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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 2 (January-2 2023) – 199 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Listeria monocytogenes can cause severe foodborne infections in humans. Fresh raw milk cheese has been identified as a vehicle of L. monocytogenes. The ease of production and rapid turnover make fresh cheese an attractive value-added product for small sheep and goat farms. However, this food is susceptible to contamination during processing. Moreover, Listeriae can be ingested by small ruminants via feed. Silage serves as the most important Listeria reservoir. The pathogen can survive in the rumen and be excreted intermittently and without symptoms. Invasion of the teat canal and colonisation of the udder pave the way for subclinical mastitis and production of raw milk contaminated with L. monocytogenes, which is then eventually used for fresh cheese manufacture. View this paper
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13 pages, 439 KiB  
Review
Investigating the Regulatory Process, Safety, Efficacy and Product Transparency for Nutraceuticals in the USA, Europe and Australia
by Muralikrishna Gangadharan Komala, Ser Gin Ong, Muhammad Uzair Qadri, Lamees M. Elshafie, Carol A. Pollock and Sonia Saad
Foods 2023, 12(2), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020427 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4414
Abstract
Increased numbers of patients with chronic conditions use nutraceuticals or food-based therapeutics. However, to date, there is no global consensus on the regulatory processes for nutraceuticals. With the increased use, issues of quality and safety have also arisen. This review summarises the current [...] Read more.
Increased numbers of patients with chronic conditions use nutraceuticals or food-based therapeutics. However, to date, there is no global consensus on the regulatory processes for nutraceuticals. With the increased use, issues of quality and safety have also arisen. This review summarises the current regulations held for nutraceuticals in the USA, European and Australian jurisdictions using regulatory authority sites and databases. The efficacy and safety concerns, product development, gaps in regulation and challenges in ensuring product authenticity are also summarised. The data highlight the complexity that the globalisation of nutraceuticals brings with respect to challenges in regulation and associated claims regarding efficacy and safety. The development of an effective system with integrity is needed to increase vertical collaboration between consumers, healthcare practitioners, and government agencies and the development of international risk assessment criteria and botanical compendia. This will help in greater transparency and improved trust in the process and products. Emerging technologies could play a role in improving systems engineering by information sharing and leveraging the strengths of different countries. In conclusion, nutraceuticals have been poorly regulated leading to spurious claims based on little or no real evidence. This makes it difficult to separate meaningful results from poor data. More stringent regulation and an effective system of integrity are required to ensure efficacy and safety and enable the adequate monitoring and increase consumer and healthcare professionals’ confidence. Full article
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12 pages, 2067 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen-Rich Water Treatment of Fresh-Cut Kiwifruit with Slightly Acidic Electrolytic Water: Influence on Antioxidant Metabolism and Cell Wall Stability
by Yanan Sun, Weiyu Qiu, Xiaoqi Fang, Xiaomei Zhao, Xingfeng Xu and Wenxiang Li
Foods 2023, 12(2), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020426 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
The synergistic impact of hydrogen-rich water (HRW, 394 ppb) and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH of 6.25 ± 0.19) on the antioxidant metabolism of fresh-cut kiwifruit during storage was investigated (temperature: (3 ± 1) °C, humidity: 80%–85%). Compared with control group, H+S [...] Read more.
The synergistic impact of hydrogen-rich water (HRW, 394 ppb) and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW, pH of 6.25 ± 0.19) on the antioxidant metabolism of fresh-cut kiwifruit during storage was investigated (temperature: (3 ± 1) °C, humidity: 80%–85%). Compared with control group, H+S treatment increased the contents of active oxygen-scavenging enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD, and APX) and inhibited the increase of O2•− and H2O2 contents during the storage of fresh-cut kiwifruit. Meanwhile, H+S treatment could reduce the activities of the cell wall-degrading enzymes PG, PME, PL, Cx, and β-Gal, inhibit the formation of soluble pectin, delay the degradation rate of propectin, cellulose, and pseudocellulose, and maintain higher fruit hardness and chewability. The results showed that H+S treatment could enhance free radical scavenging ability and reduce the cell wall metabolism of fresh-cut kiwifruit, maintaining the good texture found in fresh-cut fruit. Full article
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21 pages, 8628 KiB  
Article
Identification and Analysis of Metabolites That Contribute to the Formation of Distinctive Flavour Components of Laoxianghuang
by Xi Chen, Liangjing Lin, Huitian Cai and Xiangyang Gao
Foods 2023, 12(2), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020425 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
In addition to volatile compounds, metabolites also have a great effect on the flavour of food. Fresh finger citron cannot be eaten directly because of its spicy and bitter taste, so it is made into a preserved fruit product known as Laoxianghuang (LXH). [...] Read more.
In addition to volatile compounds, metabolites also have a great effect on the flavour of food. Fresh finger citron cannot be eaten directly because of its spicy and bitter taste, so it is made into a preserved fruit product known as Laoxianghuang (LXH). To investigate the metabolites that have an effect on the flavour of LXH, untargeted metabolomics was performed using an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and the metabolites of the Laoxianghuang samples from different locations in the Chaoshan area were compared and analysed. A total of 756 metabolites were identified and distinct differences were revealed among the different Laoxianghuang samples. A total of 33 differential metabolites with the most significant changes were screened through further multivariate analytical steps, and each group of samples had unique metabolites. For instance, pomolic acid had the highest content in the JG sample, while L-glycyl-L-isoleucine was rich in the QS sample. Moreover, flavonoid metabolites made the greatest contribution to the unique flavour of Laoxianghuang. The metabolic pathways involved are the biosynthetic pathways of flavonoids, isoflavonoids, flavones, and flavonols. This study can provide some creative information for distinguishing the quality differences of Laoxianghuang from the perspective of metabolites and offer preliminary theoretical support to characterise the formation of flavour substances in Laoxianghuang. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
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13 pages, 4588 KiB  
Article
Agaricus bisporus Polysaccharides Ameliorates Behavioural Deficits in D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mice: Mediated by Gut Microbiota
by Hui Duan, Jinwei Li and Liuping Fan
Foods 2023, 12(2), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020424 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5532
Abstract
White button mushroom polysaccharide (WMP) has various health-promoting functions. However, whether these functions are mediated by gut microbiota has not been well explored. Therefore, this study evaluated the anti-aging capacity of WMP and its effects on the diversity and composition of gut microbiota [...] Read more.
