Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Analytical Methods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 14334

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Food Science and Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou, China
Interests: food contaminants; immunoassay; biosensor; nanobody; peptidomimetic
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food contaminants, such as mycotoxin, pesticides, heavy metals, veterinary drugs, and illegal additives, pose serious threats to public health and food safety. Developing rapid and sensitive detection methods is critical to minimize exposure to food contaminants. Instrumental techniques, such as the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, have been well established for food analysis. Immunoassay technologies have become beneficial supplements to instrumental techniques because of their time-saving properties for the routine laboratory that requires high-throughput, cost-effective, and non-expensive instrumentation, immediacy in decision-making, and field detection. Due to the advances in gene engineering and material engineering, various novel recognition elements, such as nanobodies, aptamers, and peptidomimetics, as well as nanomaterials such as magnetic beads, quantum dots, metal–organic frameworks, and aggregation-induced emission probes, have facilitated the development of many novel immunoassay technologies. Therefore, this Special Issue aims to publish the latest research on the emerging immunoassay technologies which involve novel recognition elements and nanomaterials to detect food contaminants. Additionally, reviews in the field of immunoassay for food contaminants are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Xing Liu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antibody
  • aptamer
  • peptidomimetic
  • immunoassay
  • immunosensor
  • nanomaterial
  • food contaminants

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

26 pages, 3431 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via GC-MS/MS and Heterocyclic Amines via UPLC-MS/MS in Crispy Pork Spareribs for Studying Their Formation during Frying
by Yu-Wen Lai, Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj and Bing-Huei Chen
Foods 2024, 13(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020185 - 5 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
This study aims to explore the effects of frying conditions on the formation of HAs and PAHs in crispy pork spareribs, a popular meat commodity sold on Taiwan’s market. Raw pork spareribs were marinated, coated with sweet potato powder, and fried in soybean [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore the effects of frying conditions on the formation of HAs and PAHs in crispy pork spareribs, a popular meat commodity sold on Taiwan’s market. Raw pork spareribs were marinated, coated with sweet potato powder, and fried in soybean oil and palm oil at 190 °C/6 min or 150 °C/12 min, followed by an analysis of HAs and PAHs via QuEChERS coupled with UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, respectively. Both HAs and PAHs in pork spareribs during frying followed a temperature- and time-dependent rise. A total of 7 HAs (20.34–25.97 μg/kg) and 12 PAHs (67.69–85.10 μg/kg) were detected in pork spareribs fried in soybean oil and palm oil at 150 °C/12 min or 190 °C/6 min, with palm oil producing a higher level of total HAs and a lower level of total PAHs than soybean oil. The content changes of amino acid, reducing sugar, and creatinine played a vital role in affecting HA formation, while the degree of oil unsaturation and the contents of precursors including benzaldehyde, 2-cyclohexene-1-one, and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal showed a crucial role in affecting PAH formation. The principal component analysis revealed that HAs and PAHs were formed by different mechanisms, with the latter being more liable to formation in pork spareribs during frying, while the two-factorial analysis indicated that the interaction between oil type and frying condition was insignificant for HAs and PAHs generated in crispy pork spareribs. Both CcdP (22.67–32.78 μg/kg) and Pyr (16.70–22.36 μg/kg) dominated in PAH formation, while Harman (14.46–17.91 μg/kg) and Norharman (3.41–4.55 μg/kg) dominated in HA formation in crispy pork spareribs during frying. The outcome of this study forms a basis for learning both the variety and content of HAs and PAHs generated during the frying of pork spareribs and the optimum frying condition to minimize their formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 7023 KiB  
Article
Silver Nanoparticle Sensor Array-Based Meat Freshness Inspection System
by Jiahang Yu, Mingyuan Huang, Huixin Tian and Xinglian Xu
Foods 2023, 12(20), 3814; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12203814 - 18 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
The series of biochemical reactions, metabolic pathways, and regulatory interactions that occur during the storage of meat are the main causes of meat loss and waste. The volatile compounds produced by these reactions, such as hydrogen sulfide, acids, and amines, can directly indicate [...] Read more.
The series of biochemical reactions, metabolic pathways, and regulatory interactions that occur during the storage of meat are the main causes of meat loss and waste. The volatile compounds produced by these reactions, such as hydrogen sulfide, acids, and amines, can directly indicate changes in the freshness of meat during storage and sales. In this study, a one-pot hydrothermal method based on a surface control strategy was used to develop nanoparticles of silver with different reactivities, which were further immobilized in agar powder to develop a colorimetric sensor array. Due to the different chemical interactions with various volatile compounds, the colorimetric sensor array exhibited distinct color changes. The study demonstrates significant differences between 12 different volatile compounds and provides a quantitative and visual method to reveal rich detection indicators. The colorimetric sensor array is an economical and practical multi-analyte identification method. It has many potential applications such as food packaging, anti-counterfeiting, health monitoring, environmental monitoring, and optical filters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 4213 KiB  
Article
Establishment of Residual Methods for Matrine in Quinoa Plants and Soil and the Effect on Soil Bacterial Community and Composition
by Xiangjuan Hui, Hongyu Chen, Shuo Shen, Hui Zhi and Wei Li
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1337; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061337 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
A method was developed for the determination of matrine residues in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants and soil by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with QuEChERS clean-up. Matrine from soil, quinoa roots, stems, leaves and seeds was extracted with [...] Read more.
