Milk and Dairy Products: Quality, Microorganisms and Health Benefits

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 8 November 2024 | Viewed by 4275

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Dairy Research, Institute of Technology of Agricultural Products, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “DIMITRA”, Ethnikis Antistaseos 3, 45221 Ioannina, Greece
Interests: dairy technology; dairy microbiology; probiotics; fermented food technology; fermentation processes and bioprocesses
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing demand for healthy food products have led to an increasing scientific and commercial interest in developing foods that, in addition to providing the nutritive values, could improve the overall health status of the consumer. Dairy products in particular have become the focus of such interest to both consumers and scientific communities, with a significant increase in their production and introduction of new products being observed worldwide. Additionally, advancements in dairy technology and processing have made a significant contribution to health, nutrition and the environment as well.

However, dairy products can also cause several health risks to consumers, which are mostly associated with biological, chemical, physical, or allergenic hazards present in milk. For example, milk is an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms, thereby making it a source of biological hazards, while it can also become a source of chemical hazards because harmful chemicals can be unintentionally introduced into milk and milk products during milking, feed consumption or processing. Moreover, several zoonosis have been associated with the consumption of milk and milk products such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis, making them unsafe and unsuitable for consumption.

According to FAO, good quality raw milk has to be free of debris and sediment, free of off-flavors, abnormal color and odor, low in bacterial count, free of chemicals, and it must contain a normal composition and an adequate level of acidity. The quality of raw milk is the primary factor determining the quality of dairy products.

In this Special Issue, we welcome submissions of studies on the topics related to, but not limited to, the following:

  • Sharing novel knowledge on the technological and microbiological features that are essential for obtaining good dairy products;
  • New information on the influence of genetic, physiological, pathological, environmental and technological factors on the quality characteristics of milk and dairy products;
  • Advancements in dairy processing technologies;
  • Development of novel dairy products.