White button mushroom polysaccharide (WMP) has various health-promoting functions. However, whether these functions are mediated by gut microbiota has not been well explored. Therefore, this study evaluated the anti-aging capacity of WMP and its effects on the diversity and composition of gut microbiota in D-galactose-induced aging mice. WMP significantly improved locomotor activity and the spatial and recognition memory of the aging mice. It also alleviated oxidative stress and decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the brain. Moreover, WMP increased α-diversity, the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level and the abundance of beneficial genera, such as Bacteroides and Parabacteroides. Moreover, its effect on Bacteroides at the species level was further determined, and the enrichments of B. acidifaciens, B. sartorii and B. stercorirosoris were found. A PICRUSt analysis revealed that WMP had a greater impact on the metabolism of carbon, fatty acid and amino acid, as well as the MAPK and PPAR signaling pathway. In addition, there was a strong correlation between the behavioral improvements and changes in SCFA levels and the abundance of Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Mucispirillum and Desulfovibrio and Helicobacter. Therefore, WMP might be suitable as a functional foods to prevent or delay aging via the directed enrichment of specific species in Bacteroides. Full article
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16 pages, 3646 KiB  
Article
Structural Characteristics, Rheological Properties, and Antioxidant and Anti-Glycosylation Activities of Pectin Polysaccharides from Arabica Coffee Husks
by Zelin Li, Bin Zhou, Tingting Zheng, Chunyan Zhao, Yan Gao, Wenjun Wu, Yingrun Fan, Xuefeng Wang, Minghua Qiu and Jiangping Fan
Foods 2023, 12(2), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020423 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
As primary coffee by-products, Arabica coffee husks are largely discarded during coffee-drying, posing a serious environmental threat. However, coffee husks could be used as potential material for extracting pectin polysaccharides, with high bioactivities and excellent processing properties. Thus, the present study aimed to [...] Read more.
As primary coffee by-products, Arabica coffee husks are largely discarded during coffee-drying, posing a serious environmental threat. However, coffee husks could be used as potential material for extracting pectin polysaccharides, with high bioactivities and excellent processing properties. Thus, the present study aimed to extract the pectin polysaccharide from Arabica coffee husk(s) (CHP). The CHP yield was calculated after vacuum freeze-drying, and its average molecular weight (Mw) was detected by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The structural characteristics of CHP were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the rheological and antioxidant properties of CHP and the inhibition capacities of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with different concentrations were evaluated. The interaction mechanisms between galacturonic acid (GalA) and the AGE receptor were analyzed using molecular docking. The results demonstrated that the CHP yield was 19.13 ± 0.85%, and its Mw was 1.04 × 106 Da. The results of the structural characteristics results revealed that CHP was an amorphous and low-methoxyl pectic polysaccharide linked with an α-(1→6) glycosidic bond, and mainly composed of rhamnose (Rha, 2.55%), galacturonic acid (GalA, 45.01%), β-N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc, 5.17%), glucose (Glc, 32.29%), galactose (Gal, 6.80%), xylose (Xyl, 0.76%), and arabinose (Ara, 7.42%). The surface microstructure of CHP was rough with cracks, and its aqueous belonged to non-Newtonian fluid with a higher elastic modulus (G′). Furthermore, the results of the antioxidant properties indicated that CHP possessed vigorous antioxidant activities in a dose manner, and the inhibition capacities of AGEs reached their highest of 66.0 ± 0.35% at 1.5 mg/mL of CHP. The molecular docking prediction demonstrated that GalA had a good affinity toward AGE receptors by −6.20 kcal/mol of binding energy. Overall, the study results provide a theoretical basis for broadening the application of CHP in the food industry. Full article
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25 pages, 433 KiB  
Review
Transformation of Seafood Side-Streams and Residuals into Valuable Products
by Shahida Anusha Siddiqui, Henning Schulte, Daniel Pleissner, Stephanie Schönfelder, Kristine Kvangarsnes, Egidijus Dauksas, Turid Rustad, Janna Cropotova, Volker Heinz and Sergiy Smetana
Foods 2023, 12(2), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020422 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3886
Abstract
Seafood processing creates enormous amounts of side-streams. This review deals with the use of seafood side-streams for transformation into valuable products and identifies suitable approaches for making use of it for different purposes. Starting at the stage of catching fish to its selling [...] Read more.
Seafood processing creates enormous amounts of side-streams. This review deals with the use of seafood side-streams for transformation into valuable products and identifies suitable approaches for making use of it for different purposes. Starting at the stage of catching fish to its selling point, many of the fish parts, such as head, skin, tail, fillet cut-offs, and the viscera, are wasted. These parts are rich in proteins, enzymes, healthy fatty acids such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated ones, gelatin, and collagen. The valuable biochemical composition makes it worth discussing paths through which seafood side-streams can be turned into valuable products. Drawbacks, as well as challenges of different aquacultures, demonstrate the importance of using the various side-streams to produce valuable compounds to improve economic performance efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture. In this review, conventional and novel utilization approaches, as well as a combination of both, have been identified, which will lead to the development of sustainable production chains and the emergence of new bio-based products in the future. Full article
9 pages, 1826 KiB  
Communication
Coffee Consumption during the COVID Pandemic in a Portuguese Sample: An Online Exploratory Study
by Patrícia Batista, Anabela Afonso, Maria João Monteiro, Manuela Pintado and Patrícia Oliveira-Silva
Foods 2023, 12(2), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020421 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2541
Abstract
Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and is part of the Portuguese lifestyles. This study aims to describe coffee consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic, the change in consumption, the relation between work and familiar pressure during the COVID-19 pandemic [...] Read more.
Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and is part of the Portuguese lifestyles. This study aims to describe coffee consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic, the change in consumption, the relation between work and familiar pressure during the COVID-19 pandemic and coffee consumption, and the reasons for this consumption pattern. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted by an online questionnaire (n = 463) between March and June 2020. During the data collection phase, information about coffee consumption and socio-demographic characteristics were gathered. Results: All respondents were and are coffee consumers. The coffee average intake before the COVID-19 pandemic was 2.40 ± 0.84 cups of coffee per day, and the average consumption during the COVID-19 confinement was 2.68 ± 0.88 cups. Consumption increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, but a correlation between the consumption changes and the familiar or work pressure was not found. The general reasons for the increase in the coffee consumption were “social/cultural” (27%), “the search for energy “boost”” (22.9%), “to feel awake” (22.7%), “to deal with stress” (22.7%) and “the taste” (21.8%). Conclusions: The results suggest the ever-increasing popularity of coffee consumption. Respondents also highlighted that some situations make them more prone to consume coffee consumption, such as when they face stress and the need to control tiredness. The COVID pandemic depleted a change in behaviors. Full article
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21 pages, 3426 KiB  
Review
Toward Sourdough Microbiome Data: A Review of Science and Patents
by Gabriel Albagli, Priscilla V. Finotelli, Tatiana Felix Ferreira and Priscilla F. F. Amaral
Foods 2023, 12(2), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020420 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3039
Abstract
Technological prospecting was performed on documents related to sourdough microbiota using SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Espacenet and Patent Inspiration databases. Scientific articles and patents were analyzed based on three different perspectives: macro (year of publication, country, and institutions), meso (categorization as [...] Read more.