A method was developed for the determination of matrine residues in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants and soil by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with QuEChERS clean-up. Matrine from soil, quinoa roots, stems, leaves and seeds was extracted with 25% ammonia, 20 mL acetonitrile/methanol, salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) and purified with anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), N-propyl ethylenediamine (PSA) and graphitized carbon black (GCB). Then a chromatographic separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II (75 mm × 2.0 mm, i. d., 2.2 µm) column with a gradient elution of 5 mmol/L ammonium formate-methanol as the mobile phase and monitored in multiple reaction monitoring modes (MRM) in electrospray positive ionization mode. The results showed that in the range of 0.005~1 mg/L, the linear correlation coefficients of matrine in the five matrices were all above 0.999. The LOQs for soil, quinoa roots, stems, leaves and seeds were 0.005, 0.005, 0.01, 0.01 and 0.005 mg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries ranged from 74.42% to 98.37%, with RSDs of 1.25–6.84% at the three concentration addition levels. The average intra-day and inter-day recoveries were 73.92–92.36% and 78.56–90.18%, respectively, with RSDs below 8.72% and 9.43%. The recoveries and reproducibility of the method were superior. The method was used to determine the actual samples, which indicated that the half-lives of matrine in quinoa seeds, leaves, stems and soil were 1.28–1.32, 1.03–1.21, 0.81–0.92 and 0.93–0.97 d. It has a half-life below 30 d, which is an easily dissipated pesticide. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, reliable and applicable to a wide range of applications, and it can achieve the rapid multi-residue determination of matrine to a certain extent. Next Generation Sequencing was used to explore the effects of exposure to high and low doses of matrine on soil bacterial communities and the composition of the three soils in the Qinghai Province (Haixi, Haidong and Haibei). The results showed that the number of ASVs increased significantly after treatment with matrine at an effective dose of 0.1 mg/kg than after treatment with matrine at an effective dose of 5.0 mg/kg. Similarly, bacterial abundance was higher after 0.1 mg/kg of matrine treatment than after 5.0 mg/kg of matrine treatment. The inhibitory effect on some bacterial flora was enhanced with an increase in matrine application, while the inhibitory effect on bacterial flora was weakened with time. Applying a certain dose of matrine e changed the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial genera of the soil bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5163 KiB  
Article
A Novel Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor Based on Resonance Energy Transfer between g-CN and NU-1000(Zr) for Ultrasensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Coffee
by Linzhi Li, Xiaofeng Wang, Jian Chen, Tianzeng Huang, Hongmei Cao and Xing Liu
Foods 2023, 12(4), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040707 - 6 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
In this study, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor based on nanobody heptamer and resonance energy transfer (RET) between g-C3N4 (g-CN) and NU-1000(Zr) was proposed for ultrasensitive ochratoxin A (OTA) detection. First, OTA heptamer fusion protein was prepared by fusing OTA-specific nanometric [...] Read more.
