Next Issue
Volume 11, January-2
Previous Issue
Volume 10, December
 
 

Foods, Volume 11, Issue 1 (January-1 2022) – 134 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The dairy industry is moving toward the "Industry 4.0" concept, which aims at digitalization and automation across the entire production chain by increasing connectivity from raw materials to the final product. In this context, process analytical technology (PAT) can ensure final product quality through real-time measurements of performance attributes along the whole production chain. The study proposes, tests, and validates a PAT approach for the control of milk coagulation through Fourier transform-Near Infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical process control charts based on principal component analysis. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
13 pages, 1103 KiB  
Article
Polish Consumers’ Understanding of Different Front-of-Package Food Labels: A Randomized Experiment
by Valentina A. Andreeva, Manon Egnell, Katarzyna Stoś, Beata Przygoda, Zenobia Talati, Mathilde Touvier, Pilar Galan, Serge Hercberg, Simone Pettigrew and Chantal Julia
Foods 2022, 11(1), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010134 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4194
Abstract
Dietary practices are a key behavioral factor in chronic disease prevention; one strategy for improving such practices population-wise involves front-of-package labels (FoPL). This online randomized study, conducted in a quota-based sample of 1159 Polish adults (mean age = 40.9 ± 15.4 years), assessed [...] Read more.
Dietary practices are a key behavioral factor in chronic disease prevention; one strategy for improving such practices population-wise involves front-of-package labels (FoPL). This online randomized study, conducted in a quota-based sample of 1159 Polish adults (mean age = 40.9 ± 15.4 years), assessed the objective understanding of five FoPL: Health Star Rating, Multiple Traffic Lights, NutriScore, Reference Intakes (RI) and Warning Label. Objective understanding was evaluated by comparing results of two nutritional quality ranking tasks (without/with FoPL) using three food categories (breakfast cereals, cakes, pizza). Associations between FoPL exposure and objective understanding were assessed via multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Compared to RI and across food categories, significant improvement in objective understanding was seen for NutriScore (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.41–2.91) and Warning Label (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.12–2.32). In age-stratified analyses, significant improvement in objective understanding compared to RI emerged mainly among adults aged 18–30 years randomized to NutriScore (all food categories: OR = 3.88; 95% CI: 2.04–7.36; cakes: OR = 6.88; 95% CI: 3.05–15.51). Relative to RI, NutriScore was associated with some improvement in objective understanding of FoPL across and within food categories, especially among young adults. These findings contribute to the ongoing debate about an EU-wide FoPL model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2393 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Storage Stability and Quality Properties of Fresh Noodles Mixed with Plasma-Activated Water
by Yawei Wang, Yuchang Liu, Man Li, Meng Ma and Qingjie Sun
Foods 2022, 11(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010133 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3244
Abstract
Enhancing the quality retention of fresh noodles remains challenging. In this study, we investigated the effect of dough mixing with plasma-activated water (PAW) of different activation times on the storage stability and quality characteristics of fresh noodles. It was found that the total [...] Read more.
Enhancing the quality retention of fresh noodles remains challenging. In this study, we investigated the effect of dough mixing with plasma-activated water (PAW) of different activation times on the storage stability and quality characteristics of fresh noodles. It was found that the total plate count in the fresh noodles prepared by PAW (PAWN) showed no obvious inhibition during storage at 25 °C, but could be significantly reduced at 4 °C as compared with the control. The decrease in L* value and pH of the PAWN was significantly retarded during storage, indicating an enhanced storage stability. The stability time of dough mixed with PAW could be significantly improved. PAW treatment decreased the viscosity properties and setback value of starch, while enhancing the interaction of water and non-water components in fresh noodles. In addition, dynamic polymerization and depolymerization of proteins were detected in Size-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (SE-HPLC) profiles of PAWN. The hardness and adhesiveness of the cooked noodles decreased, while the springiness significantly increased. These results implied the potential of PAW in improving the storage stability and quality of fresh noodles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Whole Grain Foods, Noodles and Steamed Bread)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

14 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
Optimized Antibacterial Effects in a Designed Mixture of Essential Oils of Myrtus communis, Artemisia herba-alba and Thymus serpyllum for Wide Range of Applications
by Wessal Ouedrhiri, Hamza Mechchate, Sandrine Moja, Sylvie Baudino, Asmaa Saleh, Omkulthom M. Al Kamaly, Andriy Grafov and Hassane Greche
Foods 2022, 11(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010132 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
Nowadays, the combination of molecules influences their biological effects, and interesting outcomes can be obtained from different component interactions. Using a mixture design method, this research seeks to simulate the efficacy of essential oil combinations against various bacteria and forecast the ideal combination. [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the combination of molecules influences their biological effects, and interesting outcomes can be obtained from different component interactions. Using a mixture design method, this research seeks to simulate the efficacy of essential oil combinations against various bacteria and forecast the ideal combination. The chemical compositions of Myrtus communis, Artemisia herba-alba and Thymus serpyllum essential oils were analyzed using CG/MS. Then, the combined antibacterial effects were evaluated by testing mixture design formulations using the microdilution bioassay. The main compounds detected for M. communis essential oil were myrtenyl acetate (33.67%), linalool (19.77%) and 1,8-cineole (10.65%). A. herba-alba had piperitone as a chemotype, representing 85%. By contrast, the T. serpyllum oil contained thymol (17.29%), γ-terpinene (18.31%) and p-cymene (36.15%). The antibacterial effect of the essential oils studied, and the optimum mixtures obtained were target strain-dependent. T. serpyllum alone ensured the optimal inhibition against S. aureus and E. coli, while a ternary mixture consisting of 17.1%, 39.6% and 43.1% of M. communis, A. herba-alba and T. serpyllum respectively, was associated with optimal inhibitory activity against B. subtilis. The outcome of this research supports the idea of the boosting effect of essential oil combinations toward better activities, giving better understanding of the usefulness of mixture designs for food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 769 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Inherent Cooking Rate and Warner-Bratzler Shear Force of Pork Chops Cooked to Two Degrees of Doneness
by Taylor N. Nethery, Dustin D. Boler, Bailey N. Harsh and Anna C. Dilger
Foods 2022, 11(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010131 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
The objective was to test inherent cooking rate differences on tenderness values of boneless pork chops when exogenous factors known to influence cooking rate were controlled. Temperature and elapsed time were monitored during cooking for all chops. Cooking rate was calculated as the [...] Read more.