Technological prospecting was performed on documents related to sourdough microbiota using SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Espacenet and Patent Inspiration databases. Scientific articles and patents were analyzed based on three different perspectives: macro (year of publication, country, and institutions), meso (categorization as different taxonomies according to the subject evaluated), and micro (in-depth analysis of the main taxonomies, gathering the documents in subcategories). The main subject addressed in patents was the starter and product preparation, while 58.8% of the scientific publications focused on sourdough starter microbiota (identification and selection of microorganisms). Most patents were granted to companies (45.9%), followed by independent inventors (26.4%) and universities (21.8%). Sourdough products are in the spotlight when the subject is the bakery market; however, a closer integration between academia and industry is needed. Such a collaboration could generate a positive impact on the sourdough market in terms of innovation, providing a bread with a better nutritional and sensory quality for all consumers. Moreover, sourdough creates a new magnitude of flavor and texture in gastronomy, providing new functional products or increasing the quality of traditional ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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12 pages, 953 KiB  
Article
Development and Verification of a Poultry Management Tool to Quantify Salmonella from Live to Final Product Utilizing RT-PCR
by Savannah F. Applegate, April K. Englishbey, Tyler P. Stephens and Marcos X. Sanchez-Plata
Foods 2023, 12(2), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020419 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA FSIS) does not maintain a zero-tolerance policy for Salmonella in poultry and poultry products, despite being a known food safety hazard throughout the poultry industry. In 2016, USDA FSIS established performance [...] Read more.
The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA FSIS) does not maintain a zero-tolerance policy for Salmonella in poultry and poultry products, despite being a known food safety hazard throughout the poultry industry. In 2016, USDA FSIS established performance standards for a 52-week moving window with the maximum acceptable percent positive for comminuted turkey (325 g sample) at 13.5% (7 of 52 samples). Based upon FSIS verification sampling results from one 52-week moving window, the Salmonella prevalence for each poultry establishment in category 1 (below limit), 2 (meeting limit), or 3 (exceeding limit) are published for public viewing. Moreover, many poultry producers continue to have post-intervention samples test positive. Therefore, the use of quantification would be more valuable to determine the efficacy of process control interventions, corrective actions, and final product Log CFU/g of Salmonella to make rapid, within shift, food safety decisions. Therefore, the objectives of these studies are to develop, verify, and validate a rapid and reliable quantification method utilizing RT-PCR to enumerate Salmonella in the poultry industry from flock to final product and to utilize the method in an application study. BAX® System SalQuant® is an application of the BAX® System Real-Time PCR Assay for Salmonella to enumerate low levels of Salmonella with shortened enrichment times. Curve development encompassed inoculating poultry matrix samples at four levels with an ATCC strain of Salmonella, with three biological replicates per inoculation level, and five technical replicates being run on the BAX® System for various timepoints, gathering the data, and creating a linear-fit equation. A linear-fit equation was provided for each timepoint. The ideal timepoint, based on the statistical parameters surrounding the equation (R2 > 0.80, Log RMSE < 0.60, and enumerable range 0.00 to 4.00 Log CFU/mL (g)) that most accurately estimate Salmonella compared to most probable number (MPN), was chosen to be utilized for further studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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20 pages, 7611 KiB  
Article
Seafood Choice and Consumption Behavior: Assessing the Willingness to Pay for an Edible Sea Urchin
by Alessandro Petrontino, Fabio Madau, Michel Frem, Vincenzo Fucilli, Rossella Bianchi, Adele Annarita Campobasso, Pietro Pulina and Francesco Bozzo
Foods 2023, 12(2), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020418 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
Consumers’ behavior towards sea urchin and preferences towards their origin certification and place of consumption may condition their market. In this context, the aim of this research was to elicit the preferences and perceptions of Italian sea urchin dishes using a discrete choice [...] Read more.
Consumers’ behavior towards sea urchin and preferences towards their origin certification and place of consumption may condition their market. In this context, the aim of this research was to elicit the preferences and perceptions of Italian sea urchin dishes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach. A field survey of 453 respondents in Apulia (southern Italy) was conducted for this purpose. The DCE revealed that the origin certification of sea urchin provided Apulia’s consumers a high utility with a great pleasurable service in restaurants in which this species was served as a principal dish or seasoned with pasta or pizza. The DCE also showed that the consumption utility of sea urchin was related to a greater influence by place of purchase, place of consumption, technique of conservation, appearance, quality label, fishing zone, low price, male buyer, and, finally, medium and high incomes. Furthermore, Apulian consumers were willing to pay EUR 10.53/dish as an overall average for safe and certified sea urchin consumption. Given this, this research may promote the creation of a local sea urchin brand through the adoption of a market policy and a particular regulation related to the certification of origin, enhancing the competitiveness of this marine heritage species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice—Volume II)
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18 pages, 2434 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Characteristics, Techno-Functionalities, and Amino Acid Profile of Prionoplus reticularis (Huhu) Larvae and Pupae Protein Extracts
by Ruchita Rao Kavle, Patrick James Nolan, Alaa El-Din Ahmed Bekhit, Alan Carne, James David Morton and Dominic Agyei
Foods 2023, 12(2), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020417 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
The amino acid profile, techno-functionalities (foaming stability/capacity, emulsion stability/capacity, solubility, and coagulation), and physicochemical characteristics (colour, particle size, surface hydrophobicity, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry) of protein extracts (PE) obtained from Prionoplus reticularis (Huhu grub) larvae (HLPE) and pupae (HPPE) were [...] Read more.