In this study, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor based on nanobody heptamer and resonance energy transfer (RET) between g-C3N4 (g-CN) and NU-1000(Zr) was proposed for ultrasensitive ochratoxin A (OTA) detection. First, OTA heptamer fusion protein was prepared by fusing OTA-specific nanometric (Nb28) with a c-terminal fragment of C4 binding protein (C4bpα) (Nb28-C4bpα). Then, Nb28-C4bpα heptamer with the high affinity used as a molecular recognition probe, of which plenty of binding sites were provided for OTA-Apt-NU-1000(Zr) nanocomposites, thereby improving the immunosensors’ sensitivity. In addition, the quantitative analysis of OTA can be achieved by using the signal quenching effect of NU-1000(Zr) on g-CN. As the concentration of OTA increases, the amount of OTA-Apt-NU-1000(Zr) fixed on the electrode surface decreases. RET between g-CN and NU-1000(Zr) is weakened leading to the increase of ECL signal. Thus, OTA content is indirectly proportional to ECL intensity. Based on the above principle, an ultra-sensitive and specific ECL immunosensor for OTA detection was constructed by using heptamer technology and RET between two nanomaterials, with a range from 0.1 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL, and the detection limit of only 33 fg/mL. The prepared ECL-RET immunosensor showed good performance and can be successfully used for the determination of OTA content in real coffee samples, suggesting that the nanobody polymerization strategy and the RET effect between NU-1000(Zr) and g-CN can provide an alternative for improving the sensitivity of important mycotoxin detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3636 KiB  
Article
Rapid and Simultaneous Detection of Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, and T-2 Toxin in Medicinal and Edible Food Using Gold Immunochromatographic Test Strip
by Jiaying Zhang, Xiujiang Li, Jianhua Xie and Zhibing Huang
Foods 2023, 12(3), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030633 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2186
Abstract
(1) Background: Medicinal and edible food and traditional Chinese medicine have been used to treat various diseases. However, their safety has not been thoroughly assessed. (2) Methods: An immunochromatographic test strip (ICS) was used for the first time to screen some mycotoxins, including [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Medicinal and edible food and traditional Chinese medicine have been used to treat various diseases. However, their safety has not been thoroughly assessed. (2) Methods: An immunochromatographic test strip (ICS) was used for the first time to screen some mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN), and T-2 toxin, in medicinal and edible food and traditional Chinese medicine. Antibody/nano-gold particle coupling was used with the prepared ICS, and the pH, monoclonal antibody concentration, and antigen amount were optimized. The extraction sample solution was diluted 10 times with phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.5% Tween-20 and 0.05% sodium dodecyl sulfate to remove the complex matrix in medicinal and edible food. (3) Results: Under optimal conditions, the sensitivities of the developed ICS for AFB1, ZEN, and T-2 were 0.5, 5.0, and 5.0 ng/mL, respectively. Among the 30 medicinal and edible food samples tested, two samples (both of sand jujube kernels) were positive, and the results were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were consistent with the ICS test results. (4) Conclusions: The ICS could be used for rapid screening and simultaneous detection of mycotoxins at medicinal and edible food storage facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 1705 KiB  
Article
Rapid Detection of Carbendazim Residue in Apple Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering and Coupled Chemometric Algorithm
by Xiaowei Huang, Ning Zhang, Zhihua Li, Jiyong Shi, Haroon Elrasheid Tahir, Yue Sun, Yang Zhang, Xinai Zhang, Melvin Holmes and Xiaobo Zou
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091287 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2329
Abstract
In order to achieve rapid and precise quantification detection of carbendazim residues, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) combined with variable selected regression methods were developed. A higher sensitivity and greater density of “hot spots” in three-dimensional (3D) SERS substrates based on silver nanoparticles compound [...] Read more.
In order to achieve rapid and precise quantification detection of carbendazim residues, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) combined with variable selected regression methods were developed. A higher sensitivity and greater density of “hot spots” in three-dimensional (3D) SERS substrates based on silver nanoparticles compound polyacrylonitrile (Ag-NPs @PAN) nanohump arrays were fabricated to capture and amplify the SERS signal of carbendazim. Four Raman spectral variable selection regression models were established and comparatively assessed. The results showed that the bootstrapping soft shrinkage-partial least squares (BOSS-PLS) method achieved the best predictive capacity after variable selection, and the final BOSS-PLS model has the correlation coefficient (RP) of 0.992. Then, this method used to detect the carbendazim residue in apple samples; the recoveries were 86~116%, and relative standard deviation (RSD) is less than 10%. The 3D SERS substrates combined with the BOSS-PLS algorithm can deliver a simple and accurate method for trace detection of carbendazim residues in apples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

24 pages, 4455 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors for the Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: Current Perspective and Challenges
by Bo Wang, Hang Wang, Xubin Lu, Xiangfeng Zheng and Zhenquan Yang
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2795; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142795 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3103
Abstract
Foodborne pathogens cause many diseases and significantly impact human health and the economy. Foodborne pathogens mainly include Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, which are present in agricultural products, dairy products, animal-derived foods and [...] Read more.
Foodborne pathogens cause many diseases and significantly impact human health and the economy. Foodborne pathogens mainly include Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, which are present in agricultural products, dairy products, animal-derived foods and the environment. Various pathogens in many different types of food and water can cause potentially life-threatening diseases and develop resistance to various types of antibiotics. The harm of foodborne pathogens is increasing, necessitating effective and efficient methods for early monitoring and detection. Traditional methods, such as real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and culture plate, are time-consuming, labour-intensive and expensive and cannot satisfy the demands of rapid food testing. Therefore, new fast detection methods are urgently needed. Electrochemical biosensors provide consumer-friendly methods to quickly detect foodborne pathogens in food and the environment and achieve extensive accuracy and reproducible results. In this paper, by focusing on various mechanisms of electrochemical transducers, we present a comprehensive overview of electrochemical biosensors for the detection of foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, the review introduces the hazards of foodborne pathogens, risk analysis methods and measures of control. Finally, the review also emphasizes the recent research progress and solutions regarding the use of electrochemical biosensors to detect foodborne pathogens in food and the environment, evaluates limitations and challenges experienced during the development of biosensors to detect foodborne pathogens and discusses future possibilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Analytical Technologies for Food Contaminants Detection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop