method that can be used as an alternative to pasteurization to improve the quality of blackcurrant juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Properties of Foods and Beverages)
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18 pages, 2069 KiB  
Article
Influence of Hesperidin on the Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Frozen Yogurt
by Roberto Cedillos, Ricardo S. Aleman, Ryan Page, Douglas W. Olson, Charles Boeneke, Witoon Prinyawiwatkul and Kayanush Aryana
Foods 2024, 13(5), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050808 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Frozen yogurts contain yogurt culture bacteria, which might impart health benefits to their consumers. Global frozen yogurt market sales are expected to grow by 4.8% by 2028, which represents an important opportunity for the industry, consumers and researchers. Polyphenols are metabolites found in [...] Read more.
Frozen yogurts contain yogurt culture bacteria, which might impart health benefits to their consumers. Global frozen yogurt market sales are expected to grow by 4.8% by 2028, which represents an important opportunity for the industry, consumers and researchers. Polyphenols are metabolites found in plants which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and might prevent chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of the polyphenol hesperidin on the physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of frozen yogurts. Hesperidin was incorporated into frozen yogurt at three concentrations (125, 250 and 500 mg/90 g of product), while yogurt with no hesperidin was used as a control. The viscosity and overrun of the frozen yogurt were analyzed on day 0. The hardness, pH, color and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus counts were determined after 0, 30 and 60 d. The melting rate was determined at 60 and 90 min after 0, 30 and 60 d. The bile and acid tolerances of both S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus were measured after 7 and 60 d. A hedonic scale of nine points was used to measure sensory attributes. Data were analyzed at α = 0.05 with an ANOVA with Tukey’s adjustment, and McNemar’s test was used to analyze purchase intent. Hesperidin did not influence the pH, overrun or microbial characteristics. Polyphenol addition compared to the control decreased the melting rate but increased the hardness and bile tolerance of L. bulgaricus, as well as the L* and b* values. The sensory characteristics were not influenced by the lowest concentration of hesperidin, as it was not statistically different from the control. Moreover, consumers were interested in purchasing frozen yogurt with added hesperidin after learning about the health claim. This study can assist in the development of a healthier frozen yogurt in an increasingly competitive market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk and Dairy Products: Quality, Microorganisms and Health Benefits)
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18 pages, 2493 KiB  
Article
Lupin as Ingredient in Durum Wheat Breadmaking: Physicochemical Properties of Flour Blends and Bread Quality
by Alfio Spina, Carmine Summo, Nicolina Timpanaro, Michele Canale, Rosalia Sanfilippo, Margherita Amenta, Maria Concetta Strano, Maria Allegra, Martina Papa and Antonella Pasqualone
Foods 2024, 13(5), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050807 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 762
Abstract
The popularity of adding pulse flours to baked goods is growing rapidly due to their recognised health benefits. In this study, increasing amounts (3, 7, 10, and 15%) of white lupin flour (Lupinus albus L.) and of protein concentrate from narrow-leaved lupin [...] Read more.
The popularity of adding pulse flours to baked goods is growing rapidly due to their recognised health benefits. In this study, increasing amounts (3, 7, 10, and 15%) of white lupin flour (Lupinus albus L.) and of protein concentrate from narrow-leaved lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) were used as replacements for durum wheat semolina to prepare bread, and their effects on the physicochemical properties of the flour blends, as well as the technological and sensory qualities of bread, were evaluated. The addition of protein concentrate from narrow-leaved lupin and white lupin flour increased the water binding capacity and the leavening rate compared to pure semolina. A farinograph test indicated that the dough development time had a slight but significant tendency to increase with the addition of lupin flour and protein concentrate of narrow-leaved lupin, while had a negative effect on the stability of dough. The alveograph strength decreased (225, 108, and 76 × 10−4 J for dough made with semolina, 15% of protein concentrate from narrow-leaved lupin, and 15% of white lupin flour, respectively), whereas there was an upward trend in the P/L ratio. Compared to re-milled semolina, the samples with lupin flour and protein concentrate from narrow-leaved lupin had low amylase activity, with falling number values ranging from 439 s to 566 s. The addition of the two different lupin flours lowered the specific volumes of the breads (2.85, 2.39, and 1.93 cm3/g for bread made from semolina, from 15% of protein concentrate from narrow-leaved lupin, and from 15% of white lupin flour, respectively) and increased their hardness values (up to 21.34 N in the bread with 15% of protein concentrate from narrow-leaved lupin). The porosity of the loaves was diminished with the addition of the two lupin flours (range of 5–8). The sensory analysis showed that the addition of white lupin flour or protein concentrate from narrow-leaved lupin did not impart any unpleasant flavours or odours to the bread. To conclude, the use of lupin in breadmaking requires adjustments to strengthen the gluten network but does not require a deflavouring process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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12 pages, 765 KiB  
Article
Using Essential Oils to Reduce Yersinia enterocolitica in Minced Meat and in Biofilms
by Suzana Vidaković Knežević, Slobodan Knežević, Jelena Vranešević, Dubravka Milanov, Zoran Ružić, Nedjeljko Karabasil and Sunčica Kocić-Tanackov
Foods 2024, 13(5), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050806 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 699
Abstract
Yersiniosis, one of the leading foodborne infections in the European Union, is caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. In this study, the antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus [...] Read more.
Yersiniosis, one of the leading foodborne infections in the European Union, is caused by Yersinia enterocolitica. In this study, the antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and winter savory (Satureja montana L.) essential oils were investigated against Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to the bioserotype 4/O:3. Cinnamon essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity, with an MIC value 0.09 µL/mL, followed by oregano and thyme essential oils, with MIC values from 0.09 to 0.18 µL/mL, and from 0.18 to 0.23 µL/mL, respectively. Thyme essential oil at 0.23 µL/g (MIC) and at 0.46 µL/g (2MIC) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of Y. enterocolitica by 0.38 log CFU/g and 0.64 log CFU/g, respectively, in minced pork meat during storage at 4 °C for 4 days. The Y. enterocolitica strains formed biofilms at 15 °C and 37 °C in tryptic soy broth and Luria–Bertani broth, while no biofilms were obtained at 5 °C, and in meat broth nutrient media. Applying the minimum bactericidal concentrations of cinnamon, clove, oregano, rosemary, thyme, and winter savory essential oils on preformed biofilms led to significant reductions being observed in the range from 45.34% to 78.89%. A scanning electron microscopy assay showed the devastating impact of oregano and thyme essential oils on the morphology of Y. enterocolitica bacterial cells. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oils possess high anti-Yersinia and antibiofilm effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antimicrobial Agents Utilized in Food Preservation)
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17 pages, 714 KiB  
Review
Postharvest Physiology and Handling of Guava Fruit
by Nanhui Chen, Wei Wei, Yingying Yang, Lin Chen, Wei Shan, Jianye Chen, Wangjin Lu, Jianfei Kuang and Chaojie Wu
Foods 2024, 13(5), 805; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050805 - 06 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Guavas are typical tropical fruit with high nutritional and commercial value. Because of their thin skin and high metabolic rate, guavas are highly susceptible to water loss, physical damage, and spoilage, severely limiting their shelf-life. Guavas can typically only be stored for approximately [...] Read more.
Guavas are typical tropical fruit with high nutritional and commercial value. Because of their thin skin and high metabolic rate, guavas are highly susceptible to water loss, physical damage, and spoilage, severely limiting their shelf-life. Guavas can typically only be stored for approximately one week at room temperature, making transportation, storage, and handling difficult, resulting in low profit margins in the industry. This review focuses on the physiological and biochemical changes and their molecular mechanisms which occur in postharvest guavas, and summarizes the various management strategies for extending the shelf-life of these sensitive fruits by means of physical and chemical preservation and their combinations. This review also suggests future directions and reference ideas for the development of safe and efficient shelf-life extension techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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15 pages, 563 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Quality and Safety Assessment of Pork Meat Cuts from Romania: Fatty Acids and Elemental Profile
by Florina-Dorina Covaciu, Ioana Feher, Gabriela Cristea and Adriana Dehelean
Foods 2024, 13(5), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050804 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 825
Abstract
In this study, the fatty acids and elemental profiles of 53 pork cut samples were determined. To offer insights into their potential health implications, we computed 18 key nutritional indices. These indices included parameters such as saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids [...] Read more.
In this study, the fatty acids and elemental profiles of 53 pork cut samples were determined. To offer insights into their potential health implications, we computed 18 key nutritional indices. These indices included parameters such as saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), the MUFAs/SFAs ratio, PUFAs/SFAs ratio, atherogenic index (AI), thrombogenic index (TI), the hypocholesterolemic to hypercholesterolemic ratio (h/H), health-promoting index (HPI), hypocholesterolemic index (HI), unsaturation index (UI), saturation index (SI), peroxidizability index (PI), nutritional value index (NVI), hypocholesterolemic index of fatty acids (DFAs), hypercholesterolemic index of fatty acids (OFAs), and the DFAs/OFAs ratio. These indices were calculated based on their fatty acid composition to provide comprehensive nutritional information. A health risk assessment revealed the safety and minimum health risk for the population from consuming the investigated pork cuts using the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ), Hazard Index (HI), and target cancer risk (TR). The ANOVA test showed significant differences in the levels of K, Fe, Mn, Zn, MUFAs, and AI among the pork cut samples. It was noted that by employing the correlation between the fatty acids profile, nutritional indices, and elemental concentrations and an unsupervised statistical method, such as PCA, a perfect separation from the different pork cuts could not be obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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22 pages, 17957 KiB  
Article
Cymbopogon winterianus (Java Citronella Plant): A Multi-Faceted Approach for Food Preservation, Insecticidal Effects, and Bread Application
by Marwa Rammal, Adnan Badran, Chaden Haidar, Abbas Sabbah, Mikhael Bechelany, Maya Awada, Khodor Haidar Hassan, Mohammad El-Dakdouki and Mohamad T. Raad
Foods 2024, 13(5), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050803 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Certain plants like Rosemarinus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Origanum vulgare have been used in the food industry for centuries. Cymbopogon winterianus (Java Citronella plant) is one of the most significant plants. The objective of this study is to screen for secondary metabolites [...] Read more.