The amino acid profile, techno-functionalities (foaming stability/capacity, emulsion stability/capacity, solubility, and coagulation), and physicochemical characteristics (colour, particle size, surface hydrophobicity, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry) of protein extracts (PE) obtained from Prionoplus reticularis (Huhu grub) larvae (HLPE) and pupae (HPPE) were investigated. Total essential amino acid contents of 386.7 and 411.7 mg/g protein were observed in HLPE and HPPE, respectively. The essential amino acid index (EAAI) was 3.3 and 3.4 for HLPE and HPPE, respectively, demonstrating their nutritional equivalence. A unique nitrogen-to-protein conversion constant, k, and the corresponding protein content of the extracts were 6.1 and 6.4 and 72.1% and 76.5%, respectively. HLPE (37.1 J/g) had a lower enthalpy than HPPE (54.1 J/g). HPPE (1% w/v) exhibited a foaming capacity of 50.7%, which was higher than that of HLPE (41.7%) at 150 min. The foaming stability was 75.3% for HLPE and 73.1% for HPPE after 120 min. Both protein extracts (1% w/v) had emulsifying capacities that were 96.8% stable after 60 min. Therefore, protein extracts from Huhu larvae and pupae are of a good nutritional quality (based on their EAAI) and have techno-functional properties, such as foaming and emulsification, that afford them potential for certain food technology applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Foods: The Future Food Supply, Nutrition and Health)
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17 pages, 5646 KiB  
Article
Detoxification of Fumonisins by Three Novel Transaminases with Diverse Enzymatic Characteristics Coupled with Carboxylesterase
by Yue Wang, Junhao Sun, Mengwei Zhang, Kungang Pan, Tianhui Liu, Tongcun Zhang, Xuegang Luo, Junqi Zhao and Zhongyuan Li
Foods 2023, 12(2), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020416 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1857
Abstract
Fumonisin (FB) is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating feed and food, causing severe public health threat to human and animals worldwide. Until now, only several transaminases were found to reduce FB toxicity, thus, more fumonisin detoxification transaminases with excellent catalytic properties [...] Read more.
Fumonisin (FB) is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating feed and food, causing severe public health threat to human and animals worldwide. Until now, only several transaminases were found to reduce FB toxicity, thus, more fumonisin detoxification transaminases with excellent catalytic properties required urgent exploration for complex application conditions. Herein, through gene mining and enzymatic characterization, three novel fumonisin detoxification transaminases—FumTSTA, FumUPTA, FumPHTA—were identified, sharing only 61–74% sequence identity with reported fumonisin detoxification transaminases. Moreover, the recombinant proteins shared diverse pH reaction ranges, good pH stability and thermostability, and the recombinant protein yields were also improved by condition optimum. Furthermore, the final products were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study provides ideal candidates for fumonisin detoxification and meets diverse required demands in food and feed industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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31 pages, 2022 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Role of Propolis as a Natural Product with Potential Gastric Cancer Treatment Properties: A Systematic Review
by Nelly Rivera-Yañez, Porfirio Alonso Ruiz-Hurtado, Claudia Rebeca Rivera-Yañez, Ivonne Maciel Arciniega-Martínez, Mariazell Yepez-Ortega, Belén Mendoza-Arroyo, Xóchitl Abril Rebollar-Ruíz, Adolfo René Méndez-Cruz, Aldo Arturo Reséndiz-Albor and Oscar Nieto-Yañez
Foods 2023, 12(2), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020415 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3623
Abstract
Gastric cancer is one of the most common, aggressive, and invasive types of malignant neoplasia. It ranks fifth for incidence and fourth for prevalence worldwide. Products of natural origin, such as propolis, have been assessed for use as new complementary therapies to combat [...] Read more.
Gastric cancer is one of the most common, aggressive, and invasive types of malignant neoplasia. It ranks fifth for incidence and fourth for prevalence worldwide. Products of natural origin, such as propolis, have been assessed for use as new complementary therapies to combat cancer. Propolis is a bee product with antiproliferative and anticancer properties. The concentrations and types of secondary metabolites contained in propolis mainly vary according to the geographical region, the season of the year, and the species of bees that make it. The present study is a systematic review of the main articles related to the effects of propolis against gastric cancer published between 2011 and 2021 in the PubMed and Science Direct databases. Of 1305 articles published, only eight studies were selected; among their principal characteristics was the use of in vitro analysis with cell lines from gastric adenocarcinoma and in vivo murine models of the application of propolis treatments. These studies suggest that propolis arrests the cell cycle and inhibits proliferation, prevents the release of oxidizing agents, and promotes apoptosis. In vivo assays showed that propolis decreased the number of tumors by regulating the cell cycle and the expression of proteins related to apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honeybee Products: Analysis, Authenticity and Health Impact)
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20 pages, 2528 KiB  
Article
Effects of Amylopectins from Five Different Sources on Disulfide Bond Formation in Alkali-Soluble Glutenin
by Yu Zhou, Jinjin Zhao, Junjie Guo, Xijun Lian and Huaiwen Wang
Foods 2023, 12(2), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020414 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1995
Abstract
Wheat, maize, cassava, mung bean and sweet potato starches have often been added to dough systems to improve their hardness. However, inconsistent effects of these starches on the dough quality have been reported, especially in refrigerated dough. The disulfide bond contents of alkali-soluble [...] Read more.
Wheat, maize, cassava, mung bean and sweet potato starches have often been added to dough systems to improve their hardness. However, inconsistent effects of these starches on the dough quality have been reported, especially in refrigerated dough. The disulfide bond contents of alkali-soluble glutenin (ASG) have direct effects on the hardness of dough. In this paper, the disulfide bond contents of ASG were determined. ASG was mixed and retrograded with five kinds of amylopectins from the above-mentioned botanical sources, and a possible pathway of disulfide bond formation in ASGs by amylopectin addition was proposed through molecular weight, chain length distribution, FT-IR, 13C solid-state NMR and XRD analyses. The results showed that when wheat, maize, cassava, mung bean and sweet potato amylopectins were mixed with ASG, the disulfide bond contents of alkali-soluble glutenin increased from 0.04 to 0.31, 0.24, 0.08, 0.18 and 0.29 μmol/g, respectively. However, after cold storage, they changed to 0.55, 0.16, 0.26, 0.07 and 0.19 μmol/g, respectively. The addition of wheat amylopectin promoted the most significant disulfide bond formation of ASG. Hydroxyproline only existed in the wheat amylopectin, indicating that it had an important effect on the disulfide bond formation of ASG. Glutathione disulfides were present, as mung bean and sweet potato amylopectin were mixed with ASG, and they were reduced during cold storage. Positive/negative correlations between the peak intensity of the angles at 2θ = 20°/23° and the disulfide bond contents of ASG existed. The high content of hydroxyproline could be used as a marker for breeding high-quality wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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16 pages, 4189 KiB  
Article
Risk of Crop Yield Reduction in China under 1.5 °C and 2 °C Global Warming from CMIP6 Models
by Feiyu Wang, Chesheng Zhan and Lei Zou
Foods 2023, 12(2), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020413 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2473
Abstract
Warmer temperatures significantly influence crop yields, which are a critical determinant of food supply and human well-being. In this study, a probabilistic approach based on bivariate copula models was used to investigate the dependence (described by joint distribution) between crop yield and growing [...] Read more.
Warmer temperatures significantly influence crop yields, which are a critical determinant of food supply and human well-being. In this study, a probabilistic approach based on bivariate copula models was used to investigate the dependence (described by joint distribution) between crop yield and growing season temperature (TGS) in the major producing provinces of China for three staple crops (i.e., rice, wheat, and maize). Based on the outputs of 12 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) under Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 5–8.5, the probability of yield reduction under 1.5 °C and 2 °C global warming was estimated, which has great implications for agricultural risk management. Results showed that yield response to TGS varied with crop and region, with the most vulnerable being rice in Sichuan, wheat in Sichuan and Gansu, and maize in Shandong, Liaoning, Jilin, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, and Hebei. Among the selected five copulas, Archimedean/elliptical copulas were more suitable to describe the joint distribution between TGS and yield in most rice-/maize-producing provinces. The probability of yield reduction was greater in vulnerable provinces than in non-vulnerable provinces, with maize facing a higher risk of warming-driven yield loss than rice and wheat. Compared to the 1.5 °C global warming, an additional 0.5 °C warming would increase the yield loss risk in vulnerable provinces by 2–17%, 1–16%, and 3–17% for rice, wheat, and maize, respectively. The copula-based model proved to be an effective tool to provide probabilistic estimates of yield reduction due to warming and can be applied to other crops and regions. The results of this study demonstrated the importance of keeping global warming within 1.5 °C to mitigate the yield loss risk and optimize agricultural decision-making in vulnerable regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Climate Change)
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15 pages, 3717 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Cocoa Shell and Their Encapsulation in Gum Arabic and Maltodextrin: A Technology to Produce Functional Food Ingredients
by Saeid Jafari, Zohreh Karami, Khursheed Ahmad Shiekh, Isaya Kijpatanasilp, Randy W. Worobo and Kitipong Assatarakul
Foods 2023, 12(2), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020412 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
In this study, the extraction of cocoa shell powder (CSP) was optimized, and the optimized extracts were spray-dried for encapsulation purposes. Temperature (45–65 °C), extraction time (30–60 min), and ethanol concentration (60–100%) were the extraction parameters. The response surface methodology analysis revealed that [...] Read more.
In this study, the extraction of cocoa shell powder (CSP) was optimized, and the optimized extracts were spray-dried for encapsulation purposes. Temperature (45–65 °C), extraction time (30–60 min), and ethanol concentration (60–100%) were the extraction parameters. The response surface methodology analysis revealed that the model was significant (p ≤ 0.05) in interactions between all variables (total phenolic compound, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays), with a lack of fit test for the model being insignificant (p > 0.05). Temperature (55 °C), time (45 min), and ethanol concentration (60%) were found to be the optimal extraction conditions. For spray-drying encapsulation, some quality metrics (e.g., water solubility, water activity) were insignificant (p > 0.05). The microcapsules were found to be spherical in shape using a scanning electron microscope. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric measurements of the microcapsules revealed nearly identical results. The gum arabic + maltodextrin microcapsule (GMM) showed potential antibacterial (zone of inhibition: 11.50 mm; lower minimum inhibitory concentration: 1.50 mg/mL) and antioxidant (DPPH: 1063 mM trolox/100g dry wt.) activities (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the microcapsules in this study, particularly GMM, are promising antioxidant and antibacterial agents to be fortified as functional food ingredients for the production of nutraceutical foods with health-promoting properties. Full article
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15 pages, 5135 KiB  
Article
A Broad-Spectrum Phage Endolysin (LysCP28) Able to Remove Biofilms and Inactivate Clostridium perfringens Strains
by Rui Lu, Banhong Liu, Liting Wu, Hongduo Bao, Pilar García, Yongjuan Wang, Yan Zhou and Hui Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(2), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020411 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2304
Abstract
Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium capable of producing four major toxins which cause disease symptoms and pathogenesis in humans and animals. C. perfringens strains carrying enterotoxins can cause food poisoning in humans and are associated with meat consumption. An endolysin, [...] Read more.
Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium capable of producing four major toxins which cause disease symptoms and pathogenesis in humans and animals. C. perfringens strains carrying enterotoxins can cause food poisoning in humans and are associated with meat consumption. An endolysin, named LysCP28, is encoded by orf28 from C. perfringens bacteriophage BG3P. This protein has an N-terminal glycosyl–hydrolase domain (lysozyme) and a C-terminal SH3 domain. Purified LysCP28 (38.8 kDa) exhibited a broad spectrum of lytic activity against C. perfringens strains (77 of 96 or 80.21%), including A, B, C, and D types, isolated from different sources. Moreover, LysCP28 (10 μg/mL) showed high antimicrobial activity and was able to lyse 2 × 107 CFU/mL C. perfringens ATCC 13124 and C. perfringens J21 (animal origin) within 2 h. Necessary due to this pathogenic bacterium’s ability to form biofilms, LysCP28 (18.7 μg/mL) was successfully evaluated as an antibiofilm agent in both biofilm removal and formation inhibition. Finally, to confirm the efficacy of LysCP28 in a food matrix, duck meat was contaminated with C. perfringens and treated with endolysin (100 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL), which reduced viable bacteria by 3.2 and 3.08 units-log, respectively, in 48 h at 4 °C. Overall, the endolysin LysCP28 could potentially be used as a biopreservative to reduce C. perfringens contamination during food processing. Full article
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15 pages, 2225 KiB  
Article
Are Citric Acid-Iron II Complexes True Chelates or Just Physical Mixtures and How to Prove This?
by Ghadeer Mattar, Amira Haddarah, Joseph Haddad, Montserrat Pujola and Francesc Sepulcre
Foods 2023, 12(2), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020410 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3736
Abstract
Although mineral chelates are widely produced to be used as food fortifiers, the proof that these complexes are chelates is still missing. In our present work, iron II complexes using citric acid in different ratios are produced, and the occurrence of chelation is [...] Read more.
Although mineral chelates are widely produced to be used as food fortifiers, the proof that these complexes are chelates is still missing. In our present work, iron II complexes using citric acid in different ratios are produced, and the occurrence of chelation is investigated along with its behavior according to a molar ratio between the ligand and the mineral. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) were used for a non-structural characterization of these complexes. In contrast to published work, our findings show that the chelation of citric acid is achieved in the liquid form and at a low pH and that the molar ratio is very important in setting the direction of the reaction, either toward chelation or dimer formation. The ratio citric acid:iron 1:4 seems to be the most convenient ratio in which no free citric acid remains in the solution, while the 1:3 ratio behaves differently, requiring further investigations by such techniques as extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), among others, in order to deeply identify the structural organization occurring in this ratio. NIR, extensively used in industries, proved to be very useful in the demonstration and characterization of chelates. These findings are particularly advantageous for pharmaceutical and food industries in offering an innovative competent fortifying agent to be used in combatting iron deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods)
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11 pages, 724 KiB  
Systematic Review
‘Nutritional Footprint’ in the Food, Meals and HoReCa Sectors: A Review
by Inmaculada Zarzo, Carla Soler, Maria-Angeles Fernandez-Zamudio, Tatiana Pina, Héctor Barco and Jose M. Soriano
Foods 2023, 12(2), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020409 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3020
Abstract
Nowadays, the food industry is integrating environmental, social, and health parameters to increase its sustainable impact. To do this, they are using new tools to calculate the potential efficiency of nutritional products with lower levels of environmental impact. One of these tools is [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the food industry is integrating environmental, social, and health parameters to increase its sustainable impact. To do this, they are using new tools to calculate the potential efficiency of nutritional products with lower levels of environmental impact. One of these tools is called the ‘nutritional footprint’, created by Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH. This study aims to review this concept and clarify its historical development, its use in several sectors of the food industry, and its transformation from a manual to an online tool. Results reflected that it is a suitable indicator that integrates nutritional, environmental, and social-economic dimensions to help the decision-making process in the procurement of more sustainable products and, although it is limited to Germany due to the use of the national standard nutritional intakes of Germany, its importance lies in the fact that is a promising instrument to promote environmental sustainability in the context of food, meals, and the hotel, restaurant and catering (HoReCa) sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods: 10th Anniversary)
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20 pages, 3049 KiB  
Article
Mechanistic Insights of Polyphenolic Compounds from Rosemary Bound to Their Protein Targets Obtained by Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Free-Energy Calculations
by Samo Lešnik, Marko Jukič and Urban Bren
Foods 2023, 12(2), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020408 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2242
Abstract
Rosemary represents an important medicinal plant that has been attributed with various health-promoting properties, especially antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol, as well as the phenolic acid ester rosmarinic acid, are the main compounds responsible for these actions. In [...] Read more.
Rosemary represents an important medicinal plant that has been attributed with various health-promoting properties, especially antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol, as well as the phenolic acid ester rosmarinic acid, are the main compounds responsible for these actions. In our earlier research, we carried out an inverse molecular docking at the proteome scale to determine possible protein targets of the mentioned compounds. Here, we subjected the previously identified ligand–protein complexes with HIV-1 protease, K-RAS, and factor X to molecular dynamics simulations coupled with free-energy calculations. We observed that carnosic acid and rosmanol act as viable binders of the HIV-1 protease. In addition, carnosol represents a potential binder of the oncogene protein K-RAS. On the other hand, rosmarinic acid was characterized as a weak binder of factor X. We also emphasized the importance of water-mediated hydrogen-bond networks in stabilizing the binding conformation of the studied polyphenols, as well as in mechanistically explaining their promiscuous nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Foods for Human Health: Research Challenges and Opportunities)
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14 pages, 2605 KiB  
Article
Impact of Nitrite Supplementation on Bioactive Peptides during Sausage Processing
by Rongyu Zang, Qunli Yu and Zonglin Guo
Foods 2023, 12(2), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020407 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1722
Abstract
The goal of this investigation was to examine the impact of nitrite supplementation on the concentration, antioxidant properties, and species of antioxidant peptides in fermented sausages. The polypeptide concentration in nitrite-supplemented sausages was markedly elevated during sausage processing compared to the blank control [...] Read more.
The goal of this investigation was to examine the impact of nitrite supplementation on the concentration, antioxidant properties, and species of antioxidant peptides in fermented sausages. The polypeptide concentration in nitrite-supplemented sausages was markedly elevated during sausage processing compared to the blank control (p < 0.05). Moreover, nitrite supplementation in fermented sausages markedly enhanced the DPPH, as well as the ABTS, hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion free radical scavenging abilities (FRSA) of polypeptides (p < 0.05). The ferrous ion chelating ability was also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). Based on the liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) analysis of the sausage, LPGGGHGDL, TKYRVP, FLKMN, SAGNPN, GLAGA, LPGGGT, DLEE, GKFNV, GLAGA, AEEEYPDL, HCNKKYRSEM, TSNRYHSYPWG, and other polypeptides exhibited antioxidant properties. Moreover, the number of species of antioxidant polypeptides in the nitrite-supplemented sausage was greater in comparison to the controls. Based on this evidence, it may be concluded that nitrite supplementation positively modulated antioxidant polypeptide formation in fermented sausages, thereby providing strong evidence that nitrite supplementation significantly enhances sausage quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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20 pages, 2328 KiB  
Article
Role of Microorganisms in the Development of Quality during the Fermentation of Salted White Herring (Ilisha elongata)
by Jiajia Wu, Haiping Mao and Zhiyuan Dai
Foods 2023, 12(2), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020406 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Salted white herring (Ilisha elongata) is a popular fish product in the coastal region of China. The complex endogenous enzymes and microbial action determine the quality of a traditionally salted herring. In order to investigate the role of microorganisms in the [...] Read more.
Salted white herring (Ilisha elongata) is a popular fish product in the coastal region of China. The complex endogenous enzymes and microbial action determine the quality of a traditionally salted herring. In order to investigate the role of microorganisms in the quality formation of salted herring, three groups for different salting processes were established: traditional salted (TS), non-starter salted (NS), and starter culture salted (SS). The predominant microorganism in each processing group was Staphylococcus spp., as inferred by next-generation sequencing data. Different physicochemical parameters were obtained in each of the three processing groups (TCA-soluble peptide (trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptide), TVB-N (Total volatile basic nitrogen), and TBA values (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance)). The TS group had the maximum level of total biogenic amines, while the SS group had the lowest. A strong positive correlation was found between Staphylococcus and 14 aromatic compounds, of which 5 were odor-active compounds that created fishy, grassy, fatty, and fruity flavors. Shewanella may produce trimethylamine, which is responsible for the salted herrings’ fishy, salty, and deteriorating flavor. The findings demonstrated that autochthonous strains of Staphylococcus saprophyticus M90–61 were useful in improving product quality because they adapted quickly to the high osmotic environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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13 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Effect of Yogurt Enrichment with Wood Tannin during Shelf Life: Focus on Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Sensory Characteristics
by Negin Seif Zadeh, Martina Tedesco, Sofia Basso, Daniela Ghirardello, Samuele Giovando, Michele Battaglia and Giuseppe Zeppa
Foods 2023, 12(2), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020405 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2372
Abstract
Six food-grade tannins obtained from different woods were used as a source of polyphenolic compounds at two concentrations (0.5% and 1% w/w) in yogurt formulations and monitored during 3 weeks of storage. Yogurt containing tannins showed significantly higher total phenolic [...] Read more.
