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Foods, Volume 12, Issue 14 (July-2 2023) – 179 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Bio-preservation strategies applied to the manufacturing of goat’s raw milk cheeses, such as the use of extracts of lemon balm, spearmint, and sage, and a cocktail of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been proven to be efficient in the control of Staphylococcus aureus (SA). A new dynamic predictive microbiology model has been proposed that tackles the challenge of representing ongoing fermentation, in addition to the fact that extracts affect the decrease in cheese pH, whereas another dynamic model was employed for characterising the kinetics of SA in cheese as affected by LAB. For the first time, zpH values were characterised for plant extracts. While all strategies reduced the time required to decrease SA by one-log, spearmint extract was the most promising bio-preservative. View this paper
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13 pages, 6223 KiB  
Article
Use of Artificial Vision during the Lye Treatment of Sevillian-Style Green Olives to Determine the Optimal Time for Terminating the Cooking Process
by Miguel Calixto López Gordillo, Antonio Madueño-Luna, José Miguel Madueño Luna and Emilio Ramírez-Juidías
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2815; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142815 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1155
Abstract
This study focuses on characterizing the temporal evolution of the surface affected by industrial treatment with NaOH within the processing tanks during the lye treatment stage of Manzanilla table olives. The lye treatment process is affected by multiple variables, such as ambient temperature, [...] Read more.
This study focuses on characterizing the temporal evolution of the surface affected by industrial treatment with NaOH within the processing tanks during the lye treatment stage of Manzanilla table olives. The lye treatment process is affected by multiple variables, such as ambient temperature, the initial temperature of the olives before lye treatment, the temperature of the NaOH solution, the concentration of the solution, the variety of olives, and their size, which are determinants of the speed of the lye treatment process. Traditionally, an expert, relaying on their subjective judgement, manages the cooking process empirically, leading to variability in the termination timing of the cook. In this study, we introduce a system that, by using an artificial vision system, allows us to know in a deterministic way the percentage of lye treatment achieved at each moment along the cooking process; furthermore, with an interpolator that accumulates values during the lye treatment, it is possible to anticipate the completion of the cooking by indicating the moment when two-thirds, three-fourths, or some other value of the interior surface will be reached with an error of less than 10% relative to the optimal moment. Knowing this moment is crucial for proper processing, as it will affect subsequent stages of the manufacturing process and the quality of the final product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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13 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
Comparative Quantitation of Kokumi γ-Glutamyl Peptides in Spanish Dry-Cured Ham under Salt-Reduced Production
by Alejandro Heres, Qian Li, Fidel Toldrá, René Lametsch and Leticia Mora
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2814; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142814 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Salting is a crucial step during the production of dry-cured ham and it is not well known whether it has an impact on the generation of taste-active peptides. The present study focused on the quantitation of kokumi γ-glutamyl peptides in low-salted Spanish dry-cured [...] Read more.
Salting is a crucial step during the production of dry-cured ham and it is not well known whether it has an impact on the generation of taste-active peptides. The present study focused on the quantitation of kokumi γ-glutamyl peptides in low-salted Spanish dry-cured hams with 12 months of processing. By using mass spectrometry, peptides were quantitated from samples obtained after ethanolic deproteinization-based and non-ethanolic deproteinization-based extraction methods. Peptides γ-EA, γ-EE, and γ-EL registered mean values of 0.31, 2.75, and 11.35 µg/g of dry-cured ham, respectively, with no differences observed between both extraction protocols. However, γ-EF, γ-EM, γ-EV, γ-EW, γ-EY, and γ-EVG presented significantly (p < 0.05) higher concentrations in the ethanolic deproteinized samples showing values of 5.58, 4.13, 13.90, 0.77, 3.71, and 0.11 µg/g of dry-cured ham, respectively. These outcomes reflect the importance of protocols for the extraction of peptides to achieve the most feasible results. In addition, potential precursors for the formation of γ-glutamyl peptides are generated during dry-curing under salt restriction. The kokumi activity of these γ-glutamyl peptides could enhance the sensory attributes countering the taste deficiencies caused by the salt restriction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
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7 pages, 723 KiB  
Communication
Instrumental Color Measurements Have Relationships to Fat Smearing in Fresh Sausage
by Jarrod Bumsted, Emily Ford, Amanda Blair, Keith Underwood and Stacy M. S. Zuelly
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2813; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142813 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 970
Abstract
Fat smearing, or poor fat particle definition, impacts the visual quality of sausage. However, objective methods of assessing fat smearing have not been identified. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the relationship between fat smearing and instrumental color analysis for [...] Read more.
Fat smearing, or poor fat particle definition, impacts the visual quality of sausage. However, objective methods of assessing fat smearing have not been identified. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine the relationship between fat smearing and instrumental color analysis for fresh sausages to create a standard method for using instrumental color in fat smearing analysis. Meat blocks of pork (PK), beef (BF), and a mixture of pork and beef (P/B) were formed and processed at three different temperatures to create varying degrees of fat smearing. The average fat smearing score of each sausage was used to determine if a relationship existed with instrumental color measurements (CIE L*, a*, b*, and reflectance percentage at 580 nm and 630 nm) and color calculations. A correlation was observed for L* (R = −0.704) and the reflectance at 580 nm (R = −0.775) to PK fat smearing (p < 0.05). In P/B sausage, both reflectances at ratios between 630 nm and 580 nm were correlated to P/B fat smearing. No measurement or calculation was correlated with BF fat smearing (p > 0.05). Therefore, it is possible to use instrumental color analysis for the evaluation of fat smearing in pork and pork/beef blended sausage products, but not in beef sausage products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Quality Assessments of Foods of Animal Origin)
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24 pages, 5129 KiB  
Article
Optimizing the Functional Properties of Starch-Based Biodegradable Films
by Theofilos Frangopoulos, Anna Marinopoulou, Athanasios Goulas, Eleni Likotrafiti, Jonathan Rhoades, Dimitrios Petridis, Eirini Kannidou, Alexios Stamelos, Maria Theodoridou, Athanasia Arampatzidou, Alexandra Tosounidou, Lazaros Tsekmes, Konstantinos Tsichlakis, Giorgos Gkikas, Eleftherios Tourasanidis and Vassilis Karageorgiou
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2812; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142812 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
A definitive screening design was used in order to evaluate the effects of starch, glycerol and montmorillonite (MMT) concentrations, as well as the drying temperature, drying tray type and starch species, on packaging film’s functional properties. Optimization showed that in order to obtain [...] Read more.