Certain plants like Rosemarinus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Origanum vulgare have been used in the food industry for centuries. Cymbopogon winterianus (Java Citronella plant) is one of the most significant plants. The objective of this study is to screen for secondary metabolites by phytochemical screening, evaluate the antioxidant contents of extracts and investigate the use of the Java Citronella plant in food preservation and as an insecticide. Java Citronella powder was added to bread and evaluated for its moisture content, and a visual and sensory analysis was performed. Sitophilus granarius (L.) weevils were exposed to Java Citronella essential oil (JCEO). The phytochemical screening revealed that the extracts were abundant in secondary metabolites. The JCEO had a yield of 0.75%. The aqueous extract had a higher total phenolic content of 49.043 ± 0.217 mg GAE/g than the ethanolic extract, which was 24.478 ± 1.956 mg GAE/g. The aqueous extract had a total flavonoids content 27,725.25 ± 54.96 µg RE/g higher than the ethanolic extract, with 24,263 ± 74 µg RE/g. The ethanolic extract had stronger antioxidant activity, with anIC50 = 196.116 μg/mL higher than the aqueous extract at 420 μg/mL. The 2% Java Citronella powder in the bread was preferred by consumers, and had a shelf life of 6 days. JCEO killed all the weevils with a high dose of 10% after 48 h. The Java Citronella showed insecticidal and food preservative activity. The results should help in future research to enhance the applications of Java Citronella in various domains, from food technology to insecticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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13 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Effects of Supplementing Selenium-Enriched Cardamine violifolia to Laying Hens on Egg Quality and Yolk Antioxidant Capacity during Storage at 4 °C and 25 °C
by Kun Qin, Xin Cong, Hui Wang, Mengke Yan, Xianfeng Xu, Mingkang Liu, Fulong Song, Dan Wang, Xiao Xu, Jiangchao Zhao, Shuiyuan Cheng, Yulan Liu and Huiling Zhu
Foods 2024, 13(5), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050802 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Oxidative stress occurs in the process of egg storage. Antioxidants as feed additives can enhance egg quality and extend the shelf life of eggs. Selenium-enriched Cardamine violifolia (SEC) has strongly antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress occurs in the process of egg storage. Antioxidants as feed additives can enhance egg quality and extend the shelf life of eggs. Selenium-enriched Cardamine violifolia (SEC) has strongly antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation with SEC on egg quality and the yolk antioxidant capacity of eggs stored at 4 °C and 25 °C. Four hundred fifty 65-week-old, Roman hens that were similar in laying rate (90.79 ± 1.69%) and body weight (2.19 ± 0.23 kg) were divided into 5 groups. The birds were fed diets supplemented with 0 mg/kg selenium (Se) (CON), 0.3 mg/kg Se from sodium selenite (SS), 0.3 mg/kg Se from Se-enriched yeast (SEY), 0.3 mg/kg Se for selenium-enriched Cardamine violifolia (SEC) or 0.3 mg/kg Se from Se-enriched Cardamine violifolia and 0.3 mg/kg Se from Se-enriched yeast (SEC + SEY) for 8 weeks. The eggs were collected on the 8th week and were analyzed for egg quality and oxidative stability of yolk during storage at 4 °C or 25 °C for 0, 2, 4, or 6 weeks. Dietary SEC and SEC + SEY supplementation increased the Haugh unit (HU) and albumen foam stability in eggs stored at 4 °C and 25 °C (p < 0.05). SS and SEC supplementation increased the yolk index in eggs stored at 25 °C (p < 0.05). SEC or SEC + SEY slowed down an increase in albumen pH and gel firmness in eggs stored at 4 °C and 25 °C (p < 0.05). Moreover, SEC or SEC + SEY alleviated the increase in malonaldehyde (MDA), and the decrease in total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in yolks stored at 4 °C and 25 °C (p < 0.05). These results indicate that SEC mitigated egg quality loss and improved the antioxidant capacity of yolks during storage. SEC supplementation would be advantageous to extend the shelf life of eggs. Full article
14 pages, 5132 KiB  
Article
Characterization, Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Vanilla Nano-Emulsion and Its Complex Essential Oil
by Fei Xu, Yucong Shi, Bin Li, Chengmei Liu, Yanjun Zhang and Junzhen Zhong
Foods 2024, 13(5), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050801 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 692
Abstract
As a natural flavoring agent, vanilla essential oil has a special aroma and flavor, but its volatility and instability limit its value. Therefore, in this study, vanilla essential oil was compounded with cinnamon essential oil to prepare nano-emulsions (composite nano-emulsions called C/VT and [...] Read more.
As a natural flavoring agent, vanilla essential oil has a special aroma and flavor, but its volatility and instability limit its value. Therefore, in this study, vanilla essential oil was compounded with cinnamon essential oil to prepare nano-emulsions (composite nano-emulsions called C/VT and C/VM), and the stability of the composite essential oil emulsions was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the nano-emulsions were spherical in shape and some flocs were observed in C/VM and C/VT. The results showed that the average droplet sizes of C/VM and C/VT increased only by 14.99% and 15.01% after heating at 100 °C for 20 min, and the average droplet sizes were less than 120 nm after 24 days of storage at 25 °C. Possibly due to the presence of reticulated flocs, which have a hindering effect on the movement of individual droplets, the instability indices of C/VM and C/VT were reduced by 34.9% and 39.08%, respectively, in comparison to the instability indices of C/VM and C/VT. In addition, the results of antioxidant experimental studies showed that the presence of composite essential oil flocs had no significant effect on the antioxidant capacity. These results indicate that the improved stability of the composite essential oil nano-emulsions is conducive to broadening the application of vanilla essential oil emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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14 pages, 8121 KiB  
Article
Nutrient Composition and Flavor Profile of Crucian Carp Soup Utilizing Fish Residues through Comminution and Pressure-Conduction Treatment
by Qi Wang, Zheming Wang, Xiaoqing Yang, Xinru Fan, Jinfeng Pan and Xiuping Dong
Foods 2024, 13(5), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050800 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 643
Abstract
In conventional fish soup processing, valuable aquatic resources like fish skins, bones, and scales are often squandered. This study was aimed at investigating if comminution combined with pressure-conduction treatment has the potential to enhance the reutilization of cooking residues. The different blending ratios [...] Read more.