The objective was to test inherent cooking rate differences on tenderness values of boneless pork chops when exogenous factors known to influence cooking rate were controlled. Temperature and elapsed time were monitored during cooking for all chops. Cooking rate was calculated as the change in °C per minute of cooking time. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured on chops cooked to either 63 °C or 71 °C. Slopes of regression lines and coefficients of determination between cooking rate and tenderness values for both degrees of doneness (DoD) were calculated. Shear force values decreased as cooking rate increased regardless of DoD (p ≤ 0.05), however changes in tenderness due to increased cooking rate were limited (β1 = −0.201 for 63 °C; β1 = −0.217 for 71 °C). Cooking rate only explained 3.2% and 5.4% of variability in WBSF of chops cooked to 63 °C and 71 °C, respectively. Cooking loss explained the most variability in WBSF regardless of DoD (partial R2 = 0.09–0.12). When all factors were considered, a stepwise regression model explained 20% of WBSF variability of chops cooked to 63 °C and was moderately predictive of WBSF (model R2 = 0.34) for chops cooked to 71 °C. Overall, cooking rate had minimal effect on pork chop tenderness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Effectiveness of Triple Benefit Health Education Intervention on Knowledge, Attitude and Food Security towards Malnutrition among Adolescent Girls in Borno State, Nigeria
by Ruth Charles Shapu, Suriani Ismail, Poh Ying Lim, Norliza Ahmad, Hussaini Garba and Ibrahim Abubakar Njodi
Foods 2022, 11(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010130 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3568
Abstract
Knowledge and attitude are essential components of food security as malnutrition remains a critical public health concern among adolescents. The study evaluates the effectiveness of a Triple Benefit Health Education Intervention on knowledge, attitude and food security towards malnutrition among adolescent girls. This [...] Read more.
Knowledge and attitude are essential components of food security as malnutrition remains a critical public health concern among adolescents. The study evaluates the effectiveness of a Triple Benefit Health Education Intervention on knowledge, attitude and food security towards malnutrition among adolescent girls. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial among 417 randomly selected adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years old in Maiduguri, Borno state, Nigeria from October 2019 to March 2020. About 208 respondents were assigned to experimental while 209 to control group, respectively, using an opaque sealed envelope. A structured questionnaire using KoBo Collect Toolbox was used for the collection of data at baseline, three and six-months post intervention while the data collected were analyzed using generalized estimating equation (GEE). The outcome of the baseline shows no statistically significant difference in sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and food security between experimental and control groups. The study reveals a statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups for knowledge (p < 0.001; p < 0.001), attitude (p < 0.001; p < 0.001) and food security (p = 0.026; p = 0.001) at three and six-months post intervention, respectively. The triple benefit health education intervention package employed in this study can serve as an intervention tool to combat malnutrition among adolescent girls in Nigeria at large. Full article
19 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
An Exploratory Study of the Purchase and Consumption of Beef: Geographical and Cultural Differences between Spain and Brazil
by Danielle Rodrigues Magalhaes, María Teresa Maza, Ivanor Nunes do Prado, Giovani Fiorentini, Jackeline Karsten Kirinus and María del Mar Campo
Foods 2022, 11(1), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010129 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3298
Abstract
Beef consumption and production in Spain and Brazil are different with the consumption of beef in Brazil being three times higher than in Spain. In addition, there are variations in the economic value of production and in the traceability system. Therefore, the aim [...] Read more.