Six food-grade tannins obtained from different woods were used as a source of polyphenolic compounds at two concentrations (0.5% and 1% w/w) in yogurt formulations and monitored during 3 weeks of storage. Yogurt containing tannins showed significantly higher total phenolic content (+200%), antioxidant activity (+400%), and syneresis (+100%) than control. These changes were higher with fortification at 1%. Tannin origin also significantly influenced the yogurt composition and yogurt obtained from a Turkish gall showed higher values of total phenolic content (4 mg GAE/g) and antioxidant activity (17 μM Trolox/g). Yogurt color was evaluated by CIELab parameters, and their values were influenced by tannin origin and concentration. The addition of tannins did not significantly affect the number of lactic acid bacteria. Yogurt with a lower amount of tannins (0.5% w/w) received higher consumer acceptability but significant differences in preferences were due to tannin origin. In particular, yogurt added with tannin obtained from Quebracho wood at 1% w/w showed higher consumer preference. The obtained results would provide an opportunity for dairy producers to develop a novel dairy food with high nutritional quality. Full article
19 pages, 3076 KiB  
Article
Predicting the Glycemic Index of Biscuits Using Static In Vitro Digestion Protocols
by Xingguang Peng, Hongsheng Liu, Xuying Li, Huaibin Wang, Kejia Zhang, Shuangqi Li, Xianyang Bao, Wei Zou and Wenwen Yu
Foods 2023, 12(2), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020404 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
In vitro digestion methods that can accurately predict the estimated GI (eGI) values of complex carbohydrate foods, including biscuits, are worth exploring. In the current study, standard commercial biscuits with varied clinical GI values between 9~30 were digested using both the INFOGEST and [...] Read more.
In vitro digestion methods that can accurately predict the estimated GI (eGI) values of complex carbohydrate foods, including biscuits, are worth exploring. In the current study, standard commercial biscuits with varied clinical GI values between 9~30 were digested using both the INFOGEST and single-enzyme digestion protocols. The digestion kinetic parameters were acquired through mathematical fitting by mathematical kinetics models. The results showed that compared with the INFOGEST protocol, the AUR180 deduced from digesting using either porcine pancreatin or α-amylase showed the best potential in predicting the eGI values. Accordingly, mathematical equations were established based on the relations between the AUR180 and the GI values. When digesting using porcine pancreatin, GI= 1.834 + 0.009 ×AUCR180 (R2= 0.952), and when digesting using only α-amylase, GI= 6.101 + 0.009 ×AUCR180 (R2=0.902). The AUR180 represents the area under the curve of the reducing-sugar content normalized to the total carbohydrates versus the digestion time in 180 min. The in vitro method presented enabled the rapid and accurate prediction of the eGI values of biscuits, and the validity of the formula was verified by another batch of biscuits with a known GI, and the error rate of most samples was less than 30%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Food and Human Digestion Health)
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14 pages, 1135 KiB  
Article
Genetic Dissection and Germplasm Selection of the Low Crude Fiber Component in Brassica napus L. Shoots
by Rui Shi, Chengke Pang, Xu Wu, Xiaozhen Zhao, Feng Chen, Wei Zhang, Chengming Sun, Sanxiong Fu, Maolong Hu, Jiefu Zhang and Xiaodong Wang
Foods 2023, 12(2), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020403 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Background: Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world, and B. napus shoots are nutrient-rich fresh vegetables. The crude fiber (CF) component is one of the most important factors affecting the taste quality of B. napus shoots, but [...] Read more.
Background: Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world, and B. napus shoots are nutrient-rich fresh vegetables. The crude fiber (CF) component is one of the most important factors affecting the taste quality of B. napus shoots, but the factors underlying the desirable low-CF trait remain poorly understood. Methods: In this study, a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for five CF-related traits in a recombinant inbred population. Results: A total of 49 QTLs were obtained in four environments, including eleven, twelve, eight, twelve and six QTLs for content of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose, respectively. The phenotypic variation explained by single QTL ranged from 4.62% to 14.76%. Eight of these QTLs were further integrated into four unique QTLs, which controlled two different traits simultaneously. Five CF-component-related candidate genes were identified, among which BnaC03g07110D and BnaC07g21271D were considered to be the most likely candidate genes. In addition, five lines with low CF content were selected, which can be used as excellent germplasm resources in breeding. Conclusions: The QTLs identified in this study will contribute to our understanding of the genetic mechanism of CF and can be used as targets for reducing CF content in B. napus shoots. In addition, this study also provided excellent germplasm resources for low CF content breeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Foods)
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18 pages, 1751 KiB  
Article
Rapid Food Authentication Using a Portable Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy System
by Xi Wu, Sungho Shin, Carmen Gondhalekar, Valery Patsekin, Euiwon Bae, J. Paul Robinson and Bartek Rajwa
Foods 2023, 12(2), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020402 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3777
Abstract
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic-emission spectroscopy technique that employs a focused laser beam to produce microplasma. Although LIBS was designed for applications in the field of materials science, it has lately been proposed as a method for the compositional analysis of [...] Read more.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic-emission spectroscopy technique that employs a focused laser beam to produce microplasma. Although LIBS was designed for applications in the field of materials science, it has lately been proposed as a method for the compositional analysis of agricultural goods. We deployed commercial handheld LIBS equipment to illustrate the performance of this promising optical technology in the context of food authentication, as the growing incidence of food fraud necessitates the development of novel portable methods for detection. We focused on regional agricultural commodities such as European Alpine-style cheeses, coffee, spices, balsamic vinegar, and vanilla extracts. Liquid examples, including seven balsamic vinegar products and six representatives of vanilla extract, were measured on a nitrocellulose membrane. No sample preparation was required for solid foods, which consisted of seven brands of coffee beans, sixteen varieties of Alpine-style cheeses, and eight different spices. The pre-processed and standardized LIBS spectra were used to train and test the elastic net-regularized multinomial classifier. The performance of the portable and benchtop LIBS systems was compared and described. The results indicate that field-deployable, portable LIBS devices provide a robust, accurate, and simple-to-use platform for agricultural product verification that requires minimal sample preparation, if any. Full article
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13 pages, 2262 KiB  
Article
Changing Food Consumption Pattern and Influencing Factors in Bangladesh
by Mengmeng Jia, Lin Zhen, Wanni Yang and Shuang Wang
Foods 2023, 12(2), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020401 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2911
Abstract
Food consumption is an important bridge between human beings and the natural ecosystem. The change in food consumption quantity and quality can reflect the relationship between them. This study aims to explore food consumption characteristics and the drivers of food consumption patterns in [...] Read more.