A definitive screening design was used in order to evaluate the effects of starch, glycerol and montmorillonite (MMT) concentrations, as well as the drying temperature, drying tray type and starch species, on packaging film’s functional properties. Optimization showed that in order to obtain films with the minimum possible thickness, the maximum elongation at break, the maximum tensile strength, as well as reduced water vapor permeability and low opacity, a combination of factors should be used as follows: 5.5% wt starch concentration, 30% wt glycerol concentration on a dry starch basis, 10.5% wt MMT concentration on a dry starch basis, 45 °C drying temperature, chickpea as the starch species and plexiglass as the drying tray type. Based on these results, starch films were prepared, and fresh minced meat was stored in them for 3 days. It was shown that the incorporation of MMT at 10.5% wt on a dry starch basis in the packaging films led to a decreased mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria growth factor compared to commercial packaging. When assessed for their biodegradability, the starch films disintegrated after 10 days of thermophilic incubation under simulated composting conditions. Finally, to prove their handling capability during industrial production, the starch films were rewound in a paper cylinder using an industrial-scale rewinding machine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Packaging and Preservation)
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15 pages, 651 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical Constituents, Antimicrobial Properties and Bioactivity of Marine Red Seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and Seagrass (Cymodocea serrulata)
by Deep Das, Abimannan Arulkumar, Sadayan Paramasivam, Aroa Lopez-Santamarina, Alicia del Carmen Mondragon and Jose Manuel Miranda Lopez
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142811 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2803
Abstract
The present work was performed to evaluate the levels of phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of marine red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and seagrass (Cymodocea serrulata). Quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against five potential [...] Read more.
The present work was performed to evaluate the levels of phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of marine red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and seagrass (Cymodocea serrulata). Quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against five potential pathogenic bacteria was investigated. In each case, we found the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides, steroids, carbohydrates and ashes. Alkaloids were only found in K. alvarezii, though they were not found in C. serrulata. The antimicrobial properties of both K. alvarezii and C. serrulata chloroform extracts were found to be antagonistically effective against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and the Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 94 bioactive compounds in K. alvarezii and 104 bioactive compounds in C. serrulata, including phenol, decane, dodecane, hexadecane, vanillin, heptadecane, diphenylamine, benzophenone, octadecanoic acid, dotriaconate, benzene, phytol, butanoic acid and 2-hydroxyl-ethyl ether, which all played important roles in antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Thus, in view of the results, both K. alvarezii and C. serrulata could be considered to be sources of ingredients with appreciable nutritional and medicinal value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Preservatives for Foods)
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16 pages, 446 KiB  
Review
Mechanism of Anti-Diabetic Activity from Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas): A Systematic Review
by Cokorda Istri Sri Arisanti, I. Made Agus Gelgel Wirasuta, Ida Musfiroh, Emmy Hainida Khairul Ikram and Muchtaridi Muchtaridi
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142810 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4312
Abstract
This study aims to provide an overview of the compounds found in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) that contribute to its anti-diabetic activity and the mechanisms by which they act. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using electronic databases, such as PubMed, [...] Read more.
This study aims to provide an overview of the compounds found in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) that contribute to its anti-diabetic activity and the mechanisms by which they act. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using electronic databases, such as PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct, with specific search terms and Boolean operators. A total of 269 articles were initially retrieved, but after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria only 28 articles were selected for further review. Among the findings, four varieties of sweet potato were identified as having potential anti-diabetic properties. Phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanones, and anthocyanidins are responsible for the anti-diabetic activity of sweet potatoes. The anti-diabetic mechanism of sweet potatoes was determined using a combination of components with multi-target actions. The results of these studies provide evidence that Ipomoea batatas is effective in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods with Modulating Action on Metabolic Risk Factors)
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16 pages, 2668 KiB  
Article
Modification of Ginseng Insoluble Dietary Fiber by Enzymatic Method: Structural, Rheological, Thermal and Functional Properties
by Guihun Jiang, Karna Ramachandraiah, Chaoyi Tan, Nanjie Cai, Kashif Ameer and Xiaoyu Feng
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142809 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1257
Abstract
In this study, the effects of enzymatic modification using cellulase/xylanase on the composition and structural and functional properties of ginseng insoluble dietary fiber (G-IDF) were evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microcopy showed that enzymatic extraction treatment caused obvious structural alterations [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of enzymatic modification using cellulase/xylanase on the composition and structural and functional properties of ginseng insoluble dietary fiber (G-IDF) were evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microcopy showed that enzymatic extraction treatment caused obvious structural alterations in ginseng-modified (G-MIDF) samples, which exhibited more porous and completely wrinkled surfaces. Comparing the peak morphology of G-MIDF with untreated IDF using X-ray diffractometry, the G-MIDF sample exhibited split peaks at a 2θ angle of 23.71°, along with the emergence of sharp peaks at 28.02°, 31.78°, and 35.07°. Thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that G-MIDF exhibited a specified range of pyrolysis temperature and is suitable for food applications involving processing at temperatures below 300 °C. Overall, it was evident from rheograms that both G-IDF and G-MIDF exhibited a resemblance with respect to viscosity changes as a function of the shear rate. Enzymatic treatment led to significant (p < 0.05) improvement in water holding, oil retention, water swelling, nitrite ion binding, bile acid binding, cholesterol absorption, and glucose absorption capacities. Full article
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13 pages, 1312 KiB  
Article
Exploring Consumer Perceptions and Changing Consumption Patterns for Smoked Paprika: Implications for Traditional Food Products in Spain
by Olda Lami, Celia Sama-Berrocal, Alberto Martín, Francisco J. Mesías and Rocío Velázquez
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2808; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142808 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Changes in the level of income of the population and a reduction in time availability are shifting food consumption from traditional to more convenient food products. The production of traditional food has a significantly positive impact on the territory, as it contributes to [...] Read more.
Changes in the level of income of the population and a reduction in time availability are shifting food consumption from traditional to more convenient food products. The production of traditional food has a significantly positive impact on the territory, as it contributes to preserving cultural traditions and identity and supports rural development and resilience, thus becoming essential for the survival of rural areas. Within traditional food products, spices are among the most usual ingredients in traditional cuisine, extensively used to add flavour and colour to dishes. However, spices in general and paprika in particular—one of the most typical spices in the Spanish cuisine and the subject of this paper—have been rarely the subject of scientific studies. The purpose of this study is to analyse consumers’ perceptions towards paprika and determine the level of its consumption. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on a representative sample of Spanish consumers. The findings indicated that the average consumption of paprika was 154.5 gr/person per year. Although the general consumers’ perceptions toward this spice were generally positive, they proved to be less positive amongst young people and inhabitants of large cities, whose consumption of the spice was also lower. Additionally, the Pimentón de La Vera PDO paprika was the most popular version of paprika, being mentioned by all the participants. The findings from this study confirm the change in food consumption patterns. Full article
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19 pages, 2729 KiB  
Article
Effects of Processing Conditions and Simulated Digestion In Vitro on the Antioxidant Activity, Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase and Bioaccessibility of Epicatechin Gallate
by Miao Zhu, Xiaoyun Fei, Deming Gong and Guowen Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2807; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142807 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 918
Abstract
The bioactivity and gastrointestinal stability of epicatechin gallate (ECG) may be affected by processing conditions. Results showed that the antioxidant ability and inhibitory activity on xanthine oxidase (XO) of ECG were higher at low pH values. Appropriate microwave and heating treatments improved the [...] Read more.
The bioactivity and gastrointestinal stability of epicatechin gallate (ECG) may be affected by processing conditions. Results showed that the antioxidant ability and inhibitory activity on xanthine oxidase (XO) of ECG were higher at low pH values. Appropriate microwave and heating treatments improved the antioxidant (the scavenging rate increased from 71.75% to 92.71% and 80.88% under the microwave and heating treatments) and XO inhibitory activity (the inhibitory rate increased from 47.11% to 56.89% and 51.85% at the microwave and heating treatments) of ECG. The treated ECG led to a more compact structure of XO. Moreover, there may be synergistic antioxidant and inhibitory effects between ECG and its degradation products. The bioaccessibility of ECG after simulated digestion was untreated > microwave > heating, and the microwave−treated ECG still had good XO inhibitory activity after digestion. These findings may provide some significant information for the development of functional foods enriched in catechins. Full article
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17 pages, 2786 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Washing, Blanching and Frozen Storage on Pesticide Residue in Spinach
by Federica Flamminii, Silvia Minetti, Adriano Mollica, Angelo Cichelli and Lorenzo Cerretani
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2806; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142806 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is a representative green leafy vegetable commonly consumed fresh or as a ready-to-cook frozen product, with increasing consumption because of its many health-related properties. Among leafy vegetables, spinach poses a major concern in terms of pesticide residue detection [...] Read more.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is a representative green leafy vegetable commonly consumed fresh or as a ready-to-cook frozen product, with increasing consumption because of its many health-related properties. Among leafy vegetables, spinach poses a major concern in terms of pesticide residue detection due to common phytotechnical practices. In this study, spinach leaves were treated in the open field with three commercial pesticide formulations containing propamocarb, lambda-cyhalothrin, fluopicolide and chlorantraniliprole at the highest concentration. The effects of the successive processing steps of washing, blanching, freezing and frozen storage were evaluated on the levels of the four pesticide residues and the degradation product (propamocarb n-desmethyl). The washing step caused a reduction of fluopicolide and chlorantraniliprole of −47% and −43%, respectively, while having a mild effect on lambda-cyhalothrin content (+5%). A two-minute blanching step allowed for the reduction of pesticides content ranging from −41% to −4% with respect to the washed sample. Different behaviors were depicted for longer blanching times, mainly for propamocarb, reaching −56% after 10 min of treatment. Processing factors higher than 1 were reported mainly for lambda-cyhalothrin and fluopicolide. Frozen storage led to a slight increase in the pesticide content in samples treated for 6 and 10 min. The optimal blanching treatment for spinach, submitted to freezing and frozen storage, seems to be 2 min at 80 °C. Full article
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21 pages, 3912 KiB  
Article
Techno-Functional and Sensory Characterization of Commercial Plant Protein Powders
by Kadi Jakobson, Aleksei Kaleda, Karl Adra, Mari-Liis Tammik, Helen Vaikma, Tiina Kriščiunaite and Raivo Vilu
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142805 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Many new plant proteins are appearing on the market, but their properties are insufficiently characterized. Hence, we collected 24 commercial proteins from pea, oat, fava bean, chickpea, mung bean, potato, canola, soy, and wheat, including different batches, and assessed their techno-functional and sensory [...] Read more.