In conventional fish soup processing, valuable aquatic resources like fish skins, bones, and scales are often squandered. This study was aimed at investigating if comminution combined with pressure-conduction treatment has the potential to enhance the reutilization of cooking residues. The different blending ratios of original soup (OS), made from the initial cooking of fish, and residue soup (RS), produced from processed leftover fish parts, were alternatively investigated to satisfy the new product development. Comminution combined with pressure-conduction treatment significantly increased the nutrient contents of calcium, soluble proteins and total solids in crucian carp soup (p < 0.05). With the increase in RS ratio, the decomposition of inosine monophosphate (IMP) and free amino acids was accelerated, but the accumulation of aromatic compounds was promoted simultaneously. In addition, the Maillard reaction may lead to a reduction in aldehydes, causing a diminution in the characteristic flavor of fish soup, while the formation of 1-octen-3-ol can enhance the earthiness of the fish soup. The electronic tongue test results and the sensory results showed that the blend ratio of OS and RS at 7:3 had a more significant umami and fish aroma (p < 0.05). Under this condition, the mixed soup has better nutritional values and flavor characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Extraction and Valorization of By-Products from Food Processing)
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14 pages, 772 KiB  
Review
Effect of Cumulative Spirulina Intake on Broiler Meat Quality, Nutritional and Health-Related Attributes
by Maria P. Spínola, Mónica M. Costa and José A. M. Prates
Foods 2024, 13(5), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050799 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 812
Abstract
This work aimed to assess how different cumulative levels of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) intake influence individual broiler meat quality parameters, nutritional value and health-related traits. The data analysed showed varying cumulative Spirulina intake levels, ranging from 3.46 to 521 g/bird, with [...] Read more.
This work aimed to assess how different cumulative levels of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) intake influence individual broiler meat quality parameters, nutritional value and health-related traits. The data analysed showed varying cumulative Spirulina intake levels, ranging from 3.46 to 521 g/bird, with large changes in meat traits. The key findings indicate that Spirulina intake significantly enhances meat colour, primarily due to its rich carotenoid content. However, this enhancement shows a saturation effect at higher intake levels, where additional Spirulina does not further improve the colour. Regarding the meat nutritional profile, Spirulina increases beneficial n − 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduces lipid oxidation. These effects on meat, however, are not linear and become more complex at higher microalga intake levels. Regarding meat sensory attributes, moderate Spirulina levels positively influence flavour and texture. Still, higher levels may lead to changes not universally preferred by meat consumers, highlighting the need for balanced Spirulina inclusion in diets. Optimal Spirulina cumulative intake levels must be identified to balance meat’s nutritional benefits with consumer preferences. Additionally, ensuring Spirulina’s purity and adherence to regulatory standards is essential for consumer safety and market access. These findings provide valuable insights for poultry nutritionists and the food industry, emphasising the necessity of a balanced approach to Spirulina’s incorporation in poultry diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Meat)
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16 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Effects of Genotype on Pig Carcass, Meat Quality and Consumer Sensory Evaluation of Loins and Bellies
by Violeta Razmaitė, Rūta Šveistienė and Artūras Šiukščius
Foods 2024, 13(5), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050798 - 05 Mar 2024
Viewed by 602
Abstract
The objective of the study was to compare carcass and meat quality among Lithuanian White, Lithuanian Indigenous Wattle and conventional hybrids as well as consumer sensory evaluations. The pigs were slaughtered at a live weight of approximately 95–100 kg. After 24 h of [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to compare carcass and meat quality among Lithuanian White, Lithuanian Indigenous Wattle and conventional hybrids as well as consumer sensory evaluations. The pigs were slaughtered at a live weight of approximately 95–100 kg. After 24 h of slaughter, carcasses were evaluated and sampled for the analysis of meat quality traits of loins and consumer evaluation of cooked loins and baked bellies. The pigs of both Lithuanian breeds had higher backfat thickness and depth of underbelly but lower loin area compared with hybrids. However, more fatty local breeds had higher intramuscular fat content but lower cholesterol content than hybrids. The loins from local pigs displayed higher pH and colour with lower lightness and yellowness but higher redness and also lower cooking loss, shear force and hardness than conventional hybrids. Pork from lean hybrids had a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and more favourable lipid quality indices such as atherogenic (AI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices and the hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic (h/H) ratio; however, the peroxidisability index (PI) and iodine value (IV) were less favourable compared with local pigs. Consumers evaluated cooked loins and baked bellies. The loins from local breeds scored higher in juiciness, taste and overall acceptability compared with conventional hybrids. However, a higher overall acceptability was observed for the lean bellies of hybrids. The results can be used to increase pork consumption choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Research on Flavor Components and Sensory Properties of Food)
60 pages, 5569 KiB  
Review
Lipid Peroxidation in Muscle Foods: Impact on Quality, Safety and Human Health
by Stefan G. Dragoev
Foods 2024, 13(5), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050797 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The issue of lipid changes in muscle foods under the action of atmospheric oxygen has captured the attention of researchers for over a century. Lipid oxidative processes initiate during the slaughtering of animals and persist throughout subsequent technological processing and storage of the [...] Read more.