Food consumption is an important bridge between human beings and the natural ecosystem. The change in food consumption quantity and quality can reflect the relationship between them. This study aims to explore food consumption characteristics and the drivers of food consumption patterns in Bangladesh with a fragile ecology and polluted environment. This research selected food consumption in Bangladesh as the object, food consumption data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the data of influencing factors mainly were acquired from the World Bank. The following results were conducted: The total and per capita food consumption showed increase as a whole, but per capita food consumption experienced decline in the middle of the research period. Food consumption patterns were divided into three types: the first type of cereal–sugar–aquatic with low food consumption quantity and few kinds of food from 1961 to 1971, the second type of cereal–sugar–oil–aquatic with increasing food consumption quantity and food kinds from 1972 to 1997, and the third type of cereal–aquatic–tuber–sugar–fruit–vegetable–meat with increasing food consumption quantity and more various kinds of food from 1998 to 2020. The characteristics of food consumption in different periods were influenced by a series of factors. The influence of economic factors was higher than other factors, relatively. According to this study, the characteristics of food consumption patterns and the relationship between food consumption and influencing factors can provide a scientific reference for the adjustment policy makers taking local food demand and natural resources conservation into consideration to achieve a sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Systems)
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26 pages, 3337 KiB  
Article
Juices and By-Products of Red-Fleshed Sweet Oranges: Assessment of Bioactive and Nutritional Compounds
by Jaime Zacarías-Garcia, Guiselle Carlos, José-Vicente Gil, José Luís Navarro, Lorenzo Zacarías and María-Jesús Rodrigo
Foods 2023, 12(2), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020400 - 14 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2004
Abstract
The content of nutrients and bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity were assessed in the juices from two red-fleshed oranges, Cara Cara and Kirkwood, and compared with that of a standard Navel orange. Two juice extraction procedures, hand-squeezing and industrial, and two treatments, pasteurization [...] Read more.
The content of nutrients and bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity were assessed in the juices from two red-fleshed oranges, Cara Cara and Kirkwood, and compared with that of a standard Navel orange. Two juice extraction procedures, hand-squeezing and industrial, and two treatments, pasteurization (85 °C/30 s) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH, 150 MPa/55 °C/1 min), were evaluated. For most of the nutrients and bioactive compounds, the hand and industrial juice squeezing rendered similar extraction efficiency. Individual composition of carotenoids in the juices were differentially affected by the extraction procedure and the treatments, but the red-fleshed orange juices contained between 3- to 6-times higher total carotenoids than the standard Navel juices, being phytoene and phytofluene the main carotenoids. The industrial and treated juices of both red-fleshed oranges contained 20–30% higher amounts of tocopherols but about 20% lower levels of vitamin C than Navel juices. Navel juices exhibited higher hydrophilic antioxidant capacity, while the red-fleshed orange juices showed an improved lipophilic antioxidant capacity. The main distinctive characteristic of the industrial juice by-product of the red-fleshed oranges was a higher content of carotenoids (×10) and singlet oxygen antioxidant capacity (×1.5–2) than the Navel by-product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruits and Fruit-Based Products as a Source of Bioactive Compounds)
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16 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
Fermentative Production of Diacylglycerol by Endophytic Fungi Screened from Taxus chinensis var. mairei
by Wenqiang Xu, Haoran Bi, Hong Peng, Ling Yang, Hongwei He, Guiming Fu, Yuhuan Liu and Yin Wan
Foods 2023, 12(2), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020399 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
Diacylglycerol (DAG) production by microbial fermentation has broad development prospects. In the present study, five endophytic fungi which could accumulate DAG were screened from Taxus chinensis var. mairei by using potato dextrose agar plate and flask cultivation in potato dextrose broth culture medium. [...] Read more.
Diacylglycerol (DAG) production by microbial fermentation has broad development prospects. In the present study, five endophytic fungi which could accumulate DAG were screened from Taxus chinensis var. mairei by using potato dextrose agar plate and flask cultivation in potato dextrose broth culture medium. The strains were biologically identified based on morphological features and semi-quantitative PCR. The identification results indicated that the five strains belonged to different genera: Fusarium annulatum (F. annulatum, coded as MLP41), Trichoderma dorotheae (T. dorotheae, coded as MLG23), Colletotrichum aeschynomenes (C. aeschynomenes, coded as MLY23), Pestalotiopsis scoparia (P. scoparia, coded as MLY31W), and Penicillium cataractarum (P. cataractarum, coded as MLGP11). The crude lipids from the strains and their corresponding triacylglycerol, 1,2-DAG, and 1,3-DAG fractions separated via thin-layer chromatography were mainly composed of palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid, which in total accounted for higher than 94% of the content. The effects of fermentation conditions on the DAG productivity were discussed, and the yields of DAG were determined based on the 1H NMR spectra of crude lipids. The highest total DAG yields of F. annulatum, T. dorotheae, C. aeschynomenes, P. scoparia, and P. cataractarum were 112.28, 126.42, 189.87, 105.61, and 135.56 mg/L, respectively. C. aeschynomenes had the strongest potential to produce DAG. The results showed that this may be a new promising route for the production of DAG via fermentation by specific endophytic fungi, such as C. aeschynomenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
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13 pages, 10676 KiB  
Article
Influences of Particle Size and Addition Level on the Rheological Properties and Water Mobility of Purple Sweet Potato Dough
by Han Hu, Xiangyu Zhou, Yuxin Zhang, Wenhua Zhou and Lin Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(2), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020398 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
This paper investigated the effects of different particle sizes and addition levels of purple sweet potato flour (PSPF) on the rheological properties and moisture states of wheat dough. There was deterioration in the pasting and mixing properties of the dough, due to the [...] Read more.
This paper investigated the effects of different particle sizes and addition levels of purple sweet potato flour (PSPF) on the rheological properties and moisture states of wheat dough. There was deterioration in the pasting and mixing properties of the dough, due to the addition of PSPF (0~20% substitution), which was reduced by decreasing the particle size of the PSPF (260~59 μm). Dynamic rheology results showed that PSPF enhanced the elasticity of the dough, providing it solid-like processability. PSPF promoted the binding of gluten proteins and starch in the dough, resulting in a denser microstructure. Differential scanning calorimetry and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance showed that PSPF converted immobilized water and freezable water to bound water and non-freezable water in the dough, making the dough more stable, and that the reduction in PSPF particle size facilitated these processes. Our results provide evidence for the great application potential of purple sweet potatoes for use in flour-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal: Storage, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes)
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