Beef consumption and production in Spain and Brazil are different with the consumption of beef in Brazil being three times higher than in Spain. In addition, there are variations in the economic value of production and in the traceability system. Therefore, the aim of this research was to understand the purchasing and consumption patterns using the customer behavior analysis technique of focus groups, which analyzed motivations for the consumption of beef, classifying their preferences by the intrinsic and extrinsic attributes at the time of purchase. The key aspect of the consumption of beef, both for Spanish and Brazilian consumers, was personal satisfaction/flavor. Spanish consumers were more conscious than Brazilians of the beneficial and harmful qualities that meat provides. The presence of fat was the factor that most restricted intake in both countries. The most important intrinsic attributes for Spanish and Brazilian consumers were the visual aspects of the meat: color, freshness, and the quantity and disposition of fat. The most important extrinsic characteristics were the price and expiration date. Spanish consumers see packaged meat as convenient and safe, although it is considered by Brazilians to be over-manipulated. The traceability certification on the label provides credibility to the product for the Spanish but only partially for Brazilians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Quality Assessments of Foods of Animal Origin)
13 pages, 25589 KiB  
Article
Morphology and Rheology of a Cool-Gel (Protein) Blended with a Thermo-Gel (Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose)
by Zhili Ji, Long Yu, Qingfei Duan, Song Miao, Hongsheng Liu, Wangyang Shen and Weiping Jin
Foods 2022, 11(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010128 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2964
Abstract
This study investigates the morphological and rheological properties of blended gelatin (GA; a cooling-induced gel (cool-gel)) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC; a heating-induced gel (thermo-gel)) systems using a fluorescence microscope, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and a rheometer. The results clearly indicate that the [...] Read more.
This study investigates the morphological and rheological properties of blended gelatin (GA; a cooling-induced gel (cool-gel)) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC; a heating-induced gel (thermo-gel)) systems using a fluorescence microscope, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and a rheometer. The results clearly indicate that the two biopolymers are immiscible and have low compatibility. Moreover, the rheological behavior and morphology of the GA/HPMC blends significantly depend on the blending ratio and concentration. Higher polysaccharide contents decrease the gelling temperature and improve the gel viscoelasticity character of GA/HPMC blended gels. The SAXS results reveal that the correlation length (ξ) of the blended gels decreases from 5.16 to 1.89 nm as the HPMC concentration increases from 1 to 6%, which suggests that much denser networks are formed in blended gels with higher HPMC concentrations. Overall, the data reported herein indicate that the gel properties of gelatin can be enhanced by blending with a heating-induced gel. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 2893 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dairy, Season, and Sampling Position on Physical Properties of Trentingrana Cheese: Application of an LMM-ASCA Model
by Michele Ricci, Flavia Gasperi, Isabella Endrizzi, Leonardo Menghi, Danny Cliceri, Pietro Franceschi and Eugenio Aprea
Foods 2022, 11(1), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010127 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2232
Abstract
Trentingrana hard cheese is a geographic specification of the PDO Grana Padano. It is produced according to an internal regulation by many cooperative dairy factories in the Trentino region (northern Italy), using a semi-artisanal process (the only allowed ingredients are milk, salt, and [...] Read more.
Trentingrana hard cheese is a geographic specification of the PDO Grana Padano. It is produced according to an internal regulation by many cooperative dairy factories in the Trentino region (northern Italy), using a semi-artisanal process (the only allowed ingredients are milk, salt, and rennet). Within the PSR project TRENTINGRANA, colorimetric and textural measurements have been collected from 317 cheese wheels, which were sampled bi-monthly from all the consortium dairies (n = 15) within the timeframe of two years, to estimate the effect on physical properties related to the season of the year and the dairy factory implant. To estimate the effect of the dairy and the time of the year, considering the internal variability of each cheese wheel, a linear mixed-effect model combined with a simultaneous component analysis (LMM-ASCA) is proposed. Results show that all the factors have a significant effect on the colorimetric and textural properties of the cheese. There are five clusters of dairies producing cheese with similar properties, three different couples of months of the year when the cheese produced is significantly different from all the others, and the effect of the geometry of the cheese wheel is reported as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Technology of Dairy Products Volume II)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 2536 KiB  
Article
Impact of Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Digestion on the Bioactive Fraction of Upcycled Pineapple By-Products
by Ricardo Gómez-García, Ana A. Vilas-Boas, Ana Oliveira, Manuela Amorim, José A. Teixeira, Lorenzo Pastrana, Maria Manuela Pintado and Débora A. Campos
Foods 2022, 11(1), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010126 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
Pineapple by-products (peels and stems) from fruit processing industries were evaluated to understand its potential application as a functional food. Therefore, the bioactive compounds of pineapple by-products were characterized for prebiotic and antioxidant activities. A total characterization of soluble carbohydrates profile (simples and [...] Read more.