The issue of lipid changes in muscle foods under the action of atmospheric oxygen has captured the attention of researchers for over a century. Lipid oxidative processes initiate during the slaughtering of animals and persist throughout subsequent technological processing and storage of the finished product. The oxidation of lipids in muscle foods is a phenomenon extensively deliberated in the scientific community, acknowledged as one of the pivotal factors affecting their quality, safety, and human health. This review delves into the nature of lipid oxidation in muscle foods, highlighting mechanisms of free radical initiation and the propagation of oxidative processes. Special attention is given to the natural antioxidant protective system and dietary factors influencing the stability of muscle lipids. The review traces mechanisms inhibiting oxidative processes, exploring how changes in lipid oxidative substrates, prooxidant activity, and the antioxidant protective system play a role. A critical review of the oxidative stability and safety of meat products is provided. The impact of oxidative processes on the quality of muscle foods, including flavour, aroma, taste, colour, and texture, is scrutinised. Additionally, the review monitors the effect of oxidised muscle foods on human health, particularly in relation to the autooxidation of cholesterol. Associations with coronary cardiovascular disease, brain stroke, and carcinogenesis linked to oxidative stress, and various infections are discussed. Further studies are also needed to formulate appropriate technological solutions to reduce the risk of chemical hazards caused by the initiation and development of lipid peroxidation processes in muscle foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Meat: Quality, Safety and Human Health)
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25 pages, 11189 KiB  
Article
UPLC-ESI-MS/MS-Based Analysis of Various Edible Rosa Fruits Concerning Secondary Metabolites and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant Activities
by Ming Ni, Junlei Chen, Mao Fu, Huanyang Li, Shengqian Bu, Xiaojiang Hao and Wei Gu
Foods 2024, 13(5), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050796 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 647
Abstract
The genus Rosa is globally popular with well-established applications since it has a high edible and medicinal value. However, relatively limited research has been conducted on the composition and quality of wild Rosa fruits. The present study aimed to compare the properties and [...] Read more.
The genus Rosa is globally popular with well-established applications since it has a high edible and medicinal value. However, relatively limited research has been conducted on the composition and quality of wild Rosa fruits. The present study aimed to compare the properties and chemical components of five wild edible Rosa fruits, Rosa roxburghii, Rosa sterilis, Rosa laevigata, Rosa davurica, and Rosa sericea. The UPLC-ESI-MS/MS approach identified the key metabolites among the five Rosa fruits as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and organic acids. The main differential metabolites among the five fruits are flavonoids (22.29–45.13%), phenolic acids (17–22.27%), and terpenoids (7.7–24%), respectively. In total, 125 compounds served as potential markers for the five Rosa species. Differential metabolic pathways of five Rosa fruits were analyzed using the KEGG approach. Rosa laevigata fruits showed the highest total polysaccharide (TPS) content of 64.48 g/100 g. All the five Rosa extracts effectively decreased the levels of malondialdehyde while increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the H2O2-induced HaCaT cell model, demonstrating high potential for antioxidant development. Our findings suggest that the five studied Rosa fruits exhibit biological activity and edible value worth further exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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13 pages, 6759 KiB  
Article
Bee Bread as a Functional Product: Phenolic Compounds, Amino Acid, Sugar, and Organic Acid Profiles
by Aksem Aksoy, Sema Sandıkçı Altunatmaz, Filiz Aksu, Nazan Tokatlı Demirok, Kemal Yazıcı and Seydi Yıkmış
Foods 2024, 13(5), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050795 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Bee bread (perga) is a natural bee product formed by the fermentation of the pollen collected by bees via lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. This study aims to determine the bioactive compounds, amino acid, sugar, and organic acid profile of bee bread samples [...] Read more.
Bee bread (perga) is a natural bee product formed by the fermentation of the pollen collected by bees via lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. This study aims to determine the bioactive compounds, amino acid, sugar, and organic acid profile of bee bread samples collected from the Ardahan province of Türkiye. The highest total phenolic, total flavonoid, and DPPH values in bee bread samples were determined as 18.35 mg GAE/g, 2.82 mg QE/g, and 3.90 mg TEAC/g, respectively. Among phenolic compounds, gallic acid had the highest value at 39.97 µ/g. While all essential amino acids except tryptophan were detected in the samples, aspartic acid was the most dominant, followed by pyrroline and glutamic acid. Among sugars, fructose was seen at the highest level. Succinic acid, among organic acids, had the highest amount at 73.63 mg/g. Finally, all the data were subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA). Bee bread samples were grouped according to the analysis results of the districts they were collected from. This study provides information about the bioactive components and some chemical properties of bee bread, a natural product that has been the subject of recent research. It also contains essential data for future functional food production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality Control and Chemical Analysis of Bee Products)
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23 pages, 865 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effectiveness of Online Food-Safety Educational Programs: A Systematic Review, Random-Effects Meta-Analysis, and Thematic Synthesis
by Zachary Berglund, Senay Simsek and Yaohua Feng
Foods 2024, 13(5), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050794 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Online food-safety educational programs are increasingly important to educate different populations as technology and culture shift to using more technology. However, the broad effectiveness of these programs has yet to be examined. A systematic review, random-effects meta-analysis, and thematic synthesis are conducted to [...] Read more.
Online food-safety educational programs are increasingly important to educate different populations as technology and culture shift to using more technology. However, the broad effectiveness of these programs has yet to be examined. A systematic review, random-effects meta-analysis, and thematic synthesis are conducted to identify the effect size of online food-safety educational programs on knowledge, attitudes, and practices of consumers, food workers, and students and their respective barriers and recommendations. Online food-safety education was found to be of moderate and low effectiveness, with attitudes being the lowest in all populations. Consumers struggled with staying focused, and it was found that messaging should focus on risk communication. Students struggled with social isolation and a lack of time, and it was recommended that videos be used. Food workers struggled with a lack of time for training and difficulty understanding the material, and future programs are recommended to implement shorter but more frequent trainings with simple language. Future online food-safety educational programs should focus on incorporating social elements, as they can remain a huge barrier to learning. They should also focus on changing the participant’s attitude to risk perception and beliefs in the importance of food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Perception, Communication and Behavior on Food Safety Issues)
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15 pages, 2725 KiB  
Article
Integrated Fruit Ripeness Assessment System Based on an Artificial Olfactory Sensor and Deep Learning
by Mingming Zhao, Zhiheng You, Huayun Chen, Xiao Wang, Yibin Ying and Yixian Wang
Foods 2024, 13(5), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050793 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Artificial scent screening systems, inspired by the mammalian olfactory system, hold promise for fruit ripeness detection, but their commercialization is limited by low sensitivity or pattern recognition inaccuracy. This study presents a portable fruit ripeness prediction system based on colorimetric sensing combinatorics and [...] Read more.
Artificial scent screening systems, inspired by the mammalian olfactory system, hold promise for fruit ripeness detection, but their commercialization is limited by low sensitivity or pattern recognition inaccuracy. This study presents a portable fruit ripeness prediction system based on colorimetric sensing combinatorics and deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) to accurately identify fruit ripeness. Using the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, the study discerned the distinctive gases emitted by mango, peach, and banana across various ripening stages. The colorimetric sensing combinatorics utilized 25 dyes sensitive to fruit volatile gases, generating a distinct scent fingerprint through cross-reactivity to diverse concentrations and varieties of gases. The unique scent fingerprints can be identified using DCNN. After capturing colorimetric sensor image data, the densely connected convolutional network (DenseNet) was employed, achieving an impressive accuracy rate of 97.39% on the validation set and 82.20% on the test set in assessing fruit ripeness. This fruit ripeness prediction system, coupled with a DCNN, successfully addresses the issues of complex pattern recognition and low identification accuracy. Overall, this innovative tool exhibits high accuracy, non-destructiveness, practical applicability, convenience, and low cost, making it worth considering and developing for fruit ripeness detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Systems)
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18 pages, 1591 KiB  
Article
Microbial-Transferred Metabolites and Improvement of Biological Activities of Green Tea Catechins by Human Gut Microbiota
by You Su, Kaiyin Hu, Daxiang Li, Huimin Guo, Li Sun and Zhongwen Xie
Foods 2024, 13(5), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050792 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are dietary polyphenols with broad bioactivities that undergo extensive microbial metabolism in the human gut. However, microbial-transferred metabolites and their health benefits are not fully understood. Herein, the microbial metabolism of GTCs by human fecal microbiota and dynamic alteration [...] Read more.
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are dietary polyphenols with broad bioactivities that undergo extensive microbial metabolism in the human gut. However, microbial-transferred metabolites and their health benefits are not fully understood. Herein, the microbial metabolism of GTCs by human fecal microbiota and dynamic alteration of the microbiota were integrally investigated via in vitro anaerobic fermentation. The results showed that the human gut microbiota exhibited a strong metabolic effect on GTCs via UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 35 microbial-transferred metabolites were identified, far more than were identified in previous studies. Among them, five metabolites, namely EGCG quinone, EGC quinone, ECG quinone, EC quinone, and mono-oxygenated EGCG, were identified for the first time in fermented GTCs with the human gut microbiota. Consequently, corresponding metabolic pathways were proposed. Notably, the antioxidant, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the GTCs sample increased after fermentation compared to those of the initial unfermented sample. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the GTCs significantly altered gut microbial diversity and enriched the abundancy of Eubacterium, Flavonifractor, etc., which may be further involved in the metabolisms of GTCs. Thus, these findings contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between GTCs and gut microbiota, as well as the health benefits of green tea consumption. Full article
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14 pages, 1743 KiB  
Article
Physical and Chemical Properties of Convective- and Microwave-Dried Blackberry Fruits Grown Using Organic Procedures
by Marko Petković, Nemanja Miletić, Valerija Pantelić, Vladimir Filipović, Biljana Lončar and Olga Mitrović
Foods 2024, 13(5), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050791 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 639
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of convective and microwave drying on the bioactive-compounds content of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) fruits, as well as drying parameters and energy consumption. The fruit was dehydrated in a convective dehydrator at a temperature of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of convective and microwave drying on the bioactive-compounds content of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) fruits, as well as drying parameters and energy consumption. The fruit was dehydrated in a convective dehydrator at a temperature of 50 °C and 70 °C and in a microwave oven at power levels of 90 W, 180 W and 240 W. The highest amount of anthocyanins, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity were obtained in blackberry fruits that were microwave dried at 90 W and 180 W (46.3–52.5 and 51.8–83.5 mg 100 g−1 dm of total anthocyanins, 296.3–255.8 and 418.4–502.2 mg 100 g−1 dm of total phenolics, and 1.20–1.51 and 1.45–2.35 mmol TE 100 g−1 dm of antioxidant capacity for 90 W and 180 W models, respectively). It turned out that microwave dehydration shortened the processing time and lowered the energy consumption compared to convective drying (a significantly reduced drying time of 92–99% with microwave dehydration). Blackberry fruits dehydrated at 240 W showed the shortest dehydration time (59–67 min), minimal energy consumption (0.23 kWh) and the most efficient diffusion (1.48–1.66 × 10−8 m2 s−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Drying Applications for Plant Products: A Comparative Analysis)
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20 pages, 4214 KiB  
Review
Plant and Arthropod IgE-Binding Papain-like Cysteine Proteases: Multiple Contributions to Allergenicity
by Ivana Giangrieco, Maria Antonietta Ciardiello, Maurizio Tamburrini, Lisa Tuppo, Adriano Mari and Claudia Alessandri
Foods 2024, 13(5), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050790 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 909
Abstract
Papain-like cysteine proteases are widespread and can be detected in all domains of life. They share structural and enzymatic properties with the group’s namesake member, papain. They show a broad range of protein substrates and are involved in several biological processes. These proteases [...] Read more.
Papain-like cysteine proteases are widespread and can be detected in all domains of life. They share structural and enzymatic properties with the group’s namesake member, papain. They show a broad range of protein substrates and are involved in several biological processes. These proteases are widely exploited for food, pharmaceutical, chemical and cosmetic biotechnological applications. However, some of them are known to cause allergic reactions. In this context, the objective of this review is to report an overview of some general properties of papain-like cysteine proteases and to highlight their contributions to allergy reactions observed in humans. For instance, the literature shows that their proteolytic activity can cause an increase in tissue permeability, which favours the crossing of allergens through the skin, intestinal and respiratory barriers. The observation that allergy to PLCPs is mostly detected for inhaled proteins is in line with the reports describing mite homologs, such as Der p 1 and Der f 1, as major allergens showing a frequent correlation between sensitisation and clinical allergic reactions. In contrast, the plant food homologs are often digested in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, they only rarely can cause allergic reactions in humans. Accordingly, they are reported mainly as a cause of occupational diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allergenic Properties and Molecular Characteristics of Food Allergens)
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20 pages, 1343 KiB  
Article
Preharvest Methyl Jasmonate Treatment Affects the Mineral Profile, Metabolites, and Antioxidant Capacity of Radish Microgreens Produced without Substrate
by Shimeles Tilahun, Min Woo Baek, Ki-Seok An, Han Ryul Choi, Jong Hwan Lee, Su Ho Tae, Do Su Park, Jin Sung Hong and Cheon Soon Jeong
Foods 2024, 13(5), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050789 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 811
Abstract
This study investigated the impact of Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) application on the nutritional content and yield of five different colored radish microgreens. Microgreens were produced without substrate and subjected to 0.5 mM and 1.0 mM MeJA treatments on the 7th day, three days [...] Read more.
This study investigated the impact of Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) application on the nutritional content and yield of five different colored radish microgreens. Microgreens were produced without substrate and subjected to 0.5 mM and 1.0 mM MeJA treatments on the 7th day, three days before harvest. The parameters measured included yield, dry matter, minerals, amino acids, secondary metabolites such as chlorophylls (Chls), anthocyanins, flavonoids, phenolics, glucosinolates (GSLs), vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity. MeJA at 1.0 mM generally improved yield and dry weight across cultivars, and all microgreens exhibited rich mineral and amino acid composition, with the influence of cultivar being more significant than MeJA treatment. However, MeJA enhanced all cultivars’ anthocyanins, GSLs, phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. Generally, as the antioxidant capacity is the primary factor influencing the nutritional quality of microgreens, MeJA-treated microgreens, especially with selected superior cultivars such as ‘Asia purple’ and ‘Koregon red’, could offer a potential for cultivation of value-added, eco-friendly microgreens with substrate-free cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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25 pages, 707 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Sunflower and Maize Crop Residue Extracts as a New Ingredient on the Quality Properties of Pork Liver Pâtés
by Milica Glišić, Marija Bošković Cabrol, Nikola Čobanović, Marija Starčević, Stevan Samardžić, Ivona Veličković and Zoran Maksimović
Foods 2024, 13(5), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050788 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extracts from post-harvest sunflower and maize stalk residues, and their impact on the chemical composition, physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidative stability, microbiological properties, and sensory characteristics of pork liver pâtés over a 90-day [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extracts from post-harvest sunflower and maize stalk residues, and their impact on the chemical composition, physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidative stability, microbiological properties, and sensory characteristics of pork liver pâtés over a 90-day storage period. Four formulations were prepared: a control group (CON), a batch with butylated hydroxytoluene as a synthetic antioxidant (BHT), 1% ethanolic extract from sunflower residues (SSRE), and 1% ethanolic extract from maize residues (MSRE). The MSRE had a higher total phenol content and showed better antioxidant activity relative to the SSRE (p < 0.01). The addition of SSRE decreased the lightness and increased the redness in the pork liver pâtés, with these pâtés showing the highest total color difference compared to the control (p < 0.01). The crop extracts increased the n-6 and total PUFA contents in pâtés and improved the PUFA/SFA ratio (p < 0.01). Formulations containing crop residue extracts showed higher TBARs and POV values than the control and BHT group (p < 0.01), indicating a pro-oxidant effect and accelerated lipid oxidation in pâtés during storage. As far as microbiological quality, the presence of crop residue extracts decreased the total viable count, lactic acid bacteria, and psychotropic aerobic bacteria (p < 0.01). The incorporation of crop extracts in the pork pâtés impaired their sensory quality, particularly color, odor, aroma, and flavor, and decreased their overall acceptability. These results indicated that, while the crop residue extracts were not as effective as synthetic antioxidants in preserving the lipid stability of pâtés, they demonstrated potential for enhancing the microbial quality of this type of meat product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Extracts as Functional Food Ingredients)
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15 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Data on Selected Food Products Consumed in Oman: An Update of the Food Composition Table and Use for Future Food Consumption Surveys
by Salima Almaamari, Ayoub Al-Jawaldeh, Ibtisam Al Ghammari, Saleh Al Shammakhi, Jokha Al Aamri and Jalila El Ati
Foods 2024, 13(5), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050787 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Food composition data in the Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are often lacking, obsolete, or unreliable. The study aims to provide reliable nutrient data on food products consumed in Oman in order to evaluate their nutritional quality, the consistency of the nutrition labeling and [...] Read more.