Dr. Loulouda Bosnea
Dr. Marios Mataragas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dairy products
  • dairy technology
  • dairy microorganisms
  • probiotics and prebiotics
  • dairy microbiology
  • health benefits
  • genomics
  • bioinformatics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 2373 KiB  
Article
Polymorphisms of ITGA9 Gene and Their Correlation with Milk Quality Traits in Yak (Bos grunniens)
by Mengfan Zhang, Xita Zha, Xiaoming Ma, Yongfu La, Xian Guo, Min Chu, Pengjia Bao, Ping Yan, Xiaoyun Wu and Chunnian Liang
Foods 2024, 13(11), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13111613 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 491
Abstract
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a genome-level trait that arises from a variation in a single nucleotide, leading to diversity in DNA sequences. SNP screening is commonly used to provide candidate genes for yak breeding efforts. Integrin Subunit Alpha 9 (ITGA9) [...] Read more.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a genome-level trait that arises from a variation in a single nucleotide, leading to diversity in DNA sequences. SNP screening is commonly used to provide candidate genes for yak breeding efforts. Integrin Subunit Alpha 9 (ITGA9) is an integrin protein. It plays an important role in cell adhesion, signalling, and other processes. The aim of this study was to discuss the association between genetic polymorphisms in the ITGA9 gene and milk quality traits and to identify potential molecular marker loci for yak breeding quality. We genotyped 162 yaks using an Illumina Yak cGPS 7K liquid chip and identified the presence of polymorphisms at nine SNP loci in the ITGA9 gene of yaks. The results showed that the mutant genotypes in the loci g.285,808T>A, g.306,600T>C, and g.315,413C>T were positively correlated with the contents of casein, protein, total solids (TS), and solid nonfat (SNF) in yak milk. In other loci, heterozygous genotypes had a positive correlation with nutrient content in yak milk. Then, two ITGA9 haplotype blocks were constructed based on linkage disequilibrium, which facilitated a more accurate screening of ITGA9 as a candidate gene for yak milk quality improvement. In conclusion, we identified SNPs and haplotype blocks related to yak milk quality traits and provided genetic resources for marker-assisted selection in yak breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk and Dairy Products: Quality, Microorganisms and Health Benefits)
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13 pages, 3304 KiB  
Article
A Magnetic Beads-Based Sandwich Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassay for the Rapid and Automatic Detection of Lactoferrin in Milk
by Wenjie Shen, Zhihong Xuan, Hongmei Liu, Kai Huang, Xiao Guan and Baoyuan Guo
Foods 2024, 13(6), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13060953 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding glycoprotein with immunological properties and a high nutritional value, has emerged as a prominent research focus in the field of food nutrition. Lactoferrin is widely distributed in raw milk and milk that has undergone low-temperature heat treatment during pasteurization, [...] Read more.
Lactoferrin (LF), an iron-binding glycoprotein with immunological properties and a high nutritional value, has emerged as a prominent research focus in the field of food nutrition. Lactoferrin is widely distributed in raw milk and milk that has undergone low-temperature heat treatment during pasteurization, making its rapid and accurate detection crucial for ensuring the quality control of dairy products. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based analytical protocol has often been referred to for the detection of LF in real samples. Signal amplification was accomplished using the streptavidin–biotin system. Here, an automated magnetic beads-based sandwich chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MBs-sCLEIA) system was developed for the quantification of lactoferrin in pasteurized milk. The MBs-sCLEIA system consists of an automated chemiluminescence-based analyzer and a lactoferrin MBs-sCLEIA assay kit. Notably, our proposed method eliminates the need for pretreatment procedures and enables the direct addition of milk samples, allowing for the automatic quantitative detection of lactoferrin within a rapid 17 min timeframe for up to eight samples simultaneously. The MBs-sCLEIA was linear over the range of 7.24–800 ng/mL and displayed a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.85 ng/mL. As its good recovery and CV values indicate, the method exhibited high precision and accuracy. Furthermore, it was verified that it was selective towards five additional common milk proteins. A good correlation was observed between the results from the MBs-sCLEIA and heparin affinity column-HPLC (r2 = 0.99042), which proves to be a useful and practicable way of conducting an accurate analysis of lactoferrin in dairy products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk and Dairy Products: Quality, Microorganisms and Health Benefits)
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18 pages, 2069 KiB  
Article
Influence of Hesperidin on the Physico-Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Frozen Yogurt
by Roberto Cedillos, Ricardo S. Aleman, Ryan Page, Douglas W. Olson, Charles Boeneke, Witoon Prinyawiwatkul and Kayanush Aryana
Foods 2024, 13(5), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050808 - 6 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Frozen yogurts contain yogurt culture bacteria, which might impart health benefits to their consumers. Global frozen yogurt market sales are expected to grow by 4.8% by 2028, which represents an important opportunity for the industry, consumers and researchers. Polyphenols are metabolites found in [...] Read more.
Frozen yogurts contain yogurt culture bacteria, which might impart health benefits to their consumers. Global frozen yogurt market sales are expected to grow by 4.8% by 2028, which represents an important opportunity for the industry, consumers and researchers. Polyphenols are metabolites found in plants which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and might prevent chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of the polyphenol hesperidin on the physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of frozen yogurts. Hesperidin was incorporated into frozen yogurt at three concentrations (125, 250 and 500 mg/90 g of product), while yogurt with no hesperidin was used as a control. The viscosity and overrun of the frozen yogurt were analyzed on day 0. The hardness, pH, color and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus counts were determined after 0, 30 and 60 d. The melting rate was determined at 60 and 90 min after 0, 30 and 60 d. The bile and acid tolerances of both S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus were measured after 7 and 60 d. A hedonic scale of nine points was used to measure sensory attributes. Data were analyzed at α = 0.05 with an ANOVA with Tukey’s adjustment, and McNemar’s test was used to analyze purchase intent. Hesperidin did not influence the pH, overrun or microbial characteristics. Polyphenol addition compared to the control decreased the melting rate but increased the hardness and bile tolerance of L. bulgaricus, as well as the L* and b* values. The sensory characteristics were not influenced by the lowest concentration of hesperidin, as it was not statistically different from the control. Moreover, consumers were interested in purchasing frozen yogurt with added hesperidin after learning about the health claim. This study can assist in the development of a healthier frozen yogurt in an increasingly competitive market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk and Dairy Products: Quality, Microorganisms and Health Benefits)
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17 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Snapshot of the Probiotic Potential of Kluveromyces marxianus DMKU-1042 Using a Comparative Probiogenomics Approach
by Mati Ullah, Muhammad Rizwan, Ali Raza, Yutong Xia, Jianda Han, Yi Ma and Huayou Chen
Foods 2023, 12(23), 4329; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12234329 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Kluyveromyces marxianus is a rapidly growing thermotolerant yeast that secretes a variety of lytic enzymes, utilizes different sugars, and produces ethanol. The probiotic potential of this yeast has not been well explored. To evaluate its probiotic potential, the yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU3-1042 [...] Read more.
Kluyveromyces marxianus is a rapidly growing thermotolerant yeast that secretes a variety of lytic enzymes, utilizes different sugars, and produces ethanol. The probiotic potential of this yeast has not been well explored. To evaluate its probiotic potential, the yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU3-1042 was analyzed using next-generation sequencing technology. Analysis of the genomes showed that the yeast isolates had a GC content of 40.10–40.59%. The isolates had many genes related to glycerol and mannose metabolism, as well as genes for acetoin and butanediol metabolism, acetolactate synthase subunits, and lactic acid fermentation. The strain isolates were also found to possess genes for the synthesis of different vitamins and Coenzyme A. Genes related to heat and hyperosmotic shock tolerance, as well as protection against reactive oxygen species were also found. Additionally, the isolates contained genes for the synthesis of lysine, threonine, methionine, and cysteine, as well as genes with anticoagulation and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on our analysis, we concluded that the strain DMKU3-1042 possesses probiotic properties that make it suitable for use in food and feed supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk and Dairy Products: Quality, Microorganisms and Health Benefits)
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