Pineapple by-products (peels and stems) from fruit processing industries were evaluated to understand its potential application as a functional food. Therefore, the bioactive compounds of pineapple by-products were characterized for prebiotic and antioxidant activities. A total characterization of soluble carbohydrates profile (simples and complex carbohydrates), as well as polyphenols was performed, after removal of enzymatic fraction from pineapple crude juice, allowing the decrease of proteolytic activity and improving the other biological activities. Results showed that pineapple liquid fraction, from stem and peels, can be applied as a prebiotic enhancer, promoting the growth of five probiotic microorganisms (two strains of Lactobacillus sp. and three strains of Bifidobacterium sp.), as a single carbohydrate source. Moreover, through HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis, 10 polyphenols were identified in pineapple liquid fractions, with some expected differences between both evaluated by-products. Gastrointestinal tract was simulated, in a continuous mode to understand the impact of pH changes and gastrointestinal enzymes into pineapple liquid fractions. Results showed a digestion of high molecular weight polysaccharides into small molecular weight tri-, di-, and monosaccharides. There was an increase of samples antioxidant activity through the gastrointestinal stage, followed by the release of specific polyphenols, such as chlorogenic, coumaric, and ferulic acids. The prebiotic activity did not improve throughout the simulation, in fact, the prebiotic potential decreased throughout the different stages. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

5 pages, 196 KiB  
Editorial
Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing
by Sze Ying Leong and Indrawati Oey
Foods 2022, 11(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010125 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
Advanced and novel thermal technologies, such as ohmic heating and dielectric heating (e [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Novel Thermal Technology in Foods Processing)
14 pages, 2123 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Degumming Process Parameters on the Formation of Glyceryl Esters and 3-MCPDE in Refined Palm Oil: Optimization and Palm Oil Quality Analyses
by Mohammad Saiful Nidzam, Md. Sohrab Hossain, Norli Ismail, Razam Abdul Latip, Muhammad Khalish Mohammad Ilias, Md. Bazlul Mobin Siddique and Muzafar Zulkifli
Foods 2022, 11(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010124 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4930
Abstract
The presence of glyceryl esters (GE) and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) in refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) palm oil is severely concerning to the palm oil consumer. In the present study, the influence of the phosphoric acid degumming process on the formation of GE [...] Read more.
The presence of glyceryl esters (GE) and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) in refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) palm oil is severely concerning to the palm oil consumer. In the present study, the influence of the phosphoric acid degumming process on the formation of GE and 3-MCDE and in the RBD palm oil was determined with varying the acid dose (0.03–0.06 wt%), temperature (70–100 °C), and reaction time (15–45 min). The experimental conditions of the acid degumming process were designed following the central composite design of experiments, and they were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on the minimal formation of GE and 3-MCDE in the RBD palm oil. The optimal experimental conditions of the acid degumming process were a reaction time of 30 min, phosphoric acid concentration of 0.06 wt%, and temperature of 90 °C. Under these experimental conditions, the minimal GE and 3-MCDE formation in RBD palm oil were determined to be 0.61 mg/kg and 0.59 mg/kg; respectively. Several analytical methods were employed to determine RBD palm oil quality, including color, phosphorus, free fatty acids (FFAs), peroxide values, and fatty acid properties. It was found that the phosphoric acid degumming of CPO effectively removed the phosphorus and hydroperoxide content without conceding the quality of palm oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Food Contamination: Harmful Toxins and Chemicals)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 534 KiB  
Review
Development of Novel Pasta Products with Evidence Based Impacts on Health—A Review
by Mike Sissons
Foods 2022, 11(1), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010123 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 7018
Abstract
Pasta made from durum wheat is a widely consumed worldwide and is a healthy and convenient food. In the last two decades, there has been much research effort into improving the nutritional value of pasta by inclusion of nonconventional ingredients due to the [...] Read more.
Pasta made from durum wheat is a widely consumed worldwide and is a healthy and convenient food. In the last two decades, there has been much research effort into improving the nutritional value of pasta by inclusion of nonconventional ingredients due to the demand by health-conscious consumers for functional foods. These ingredients can affect the technological properties of the pasta, but their health impacts are not always measured rather inferred. This review provides an overview of pasta made from durum wheat where the semolina is substituted in part with a range of ingredients (barley fractions, dietary fibre sources, fish ingredients, herbs, inulin, resistant starches, legumes, vegetables and protein extracts). Impacts on pasta technological properties and in vitro measures of phytonutrient enhancement or changes to starch digestion are included. Emphasis is on the literature that provides clinical or animal trial data on the health benefits of the functional pasta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durum Wheat Products - Recent Advances)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 1294 KiB  
Review
Application of High-Intensity Ultrasound to Improve Food Processing Efficiency: A Review
by Prasad Chavan, Pallavi Sharma, Sajeev Rattan Sharma, Tarsem Chand Mittal and Amit K. Jaiswal
Foods 2022, 11(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010122 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 10563
Abstract
The use of non-thermal processing technologies has grown in response to an ever-increasing demand for high-quality, convenient meals with natural taste and flavour that are free of chemical additions and preservatives. Food processing plays a crucial role in addressing food security issues by [...] Read more.