Food composition data in the Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are often lacking, obsolete, or unreliable. The study aims to provide reliable nutrient data on food products consumed in Oman in order to evaluate their nutritional quality, the consistency of the nutrition labeling and claims, and, ultimately, the use for food consumption surveys and update the current food composition database. Contents of fat, fatty acids, carbohydrates, protein, sugars, and sodium were chemically analyzed in 221 foods and beverages. Products were classified according to their nutritional composition and the extent of processing and coded according to the FoodEx2 system. Labels and laboratory values were compared using the tolerance levels of the European Union. Results indicate that the nutrition labeling aligns with the values obtained in the laboratory, with the exception of 6.3% discrepancies in TFA content, where the reported values are higher than the appropriate reference values. The most frequent category (71.5%) was ultra-processed foods. In terms of inconsistencies in the nutritional claims, 5.1% of food products with claims did not comply with the statement “sugar-free” or “low salt”. Our study provides evidence to support the necessity of comprehensive recommendations for consumers and food industries, which are aimed at enhancing the nutritional quality of products and augmenting consumer awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Consumer Behaviour and Healthy Food Consumption)
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13 pages, 2643 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Communities of Air-Fried Hairtail Fillets during Storage
by Yixuan Ding, Yueqin Liao, Jiangyue Xia, Disha Xu, Menghua Li, Hongli Yang, Huimin Lin, Soottawat Benjakul and Bin Zhang
Foods 2024, 13(5), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050786 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 654
Abstract
This study assessed the physicochemical properties of air-fried hairtail fillets (190 °C, 24 min) under different storage temperatures (4, 25, and 35 °C). The findings revealed a gradual decline in sensory scores across all samples during storage, accompanied by a corresponding decrease in [...] Read more.
This study assessed the physicochemical properties of air-fried hairtail fillets (190 °C, 24 min) under different storage temperatures (4, 25, and 35 °C). The findings revealed a gradual decline in sensory scores across all samples during storage, accompanied by a corresponding decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total viable count over time. Lower storage temperatures exhibited an effective capacity to delay lipid oxidation and microbiological growth in air-fried hairtail fillets. Subsequently, alterations in the microbiota composition of air-fried hairtail fillets during cold storage were examined. Throughout the storage duration, Achromobacter, Escherichia-Shigella, and Pseudomonas emerged as the three dominant genera in the air-fried hairtail samples. Additionally, Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated that among the most prevalent microbial genera in air-fried hairtail samples, Achromobacter and Psychrobacter exhibited positive correlations with the L* value, a* value, and sensory scores. Conversely, they displayed negative correlations with pH, b* value, and TBARS. Notably, air-fried samples stored at 4 °C exhibited prolonged freshness compared with those stored at 25 °C and 35 °C, suggesting that 4 °C is an optimal storage temperature. This study offers valuable insights into alterations in the physicochemical properties and microbial distribution in air-fried hairtail fillets during storage, facilitating the improvement of meat quality by adjusting microbial communities in air-fried hairtail fillets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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17 pages, 6243 KiB  
Article
Multiscale Static Compressive Damage Characteristics of Kiwifruit Based on the Finite Element Method
by Yue Zhu, Licheng Zhu, Wangkun Guo, Zhenhao Han, Ruixue Wang, Weipeng Zhang, Yanwei Yuan, Jianbo Gao and Suchun Liu
Foods 2024, 13(5), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050785 - 03 Mar 2024
Viewed by 569
Abstract
In the handling or processing process, fruits are easily crushed by external loads. This type of damage in fruit often leads to the internal pulp browning and rotting, with the severity largely dependent on the fruit tissue’s geometric and mechanical properties. In kiwifruits, [...] Read more.
In the handling or processing process, fruits are easily crushed by external loads. This type of damage in fruit often leads to the internal pulp browning and rotting, with the severity largely dependent on the fruit tissue’s geometric and mechanical properties. In kiwifruits, with their thin skin and dark-colored flesh, it is particularly challenging to observe and analyze the damage caused by extrusion through traditional experimental methods. The objective of this research is to construct a multi-scale finite element model encompassing the skin, flesh, and core by measuring the geometric and mechanical properties of kiwifruit, to assess and predict the damage characteristics under compression, and to verify the accuracy of the finite element model through experiments. The results indicated that kiwifruits demonstrated different compressive strengths in different directions during compression. The compressive strength in the axial direction was higher than that in the radial direction, and there was little difference between the long and short radial directions. The flesh tissue is the most vulnerable to mechanical damage under external compression, followed by the core. At strain levels below 5%, there was no noticeable damage in the axial or radial directions of the kiwifruit. However, when strain exceeded 5%, damage began to manifest in some of the flesh tissue. To maintain fruit quality during storage and transportation, the stacking height should not exceed 77 fruits in the axial direction, 48 in the long direction, and 53 in the short direction. The finite element analysis showed that the established model can effectively simulate and predict the internal damage behavior of kiwifruits under compression loads, which is helpful for a deeper understanding of the mechanical properties of fruits and provides a theoretical basis and technical guidance for minimizing mechanical damage during fruit handling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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