Many new plant proteins are appearing on the market, but their properties are insufficiently characterized. Hence, we collected 24 commercial proteins from pea, oat, fava bean, chickpea, mung bean, potato, canola, soy, and wheat, including different batches, and assessed their techno-functional and sensory properties. Many powders had yellow, red, and brown color tones, but that of fava bean was the lightest. The native pH ranged from 6.0 to 7.7. The water solubility index was 28% on average, but after heat treatment the solubility typically increased. Soy isolate had by far the best water-holding capacity of 6.3 g (H2O) g−1, and canola had the highest oil-holding capacity of 2.8 g (oil) g−1. The foaming capacity and stability results were highly varied but typical to the raw material. The emulsification properties of all powders were similar. Upon heating, the highest viscosity and storage modulus were found in potato, canola, and mung bean. All powders had raw material flavor, were bitter and astringent, and undissolved particles were perceived in the mouth. Large differences in functionality were found between the batches of one pea powder. In conclusion, we emphasize the need for methodological standardization, but while respecting the conditions found in end applications like meat and dairy analogs. Full article
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12 pages, 2652 KiB  
Article
Formulation Study on Edible Film from Waste Grape and Red Cabbage
by Olga Mileti, Noemi Baldino, Francesco Filice, Francesca R. Lupi, Maria Stefania Sinicropi and Domenico Gabriele
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2804; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142804 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1386
Abstract
(1) Background: Recent research on the valorization of agro-industrial waste has attempted to obtain new products. Grape residue is a waste product used in the grape wine industry that is rich in anthocyanins, as well as leaves and waste parts from red cabbage [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Recent research on the valorization of agro-industrial waste has attempted to obtain new products. Grape residue is a waste product used in the grape wine industry that is rich in anthocyanins, as well as leaves and waste parts from red cabbage processing. Anthocyanins, thanks to their various functionalities, can be recovered and used as active and intelligent agents in food packaging. Anthocyanins have antioxidant properties that help to prevent cardiovascular disease. (2) Methods: In this study, the process of extracting waste was studied using solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction. The obtained anthocyanins were used in starch-based food film formulations. Several formulations were studied using rheometric techniques and the effect of adding anthocyanins on optimal film formulation was investigated. (3) Results: Solvent extractions resulted in a maximum extraction yield. The extracts obtained were used for the preparation of coating and edible films, optimized in the formulation. (4) Conclusions: The addition of anthocyanins to films resulted in increased sample structuring and mechanical properties that are valid for applications, like dipping using coverage methods. The packaging is also attractive and pH-sensitive. Full article
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4 pages, 1483 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Strategies to Develop High-Quality Gluten-Free Products Welcomed by Consumers”
by Hiroyuki Yano
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142803 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Extensive and long-term efforts on wheat breeding [...] Full article
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20 pages, 721 KiB  
Article
Access to Information, and Concerns, Myths and Truths about Food Safety during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Overview of the Portuguese Population
by Marcela Lemos, Rui Leandro Maia and Paula Teixeira
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142802 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic raised questions and concerns about the possibility of the virus being transmitted through food, as the virus was found in sewage, shrimps and packages of frozen food. During the first wave of COVID-19, concerns about the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic raised questions and concerns about the possibility of the virus being transmitted through food, as the virus was found in sewage, shrimps and packages of frozen food. During the first wave of COVID-19, concerns about the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through food arose. As the number of cases began to increase rapidly, so did the availability of information regarding the virus and ways to prevent infection. A significant portion of this information was disseminated by the media and the general public. Identifying and understanding the main doubts and concerns about food hygiene and safety raised by the Portuguese population during the first wave of COVID-19 is important in order to understand whether these issues have influenced their practices and what lessons can be learnt for food safety and hygiene education. The aims of this work were (1) to understand the doubts and concerns of the Portuguese population regarding food safety and hygiene during the first wave of COVID-19, and how these issues were clarified, (2) to analyze the population’s opinion on food/hygiene myths and truths related to the transmission and prevention of the infection, and (3) to understand how the first wave of COVID-19 may have influenced the population’s practices linked to food handling and consumption. The main doubts of the respondents were related to food handling (41.6%) and the possibility of transmission of COVID-19 through food (17%). Television was the main source of information used to clarify these doubts (32.9%), followed by a guideline issued by the Directorate-General of Health (30.7%). However, most respondents (50.9%) said that they had only found answers to some of their questions. Most respondents reported washing and disinfecting hands before (85% and 63.4%, respectively) and after (73.8% and 57.3%, respectively) the handling and organization of food purchases. Most respondents did not believe the myths about COVID-19 and food safety, but this depended on their level of education. Some practices may have changed as a result of the pandemic, particularly with regard to washing and disinfecting hands and food, as well as kitchen hygiene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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16 pages, 794 KiB  
Review
Influence of the Amount and Type of Whey Protein on the Chemical, Technological, and Sensory Quality of Pasta and Bakery Products
by Marina Rocha Komeroski and Viviani Ruffo de Oliveira
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2801; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142801 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1636
Abstract
In addition to being an important source of nutrients, pasta and bakery products are consumed globally and so there is a growing need to study them in addition to other ingredients such as whey proteins. These dairy proteins are intended to improve the [...] Read more.
In addition to being an important source of nutrients, pasta and bakery products are consumed globally and so there is a growing need to study them in addition to other ingredients such as whey proteins. These dairy proteins are intended to improve the quality of these foods, as they have important nutritional, technological, and sensory properties that can be exploited. The importance of new formulations in the quality features of pasta and bakery products and gaining an understanding of how the ingredients can interfere with these foods are described. A summary of the latest progress in the application of whey protein in bakery products, as well as their types and quantities from a physicochemical and sensory point of view, is presented. This review was reported following PRISMA recommendations and included articles (n = 32) from scientific journals that evaluated the use of whey protein in bakery products over the past ten years. More than half of the authors (n = 20) used WPC, likely due to its nutritional composition, cost, and easy access. Cake formulations were those with the highest amounts of whey protein, unlike researchers who made bread and pasta, possibly due to the fragility of these preparations. The addition of whey proteins modified the physical characteristics and improved the chemical composition of the bread. However, at higher concentrations (≥30%), they caused damage to the texture characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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13 pages, 2989 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Microbial Community Succession and Flavor Formation during the Natural Fermentation of Hongqu sufu
by Aiguo Luo, Zilong Cheng, Jia Zhao, Jianwei Hao, Shengli Shi and Bianfang Hu
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2800; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142800 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
To study the diversity of microbial flora in Hongqu sufu and analyze the characteristics of special flavor compounds, this study took self-made Hongqu sufu as the research object. Dynamic changes in sufu during fermentation were studied. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) was used to analyze [...] Read more.
To study the diversity of microbial flora in Hongqu sufu and analyze the characteristics of special flavor compounds, this study took self-made Hongqu sufu as the research object. Dynamic changes in sufu during fermentation were studied. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) was used to analyze changes in the diversity of fungal and bacterial communities during fermentation. The results showed that at the phylum level, the dominant fungal phyla were identified, Mucormyces and Ascomycetes. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. At the genus level, the dominant fungal genera were identified as Actinomucor, Monascus, and Aspergillus. The dominant bacterial genera were Pseudomonas, Aneurimibacillus, Sphingobacterium, and Bacillus. Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) combined with technology that can dynamically change flavor compounds was explored to investigate the correlation between microbiota and flavor compounds. In different stages of fermentation, 75 main volatile organic compounds were identified, including seven alcohols, four acids, 16 alkanes, 14 olefins, seven kinds of aldehydes, two kinds of ketones, 10 kinds of esters, one kind of phenol, one kind of sulfur-containing compound, one benzene, and 12 other compounds. The correlation analysis between flora and flavor compounds showed that the fungi genera Alternaria and Pichia were significantly correlated with most flavor compounds. Bacteria genera including Weissella, Hafnia-Obesumbacterium, and Leuconostoc had a strong positive correlation with ethyl oleate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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15 pages, 2743 KiB  
Article
Screening and Metabolomic Analysis of Lactic Acid Bacteria-Antagonizing Pseudomonas aeruginosa
by Jianzhou Li, Xiaohua Chen, Ziyan Xie, Lin Liang, Anping Li, Chao Zhao, Yuxi Wen and Zaixiang Lou
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2799; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142799 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a conditional Gram-negative pathogen that produces extracellular virulence factors that can lead to bloodstream invasion, severely harm tissues, and disseminate bacteria, ultimately leading to various diseases. In this study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with strong antagonistic ability against P. aeruginosa [...] Read more.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a conditional Gram-negative pathogen that produces extracellular virulence factors that can lead to bloodstream invasion, severely harm tissues, and disseminate bacteria, ultimately leading to various diseases. In this study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with strong antagonistic ability against P. aeruginosa were screened, and the regulatory mechanism of LAB against P. aeruginosa was evaluated. The results showed that the three selected LAB strains had strong inhibition ability on the growth, biofilm formation, and pyocyanin expression of P. aeruginosa and a promoting effect on the expression of autoinducer-2. Among them, Lactipantibacillus plantarum (Lp. plantarum) LPyang is capable of affecting the metabolic processes of P. aeruginosa by influencing metabolic substances, such as LysoPC, oxidized glutathione, betaine, etc. These results indicate that LPyang reduces the infectivity of P. aeruginosa through inhibition of its growth, biofilm formation, pyocyanin expression, and regulation of its metabolome. This study provides new insights into the antagonistic activity of Lp. plantarum LPyang against P. aeruginosa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Probiotics Research and Innovation in Functional Food Production)
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16 pages, 1365 KiB  
Article
A Feasible Approach to Developing Fiber-Enriched Bread Using Pomegranate Peel Powder: Assessing Its Nutritional Composition and Glycemic Index
by Paula García, Andrés Bustamante, Francisca Echeverría, Cristian Encina, Manuel Palma, Leyla Sanhueza, Verónica Sambra, Maria Elsa Pando and Paula Jiménez
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2798; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142798 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
The consumption of dietary fiber (DF) has been associated with a reduced incidence of non-communicable diseases. Despite various strategies implemented worldwide to increase DF intake, it remains low. Therefore, the development of new fiber-rich food products that are widely consumed could be a [...] Read more.
The consumption of dietary fiber (DF) has been associated with a reduced incidence of non-communicable diseases. Despite various strategies implemented worldwide to increase DF intake, it remains low. Therefore, the development of new fiber-rich food products that are widely consumed could be a strategy to improve DF intake. In this study, an agro-industrial by-product, pomegranate peel powder (PPP), was used as an innovative source of DF and antioxidant. The objective was to develop a bread enriched with DF, antioxidants, and sensory characteristics by partially replacing wheat flour (WF) with PPP at levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. Bread with 2.5% and 5% PPP was chosen for a clinical trial to evaluate glycemic response (GR) in healthy subjects and determine the bread’s glycemic index (GI). As the percentage of PPP increased, both the DF and total polyphenol content increased significantly. The highest overall acceptability was achieved with bread containing up to 5% PPP. Consumption of bread with 2.5% and 5.0% PPP significantly reduced the GI compared to the control bread, while the decrease in GR was not significant. PPP could be a potential food and low-cost ingredient to improve the bread’s nutritional quality through its contribution to DF and antioxidants. Full article
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13 pages, 1359 KiB  
Article
Application of CO2 Gas Hydrates as Leavening Agents in Black-and-White Cookies
by Ann Mary Kollemparembil, Shubhangi Srivastava, Viktoria Zettel, Bernhard Gatternig, Antonio Delgado, Mario Jekle and Bernd Hitzmann
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142797 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1246
Abstract
In this unprecedented study, the application of CO2 gas hydrates (GH) as a leavening agent to produce black-and-white cookies by replacing ammonium bicarbonate is investigated. Ammonium bicarbonate, the principal leavening ingredient in black-and-white cookies, has been linked to the creation of a [...] Read more.
In this unprecedented study, the application of CO2 gas hydrates (GH) as a leavening agent to produce black-and-white cookies by replacing ammonium bicarbonate is investigated. Ammonium bicarbonate, the principal leavening ingredient in black-and-white cookies, has been linked to the creation of a carcinogenic substance known as acrylamide. Three distinct GH concentrations, 20%, 40%, and 50%, were utilized to determine the necessary amount to obtain a good leavening effect. However, the abrupt reduction in temperature brought on by the addition of GH had an inadmissible effect on the cookie dough. Consequently, an innovative kneading method carried out in a closed mixing unit at a high temperature was developed. The specific volume of the cookies when employing 50% GH as a baking agent was more than half that produced when using ammonium bicarbonate. In the cookies with GH, the springiness and hardness, which are the quality-determining textural characteristics of the pastry, remained within an acceptable range. The amount of acrylamide was reduced from 24.8 µg/Kg to around 18 µg/Kg by this research. Therefore, the presented study demonstrates the possibility of using CO2 GH as a leavening agent in black-and-white cookies and in other products for a healthier future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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12 pages, 1368 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Profile Changes in an Insect–Fungus Complex of Antheraea pernyi Pupa Infected by Samsoniella hepiali
by Shengchao Wang, Yun Meng and Dun Wang
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2796; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142796 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1313
Abstract
Historically, some edible insects have been processed into a complex of insect and fungus, such as Antherea pernyi and Samsoniella hepiali. Until now, the dynamics of the nutritional changes due to this infection were unclear. This study reveals the dynamic changes in [...] Read more.
Historically, some edible insects have been processed into a complex of insect and fungus, such as Antherea pernyi and Samsoniella hepiali. Until now, the dynamics of the nutritional changes due to this infection were unclear. This study reveals the dynamic changes in nutritional components of Antherea pernyi pupa after infection with Samsoniella hepiali at post-infection time points of 0 d, 10 d, 20 d, and 30 d. The dynamic analysis of the components at different post-infection times showed that the content of polysaccharides and cordycepin increased with time while the content of fats and chitin decreased. The content of proteins showed a trend of decreasing at the beginning and then increasing. The essential amino acids (EAAs) decreased at the beginning and then increased, and non-essential amino acids (NEAA) changed similarly. The essential amino acid index showed a slight continuous decrease. Although the crude fat decreased dramatically due to the infection, from a value of 30.75% to 7.2%, the infection of S. hepiali produced five new fatty acids (14-methyl-pentadecanoic acid, docosanoic acid, succinic acid, arachidonic acid, and myristic acid) while the content of the seven fatty acids was greatly reduced after infection. Therefore, after being infected by S. hepiali and combined with it, the nutritional profile of A pernyi pupa was changed significantly and there were different characteristics at different infection stages. The above findings provide scientifically fundamental data to understand the nutritional value of the insect–fungus complex as human food and animal feed. Full article
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24 pages, 4455 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors for the Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Current Perspective and Challenges
by Bo Wang, Hang Wang, Xubin Lu, Xiangfeng Zheng and Zhenquan Yang
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2795; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142795 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2772
Abstract
Foodborne pathogens cause many diseases and significantly impact human health and the economy. Foodborne pathogens mainly include Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, which are present in agricultural products, dairy products, animal-derived foods and [...] Read more.
Foodborne pathogens cause many diseases and significantly impact human health and the economy. Foodborne pathogens mainly include Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, which are present in agricultural products, dairy products, animal-derived foods and the environment. Various pathogens in many different types of food and water can cause potentially life-threatening diseases and develop resistance to various types of antibiotics. The harm of foodborne pathogens is increasing, necessitating effective and efficient methods for early monitoring and detection. Traditional methods, such as real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and culture plate, are time-consuming, labour-intensive and expensive and cannot satisfy the demands of rapid food testing. Therefore, new fast detection methods are urgently needed. Electrochemical biosensors provide consumer-friendly methods to quickly detect foodborne pathogens in food and the environment and achieve extensive accuracy and reproducible results. In this paper, by focusing on various mechanisms of electrochemical transducers, we present a comprehensive overview of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, the review introduces the hazards of foodborne pathogens, risk analysis methods and measures of control. Finally, the review also emphasizes the recent research progress and solutions regarding the use of electrochemical biosensors to detect foodborne pathogens in food and the environment, evaluates limitations and challenges experienced during the development of biosensors to detect foodborne pathogens and discusses future possibilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection)
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14 pages, 10619 KiB  
Article
Preparation of an Aminated Lignin/Fe(III)/Polyvinyl Alcohol Film: A Packaging Material with UV Resistance and Slow-Release Function
by Shushan Gao, Chonghao Zhu, Liangfei Ma, Chenghai Liu, Hongqiong Zhang and Shengming Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142794 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
To reduce the usage of petroleum-based plastic products, a lignin-based film material named aminated lignin/Fe(III)/PVA was developed. The mixture of 8 g lignin, 12 mL diethylenetriamine, 200 mL NaOH solution (0.4 mol·L−1), and 8 mL formaldehyde was heated at 85 °C [...] Read more.
To reduce the usage of petroleum-based plastic products, a lignin-based film material named aminated lignin/Fe(III)/PVA was developed. The mixture of 8 g lignin, 12 mL diethylenetriamine, 200 mL NaOH solution (0.4 mol·L−1), and 8 mL formaldehyde was heated at 85 °C for 4 h; after the aminated lignin was impregnated in the Fe(NO3)3 solution, a mixture of 3 g aminated lignin/Fe(III), 7 g PVA, and 200 mL NaOH solution (pH 8) was heated at 85 °C for 60 min; after 2 mL of glycerin was added, the mixture was spread on a glass plate to obtain the aminated lignin/Fe(III)/PVA film. This film demonstrated hydrophobicity, an UV-blocking function, and a good slow-release performance. Due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of lignin and PVA, the tensile strength, the elongation at break, and the fracture resistance of the film were 9.1%, 107.8%, and 21.9% higher than that of pure PVA film, respectively. The iron content of aminated lignin/Fe(III)/PVA was 1.06 wt%, which mainly existed in a trivalent form. The aminated lignin/Fe(III)/PVA film has the potential to be used as a food packaging material with anti-ultraviolet light function and can also be developed as other packaging materials, such as seedling bowls, pots for transplanting, and coating films during transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Techniques for the Processing and Preservation of Foods)
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11 pages, 2617 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Nitrite Content in Vienna Chicken Sausages Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging
by Achiraya Tantinantrakun, Anthony Keith Thompson, Anupun Terdwongworakul and Sontisuk Teerachaichayut
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142793 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Sodium nitrite is a food additive commonly used in sausages, but legally, the unsafe levels of nitrite in sausage should be less than 80 mg/kg, since higher levels can be harmful to consumers. Consumers must rely on processors to conform to these levels. [...] Read more.
Sodium nitrite is a food additive commonly used in sausages, but legally, the unsafe levels of nitrite in sausage should be less than 80 mg/kg, since higher levels can be harmful to consumers. Consumers must rely on processors to conform to these levels. Therefore, the determination of nitrite content in chicken sausages using near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) was investigated. A total of 140 chicken sausage samples were produced by adding sodium nitrite in various levels. The samples were divided into a calibration set (n = 94) and a prediction set (n = 46). Quantitative analysis, to detect nitrate in the sausages, and qualitative analysis, to classify nitrite levels, were undertaken in order to evaluate whether individual sausages had safe levels or non-safe levels of nitrite. NIR-HSI was preprocessed to obtain the optimum conditions for establishing the models. The results showed that the model from the partial least squares regression (PLSR) gave the most reliable performance, with a coefficient of determination of prediction (Rp) of 0.92 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 15.603 mg/kg. The results of the classification using the partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed a satisfied accuracy for prediction of 91.30%. It was therefore concluded that they were sufficiently accurate for screening and that NIR-HSI has the potential to be used for the fast, accurate and reliable assessment of nitrite content in chicken sausages. Full article
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17 pages, 952 KiB  
Article
The Antioxidant Properties of Selected Varieties of Pumpkin Fortified with Iodine in the Form of Potassium Iodide and Potassium Iodate
by Agata Zaremba, Marzanna Hęś, Anna Jędrusek-Golińska, Monika Przeor and Krystyna Szymandera-Buszka
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2792; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142792 - 23 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1406
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the use of selected pumpkin varieties as carriers of potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate (KIO3) at different concentrations (2.3, 0.23, and 0.023 mg/100 g). It was hypothesized that the concentrations and form of iodine fortification [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the use of selected pumpkin varieties as carriers of potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate (KIO3) at different concentrations (2.3, 0.23, and 0.023 mg/100 g). It was hypothesized that the concentrations and form of iodine fortification in pumpkins affect the antioxidant activity of pumpkins. The results showed a high recovery of the introduced iodine in all pumpkin varieties after drying, as well as high iodine stability during storage, especially for KIO3. However, statistical analysis confirmed a relationship between the forms and concentration of iodine and the ABTS cation radical and the DPPH radical test results. In the systems with iodine concentration at 0.023 and 0.23 mg/100 g, the antioxidant activity did not change. However, for all pumpkin varieties fortified with a KIO3 concentration at 3.9 mg/100 g (2.3 mg/100 g of iodine), a statistically significant decrease in free-radical scavenging was confirmed. Therefore, for maximum effectiveness in pumpkin’s free-radical scavenging indices, it is suggested to introduce iodine in the form of KI and KIO3, but in controlled concentrations. However, KIO3 should be added at a maximum amount of 0.39 mg/100 g. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient-Rich Foods for a Healthy Diet, Volume II)
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14 pages, 3182 KiB  
Article
Spectrophotometric- and LC/MS-Based Lipidomics Analyses Revealed Changes in Lipid Profiles of Pike Eel (Muraenesox cinereus) Treated with Stable Chlorine Dioxides and Vacuum-Packed during Chilled Storage
by Shanshan Shui, Yingru Wu, Xiaonan Chen, Ruixue Li, Huicheng Yang, Baiyi Lu and Bin Zhang
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2791; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142791 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Spectrophotometric- and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based lipidomics analyses were performed to explore the changes of lipid profiles in pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) under stable chlorine dioxides (ClO2) and vacuum-packed treatment during chilled storage. The peroxide value (PV) and malondialdehyde [...] Read more.
Spectrophotometric- and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based lipidomics analyses were performed to explore the changes of lipid profiles in pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus) under stable chlorine dioxides (ClO2) and vacuum-packed treatment during chilled storage. The peroxide value (PV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in ClO2 treated and vacuum-packaged (VP) samples were significantly reduced compared to simple-packaged (SP) samples during whole chilled storage. The LC/MS-based lipidomics analyses identified 2182 lipid species in the pike eel muscle classified into 39 subclasses, including 712 triglycerides (TGs), 310 phosphatidylcholines (PCs), 153 phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), and 147 diglycerides (DGs), among others. Further, in comparison with fresh pike eel (FE) muscle, 354 and 164 higher and 420 and 193 lower abundant levels of differentially abundant lipids (DALs) were identified in SP samples and VP samples, respectively. Compared with the VP batch, 396 higher and 404 lower abundant levels of DALs were identified in the SP batch. Among these, PCs, PEs, TGs, and DGs were more easily oxidized/hydrolyzed, which could be used as biomarkers to distinguish FE, SP, and VP samples. This research provides a reference for controlling lipid oxidation in fatty fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
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17 pages, 3772 KiB  
Article
The Peptide Fractions of Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactobacillus helveticus 1.0612 Play Protective Effects in H2O2-Induced Oxidative-Damaged Caco-2 Cells Models
by Wanshuang Yang, Xiuxiu Zhang, Meng Sun, Yang Jiao, Xiaodong Li, Lu Liu and Zhong Wang
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2790; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142790 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
In this study, water-soluble peptide (WSP) fractions of cheddar cheese made with Lactobacillus helveticus 1.0612 were purified into WSP-Ⅰ (<3 kDa), WSP-Ⅱ (3–10 kDa), and WSP-Ⅲ (>10 kDa). The protective effects of WSP, WSP-Ⅰ, WSP-Ⅱ, and WSP-Ⅲ fractions against oxidative stress in Caco-2 [...] Read more.
In this study, water-soluble peptide (WSP) fractions of cheddar cheese made with Lactobacillus helveticus 1.0612 were purified into WSP-Ⅰ (<3 kDa), WSP-Ⅱ (3–10 kDa), and WSP-Ⅲ (>10 kDa). The protective effects of WSP, WSP-Ⅰ, WSP-Ⅱ, and WSP-Ⅲ fractions against oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells were assayed, and the cytoprotective mechanism of WSP-Ⅰ on cells oxidative damage was elucidated via metabolomics. The results showed that all four peptide fractions were able to attenuate the decrease in cell viability caused by oxidative stress and also could reduce the production of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde caused by oxidative stress, and increased cellular catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, thereby enhancing cellular antioxidant capacity. The WSP-Ⅰ fraction with the highest protective effect was used for metabolomics analysis, and 15 significantly different metabolites were screened. Functional pathway analysis revealed that the protective effect of the WSP-I fraction was related with nine metabolic pathways and weakened the metabolic disorders caused by H2O2 via regulating energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. All in all, peptide fractions of cheddar cheese showed a cytoprotective effect through improved cellular metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk and Dairy Products: Structure, Digestion, and Properties)
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13 pages, 1238 KiB  
Article
Branched Chain Amino Acid Content and Antioxidant Activity of Mung Bean Tempeh Powder for Developing Oral Nutrition Supplements
by Yanti, Vanessa Violina, Caecilia Eka Putri and Bibiana Widiyati Lay
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2789; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142789 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Mung bean (Vigna radiata), a non-soybean legume, is known as one of the vegetable protein sources with 27% protein content. Mung bean also has a high content of essential amino acids, including branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). The use of mung [...] Read more.
Mung bean (Vigna radiata), a non-soybean legume, is known as one of the vegetable protein sources with 27% protein content. Mung bean also has a high content of essential amino acids, including branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). The use of mung bean for tempeh production presumably increases its nutritional value and functional efficacy, most significantly in protein and BCAA content. This tempeh is further applied for developing modern functional foods such as oral nutrition supplements (ONS). ONS can be used as a substitute for food and emergency food due to its complete nutritional content, as well as to treat malnourished patients. This study was aimed to produce mung bean tempeh powder, to formulate a mung bean tempeh one shot ONS high in BCAA content, and to determine its proximate analysis, antioxidant activity, and sensory characterization. Mung bean tempeh powder was successfully obtained with a yield of 37.50%, protein 39.19%, total amino acids 286.21 mg/g, essential amino acids 117.97 mg/g, and BCAAs 54.14 mg/g. There were 6 ONS formulas that were made with the combination of mung bean tempeh powder, palm sugar or honey, olive oil, and addition of an emulsifier. The selected formulas (F1 and F4) as well as commercial mung bean juice were sensory analyzed by applying an appropriate hedonic test. The results showed that the panelists both liked ONS F1 and F4 (p > 0.05). In addition, both ONS F1 and F4 at 5% demonstrated a significant antioxidant capacity, 92.79% and 82.57% of ascorbic acid, respectively. These data suggest that mung bean tempeh containing high branched amino acids could be recommended as a functional ingredient that gives health promotion for ONS development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Composition and Bioactive Components of Foods)
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6 pages, 993 KiB  
Communication
The Potential of Soluble Gas Stabilization (SGS) Technology in a Simulated Post-Frying Cooling Step of Commercial Fish Cakes
by Bjørn Tore Rotabakk, Elena Marie Rognstad, Anita Nordeng Jakobsen and Jørgen Lerfall
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2788; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142788 - 22 Jul 2023
Viewed by 988
Abstract
Soluble gas stabilization (SGS) technology is a novel way to increase the effectiveness of modified atmosphere (MA) packaging. However, SGS can be time-consuming and difficult to include in an existing process. This can be overcome by including CO2 in an existing processing [...] Read more.
Soluble gas stabilization (SGS) technology is a novel way to increase the effectiveness of modified atmosphere (MA) packaging. However, SGS can be time-consuming and difficult to include in an existing process. This can be overcome by including CO2 in an existing processing step, such as the product’s cooling step. A full factorial design was set up with SGS times (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 h) and temperatures of fish cakes (chilled (0 °C) or during chilling (starting at 85 °C)) as factors. MA-packaged fish cakes were included as a control. The response was headspace gas composition at equilibrium. Headspace gas composition at equilibrium showed significantly (p < 0.05) less dissolved CO2 in hot fish cakes after 0.5 h than in cold cakes. Still, no significant differences were found between hot and cold at 1.0 and 2.0 h. Also, all SGS samples, regardless of time and temperature, had a higher content of CO2 compared to modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Packaging—Technology, Materials, and Safety Issues)
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14 pages, 1462 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Bacteriophages against Biofilm-Forming Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli In Vitro and on Food-Contact Surfaces
by Divya Jaroni, Pushpinder Kaur Litt, Punya Bule and Kaylee Rumbaugh
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142787 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
(1) Background: Formation of biofilms on food-contact surfaces by Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) can pose a significant challenge to the food industry, making conventional control methods insufficient. Targeted use of bacteriophages to disrupt these biofilms could reduce this problem. Previously isolated and characterized [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Formation of biofilms on food-contact surfaces by Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) can pose a significant challenge to the food industry, making conventional control methods insufficient. Targeted use of bacteriophages to disrupt these biofilms could reduce this problem. Previously isolated and characterized bacteriophages (n = 52) were evaluated against STEC biofilms in vitro and on food-contact surfaces. (2) Methods: Phage treatments (9 logs PFU/mL) in phosphate-buffered saline were used individually or as cocktails. Biofilms of STEC (O157, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were formed in 96-well micro-titer plates (7 logs CFU/mL; 24 h) or on stainless steel (SS) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) coupons (9 logs CFU/cm2; 7 h), followed by phage treatment. Biofilm disruption was measured in vitro at 0, 3, and 6 h as a change in optical density (A595). Coupons were treated with STEC serotype-specific phage-cocktails or a 21-phage cocktail (3 phages/serotype) for 0, 3, 6, and 16 h, and surviving STEC populations were enumerated. (3) Results: Of the 52 phages, 77% showed STEC biofilm disruption in vitro. Serotype-specific phage treatments reduced pathogen population within the biofilms by 1.9–4.1 and 2.3–5.6 logs CFU/cm2, while the 21-phage cocktail reduced it by 4.0 and 4.8 logs CFU/cm2 on SS and HDPE, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Bacteriophages can be used to reduce STEC and their biofilms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria: Prevalence and Control—Volume II)
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12 pages, 6324 KiB  
Article
The Protective Effect of Broccoli Seed Extract against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Liver Injury via Gut Microbiota Modulation and Sulforaphane Production in Mice
by Bingyong Mao, Baojing Ren, Jiaying Wu, Xin Tang, Qiuxiang Zhang, Jianxin Zhao, Le Zhang, Wei Chen and Shumao Cui
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2786; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142786 - 21 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1590
Abstract
Broccoli seed extract (BSE) is rich in glucoraphanin (GRP), which may be transformed by intestinal microbes into sulforaphane (SFN), a compound with strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Liver injury usually presents with inflammation and oxidative damage. Thus, dietary BSE supplementation may be an [...] Read more.
Broccoli seed extract (BSE) is rich in glucoraphanin (GRP), which may be transformed by intestinal microbes into sulforaphane (SFN), a compound with strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Liver injury usually presents with inflammation and oxidative damage. Thus, dietary BSE supplementation may be an effective approach for alleviating liver injury. In this study, a mouse lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury model was used to evaluate the preventive effect of BSE and explore the relevant mechanisms. Compared with the LPS model group, the mice in the BSE group showed significantly lower activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and higher levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. Meanwhile, BSE significantly reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6 and TNF-α) in the liver and increased the level of anti-inflammatory factor (IL-10), indicating that BSE had a good preventive effect on acute liver injury. Additionally, after BSE intervention, the diversity of intestinal microbiota in the mice was higher than that in the LPS model group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Lactobacillus increased, while the relative abundance of Xylanophilum decreased. A correlation analysis revealed that the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and levels of IL-10 were positively correlated with the relative abundance of Lactobacillus. Furthermore, sulforaphane (SFN) and (Sulforaphane-N-Acetyl-Cysteine) SFN-NAC were detected in the urine of the mice after BSE intervention. Both q-PCR and an immunohistochemical analysis showed that BSE significantly regulated the expression level of the NF-κB (IκB-α, NF-κB) and Nrf2 (Nrf2, p-Nrf2 and HO-1) signaling pathways in the liver. In conclusion, BSE was shown to reduce LPS-induced acute liver injury through the conversion of glucoraphanin into sulforaphane and the regulation of the gut microbiota composition. These results suggest that BSE could be a promising ingredient in functional foods. Full article
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