The use of non-thermal processing technologies has grown in response to an ever-increasing demand for high-quality, convenient meals with natural taste and flavour that are free of chemical additions and preservatives. Food processing plays a crucial role in addressing food security issues by reducing loss and controlling spoilage. Among the several non-thermal processing methods, ultrasound technology has shown to be very beneficial. Ultrasound processing, whether used alone or in combination with other methods, improves food quality significantly and is thus considered beneficial. Cutting, freezing, drying, homogenization, foaming and defoaming, filtration, emulsification, and extraction are just a few of the applications for ultrasound in the food business. Ultrasounds can be used to destroy germs and inactivate enzymes without affecting the quality of the food. As a result, ultrasonography is being hailed as a game-changing processing technique for reducing organoleptic and nutritional waste. This review intends to investigate the underlying principles of ultrasonic generation and to improve understanding of their applications in food processing to make ultrasonic generation a safe, viable, and innovative food processing technology, as well as investigate the technology’s benefits and downsides. The breadth of ultrasound’s application in the industry has also been examined. This will also help researchers and the food sector develop more efficient strategies for frequency-controlled power ultrasound in food processing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Emerging Nonthermal Technologies in the Food Industry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1061 KiB  
Article
Egg Yolk Protein Water Extracts Modulate the Immune Response in BALB/c Mice with Immune Dysfunction Caused by Forced Swimming
by Mijoo Choi, Jae-Hoon Lee, Yun-Jung Lee, Hyun-Dong Paik and Eunju Park
Foods 2022, 11(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010121 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the immunomodulatory effects of egg yolk protein–water extract (EYW) on splenocyte proliferation, cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, and NK cell cytotoxic activity in BALB/c mice. The forced swimming test (FST) was used to provide a model [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the immunomodulatory effects of egg yolk protein–water extract (EYW) on splenocyte proliferation, cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, and NK cell cytotoxic activity in BALB/c mice. The forced swimming test (FST) was used to provide a model for suppressing immune regulation. The proliferation of B cells in the EYW supplementation group was significantly increased from the level to which it was reduced by the FST (from 40.9% to 81.8%, p < 0.05). EYW supplementation affected cytokine secretion of splenocytes. Levels of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-10—as Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively—were decreased after the FST. However, EYW supplementation showed that secretion levels of these cytokines were significantly increased to pre-FST levels (p < 0.05). The production of immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) was increased abnormally after the FST, whereas EYW supplementation significantly decreased it to pre-FST levels (p < 0.05). EYW supplementation also improved NK cell cytotoxic activity against YAC-1 tumor cells compared to the PC group (p < 0.05). These data suggest that EYW has potential as an immunomodulatory agent in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Sub-Chronic Oral Exposure of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Italica) By-Products Flour on the Physiological Parameters of FVB/N Mice: A Pilot Study
by Tânia Martins, Paula Alexandra Oliveira, Maria João Pires, Maria João Neuparth, Germano Lanzarin, Luís Félix, Carlos Venâncio, Maria de Lurdes Pinto, João Ferreira, Isabel Gaivão, Ana Isabel Barros, Eduardo Rosa and Luís Miguel Antunes
Foods 2022, 11(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010120 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2794
Abstract
Brassica by-products are a source of natural bioactive molecules such as glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, with potential applications in the nutraceutical and functional food industries. However, the effects of oral sub-chronic exposure to broccoli by-product flour (BF) have not yet been evaluated. The objective [...] Read more.
Brassica by-products are a source of natural bioactive molecules such as glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, with potential applications in the nutraceutical and functional food industries. However, the effects of oral sub-chronic exposure to broccoli by-product flour (BF) have not yet been evaluated. The objective of this pilot study was to analyse the effects of BF intake in the physiological parameters of FVB/N mice fed a 6.7% BF-supplemented diet for 21 days. Glucosinolates and their derivatives were also quantified in plasma and urine. BF supplementation significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the accumulation of perirenal adipose tissue. Furthermore, mice supplemented with BF showed significantly lower (p < 0.01) microhematocrit values than control animals, but no impact on the general genotoxicological status nor relevant toxic effects on the liver and kidney were observed. Concerning hepatic and renal antioxidant response, BF supplementation induced a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels. In BF-supplemented mice, plasma analysis revealed the presence of the glucosinolates glucobrassicin and glucoerucin, and the isothiocyanates sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol. Overall, these results show that daily intake of a high dose of BF during three weeks is safe, and enables the bioavailability of beneficial glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. These results allow further testing of the benefits of this BF in animal models of disease, knowing that exposure of up to 6.7% BF does not present relevant toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceutical Components of Plants and Plant Seeds)
19 pages, 14239 KiB  
Article
Bioactives of Pomegranate By-Products and Barley Malt Grass Engage in Cereal Composite Bar to Achieve Antimycotic and Anti-Aflatoxigenic Attributes
by Ebtihal Yaqoob Khojah, Ahmed Noah Badr, Dalia Amin Mohamed and Adel Gabr Abdel-Razek
Foods 2022, 11(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010119 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2640
Abstract
Food is the source from where a person obtains the body’s daily requirements. People’s current daily habits force them to consume fast food, which is known for its poor nutritional and safety features. So, it is urgent to provide a suitable substitution product [...] Read more.
Food is the source from where a person obtains the body’s daily requirements. People’s current daily habits force them to consume fast food, which is known for its poor nutritional and safety features. So, it is urgent to provide a suitable substitution product to solve this issue. The present investigation aimed to produce a bar with a dual function: nutritional and long shelf life. Two materials were chosen to support the bar manufacturing regarding their bioactive contents, barley malt grass (BMG) and pomegranate byproducts (PBD). Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial potency were measured. Β-carotene, vitamin C, and tocopherol were determined using HPLC apparatus. Extracts’ bio-safety against cell lines was determined, besides their enhancement against cell-death factors. Simulation experiments were designed to evaluate extracts’ impact to extend bar shelf life. Data represented the richness of essential minerals and fibers. Results of the FTIR reflected the existence of various active groups in the contents. Phenolic fractions of PBD are distinctive for their content of ellagic (39.21 ± 5.42 mg/kg), ferulic acid fractions (31.28 ± 4.07 mg/kg) which is a known with antifungal activity. Extracts and their mix (1:1) represented inhibition zone diameters that reach 15.1 ± 1.66 mm for bacteria and 23.81 ± 1.41 mm for fungi. Extracts were shown to have better safety against the cell line strain of hepatic HL-7702, with an elevation of a harmful dose of aflatoxin (IC50 304.5 µg/mL for PBD, IC50 381 µg/mL for BMG). Sensory evaluation of fortified bars reflected a preferable application of mix (1:1) due to color attributes and panelist evaluations, the same result recorded for simulation studies. The experiment recommended applying a mix (1:1) of BMG: PBD in addition to their extracts (200 mg/kg dough) for functional bar manufacturing with antifungal properties. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 2073 KiB  
Article
Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Fermentation of Pea Protein Isolate and Its Effects on Antigenic Proteins, Functional Properties, and Sensory Profile
by Verónica García Arteaga, Victoria Demand, Karolin Kern, Andrea Strube, Michael Szardenings, Isabel Muranyi, Peter Eisner and Ute Schweiggert-Weisz
Foods 2022, 11(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010118 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5058
Abstract
Combinations of enzymatic hydrolysis using different proteolytic enzymes (papain, Esperase®, trypsin) and lactic fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum were used to alter potential pea allergens, the functional properties and sensory profile of pea protein isolate (PPI). The order in which the treatments [...] Read more.
Combinations of enzymatic hydrolysis using different proteolytic enzymes (papain, Esperase®, trypsin) and lactic fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum were used to alter potential pea allergens, the functional properties and sensory profile of pea protein isolate (PPI). The order in which the treatments were performed had a major impact on the changes in the properties of the pea protein isolate; the highest changes were seen with the combination of fermentation followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. SDS-PAGE, gel filtration, and ELISA results showed changes in the protein molecular weight and a reduced immunogenicity of treated samples. Treated samples showed significantly increased protein solubility at pH 4.5 (31.19–66.55%) and at pH 7.0 (47.37–74.95%), compared to the untreated PPI (6.98% and 40.26%, respectively). The foaming capacity was significantly increased (1190–2575%) compared to the untreated PPI (840%). The treated PPI showed reduced pea characteristic off-flavors, where only the treatment with Esperase® significantly increased the bitterness. The results from this study suggest that the combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and lactic fermentation is a promising method to be used in the food industry to produce pea protein ingredients with higher functionality and a highly neutral taste. A reduced detection signal of polyclonal rabbit anti-pea-antibodies against the processed protein preparations in ELISA furthermore might indicate a decreased immunological reaction after consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Methods for Allergen Control in Food Processing)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 3050 KiB  
Article
Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Diverse Expression Pattern Underlying Fatty Acid Composition among Different Beef Cuts
by Tianliu Zhang, Qunhao Niu, Tianzhen Wang, Xu Zheng, Haipeng Li, Xue Gao, Yan Chen, Huijiang Gao, Lupei Zhang, George E. Liu, Junya Li and Lingyang Xu
Foods 2022, 11(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010117 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2722
Abstract
Beef is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids in human nutrition. The fatty acid composition is one of the indispensable indicators affecting nutritional value of beef. However, a comprehensive understanding of the expression changes underlying fatty acid composition [...] Read more.
Beef is an important dietary source of quality animal proteins and amino acids in human nutrition. The fatty acid composition is one of the indispensable indicators affecting nutritional value of beef. However, a comprehensive understanding of the expression changes underlying fatty acid composition in representative beef cuts is needed in cattle. This study aimed to characterize the dynamics of fatty acid composition using comparative transcriptomic analysis in five different type of beef cuts. We identified 7545 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among 10 pair-wise comparisons. Co-expression gene network analysis identified two modules, which were significantly correlated with 2 and 20 fatty acid composition, respectively. We also identified 38 candidate genes, and functional enrichment showed that these genes were involved in fatty acid biosynthetic process and degradation, PPAR, and AMPK signaling pathway. Moreover, we observed a cluster of DEGs (e.g., SCD, LPL, FABP3, and PPARD) which were involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Our results provide some valuable insights into understanding the transcriptome regulation of candidate genes on fatty acid composition of beef cuts, and our findings may facilitate the designs of genetic selection program for beneficial fatty acid composition in beef cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foodomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1035 KiB  
Article
HS-SPME Combined with GC-MS/O to Analyze the Flavor of Strong Aroma Baijiu Daqu
by Zhe Wang, Song Wang, Pengfei Liao, Lu Chen, Jinyuan Sun, Baoguo Sun, Dongrui Zhao, Bowen Wang and Hehe Li
Foods 2022, 11(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010116 - 3 Jan 2022
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4333
Abstract
Daqu has gained wide attention because it is an essential source of microorganisms and flavor in baijiu production. In this study, HS-SPME combined with GC-MS/O was used to analyze the volatile flavor components of Strong aroma baijiu Daqu. DI-GC-O was used to [...] Read more.
Daqu has gained wide attention because it is an essential source of microorganisms and flavor in baijiu production. In this study, HS-SPME combined with GC-MS/O was used to analyze the volatile flavor components of Strong aroma baijiu Daqu. DI-GC-O was used to choose the best extraction fiber to extract the representative overall aroma profile of Daqu. A total of 139 compounds were identified in the six different maturity stages of Daqu, and these compounds are of different types and concentrations. HS-SPME combined with GC-MS/O was used to analyze the aroma active substances in the finished Daqu, and a total of 43 aroma compounds were identified. The OAVs of 21 aromatic compounds were calculated based on the quantitative analysis results of MHS-SPME. Eighteen compounds with OAVs ≥ 1 made significant contributions to the overall aroma of Daqu, including guaiacol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxy phenol, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, etc. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

17 pages, 1234 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review on the Usability of Web-Based Applications in Advocating Consumers on Food Safety
by Wen-Li Seow, Umi Kalsom Md Ariffin, Sook Yee Lim, Nurul Azmawati Mohamed, Kai Wei Lee, Navin Kumar Devaraj and Syafinaz Amin-Nordin
Foods 2022, 11(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010115 - 3 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3298
Abstract
Food safety is an important indicator of public health, as foodborne illnesses continue to cause productivity and economic loss. In recent years, web-based applications have been extensively used by the online users’ population. Almost one third (28.3%) of online users found web-based application [...] Read more.
Food safety is an important indicator of public health, as foodborne illnesses continue to cause productivity and economic loss. In recent years, web-based applications have been extensively used by the online users’ population. Almost one third (28.3%) of online users found web-based application to be a notable source of food safety information. The objective of the current review is to determine the effectiveness of a web-based application systems as a health promotion tool for consumers to increase their knowledge and awareness of food safety. A systematic literature review was conducted by analyzing 11 selected web-based food safety education-related articles. The studies were categorized into several themes: (1) web-based applications used in accessing food safety information; (2) food safety evaluation and perception among consumers; (3) beliefs and level of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of consumers; and (4) impact and contribution of social media use. A diverse number of online applications have been utilized to promote food safety education among consumers, yet these web-based applications need to be improved with regards to social connection and integration among consumers. KAP surveys were conducted on the majority of the respondents with a particular focus on their knowledge level. Findings show that web-based applications may act as an alternative to the traditional media in enhancing food safety education among consumers, especially youths who are tech-savvy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 1990 KiB  
Article
Methodological Approach to Designing Fermented Dairy Products with Optimal Biological Value
by Zinaida S. Zobkova, Ekaterina G. Lazareva and Vladislav K. Semipyatniy
Foods 2022, 11(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010114 - 3 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2784
Abstract
The development of food products implies ensuring the optimal composition and ratio of the basic components, as well as their technological compatibility. A priori, the quality of raw materials, the optimal formula of the product and the efficiency of the technological process determine [...] Read more.
The development of food products implies ensuring the optimal composition and ratio of the basic components, as well as their technological compatibility. A priori, the quality of raw materials, the optimal formula of the product and the efficiency of the technological process determine the quality of products, including biological value. The use of whole-cell sensors such as infusoria Tetrahymena pyriformis is most productive for screening biological studies. At present, for a comprehensive assessment there are no data on the use of simplest technology of fermented dairy products and the design of their biological value. The purpose of this research is to develop a methodology for creating whole-milk products of optimal biological value using the express method of biotesting. The research object was yogurt with the ratio of the mass fraction of fat and protein in the range of 0.36 ÷ 1.5, sucrose in the range of 5 ÷ 10%. An express method for determining the relative biological value of fermented dairy products using test organisms and an original methodology for creating whole-milk products of optimal biological value have been developed. A software has been developed to calculate formula of the product optimized for the following indicators: the relative biological value of the product, the cost of raw material and basic materials. The methodology is a tool to assist industry organizations in improving production technologies and quality management systems. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

36 pages, 2246 KiB  
Review
Geographical Origin Assessment of Extra Virgin Olive Oil via NMR and MS Combined with Chemometrics as Analytical Approaches
by Francesca Calò, Chiara Roberta Girelli, Selina C. Wang and Francesco Paolo Fanizzi
Foods 2022, 11(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010113 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4816
Abstract
Geographical origin assessment of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is recognised worldwide as raising consumers’ awareness of product authenticity and the need to protect top-quality products. The need for geographical origin assessment is also related to mandatory legislation and/or the obligations of true [...] Read more.
Geographical origin assessment of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is recognised worldwide as raising consumers’ awareness of product authenticity and the need to protect top-quality products. The need for geographical origin assessment is also related to mandatory legislation and/or the obligations of true labelling in some countries. Nevertheless, official methods for such specific authentication of EVOOs are still missing. Among the analytical techniques useful for certification of geographical origin, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy (MS), combined with chemometrics, have been widely used. This review considers published works describing the use of these analytical methods, supported by statistical protocols such as multivariate analysis (MVA), for EVOO origin assessment. The research has shown that some specific countries, generally corresponding to the main worldwide producers, are more interested than others in origin assessment and certification. Some specific producers such as Italian EVOO producers may have been focused on this area because of consumers’ interest and/or intrinsic economical value, as testified also by the national concern on the topic. Both NMR- and MS-based approaches represent a mature field where a general validation method for EVOOs geographic origin assessment could be established as a reference recognised procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 823 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Drying Methods and Their Effect on the Stability of Graševina Grape Pomace Biologically Active Compounds
by Tea Sokač, Veronika Gunjević, Anita Pušek, Ana Jurinjak Tušek, Filip Dujmić, Mladen Brnčić, Karin Kovačević Ganić, Tamara Jakovljević, Darko Uher, Grozdana Mitrić and Ivana Radojčić Redovniković
Foods 2022, 11(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010112 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3496
Abstract
Valorisation of grape pomace, a by-product of the winery industry, has been pushed into the spotlight in recent years since it can enable lower environmental impact, but it can also bring an added value to the wine production process by recovering several grape [...] Read more.
Valorisation of grape pomace, a by-product of the winery industry, has been pushed into the spotlight in recent years since it can enable lower environmental impact, but it can also bring an added value to the wine production process by recovering several grape pomace biologically active compounds. The first step that allows for grape pomace reuse is its drying, which should be carefully performed in order to preserve the biologically active compounds’ stability. In this study, the effects of different drying methods on the stability of polyphenols, tannins and tartaric acid in grape pomace (Vitis vinifera) cv. Graševina were investigated. In particular, vacuum drying (at different temperatures: 35, 50 and 70 °C), conventional drying at 70 °C and open sun drying were performed and the drying kinetics was described using Peleg’s model. Considering the processing time and thermodynamics, vacuum drying at 70 °C was the most convenient processing method. Polyphenols were highly stable during drying, and slight degradation occurred during vacuum drying at 35 and 50 °C. Tannins and tartaric acid were more prone to degradation depending on the drying method applied and showed the greatest stability during vacuum drying at 70 °C. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5782 KiB  
Article
A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Multipolar Compounds in Plant Tea by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Coupled to Ion Mobility Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
by Zi-Xuan Yue and Jun Cao
Foods 2022, 11(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010111 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
In this study, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) microextraction combined with supercritical fluid chromatography-ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SFC/IM-QTOF-MS) was used to analyze the multipolar compounds in plant tea. The parameters of stationary phase, mobile phase, make-up solution, temperature, and back pressure [...] Read more.
In this study, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) microextraction combined with supercritical fluid chromatography-ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SFC/IM-QTOF-MS) was used to analyze the multipolar compounds in plant tea. The parameters of stationary phase, mobile phase, make-up solution, temperature, and back pressure were optimized. The target analytes were gradient eluted in 8 min by supercritical CO2 on a Zorbax RX-SIL column. Collisional Cross Section (CCS) values for single and multiple fields were measured. A series of validation studies were carried out under the optimal conditions, and the linear relationship and reproducibility were good. The limits of detection were 1.4 (Scoparone (1))~70 (Naringenin (4)) ng/mL, and the limits of quantification were 4.7 (Scoparone (1))~241 (Naringenin (4)) ng/mL. The recoveries of most compounds ranged from 60.7% to 127%. As a consequence, the proposed method was used for the separation and quantitative analysis of active ingredients in caulis dendrobii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2751 KiB  
Article
Exopolysaccharides from the Energy Microalga Strain Botryococcus braunii: Purification, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity
by Wei-Nan Wang, Tao Li, Yi Li, Ying Zhang, Hua-Lian Wu, Wen-Zhou Xiang and Ai-Fen Li
Foods 2022, 11(1), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010110 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2960
Abstract
Botryococcus braunii, a prestigious energy microalga, has recently received widespread attention because it can secrete large amounts of exopolysaccharides (EPS) with potential applications in food, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Unfortunately, the insufficiency of research on the bioactivity and structure–activity relationship of B [...] Read more.
Botryococcus braunii, a prestigious energy microalga, has recently received widespread attention because it can secrete large amounts of exopolysaccharides (EPS) with potential applications in food, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Unfortunately, the insufficiency of research on the bioactivity and structure–activity relationship of B. braunii EPS has impeded the downstream applications. In the present study, alcohol precipitation, deproteinization, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography were used to extract and purify B. braunii SCS-1905 EPS. It was found that B. braunii SCS-1905 EPS were high-molecular-weight heteropolysaccharides containing uronic acid (7.43–8.83%), protein (2.30–4.04%), and sulfate groups (1.52–1.95%). Additionally, the EPS primarily comprised galactose (52.34–54.12%), glucose (34.60–35.53%), arabinose (9.41–10.32%), and minor amounts of fucose (1.80–1.99%), with the presence of a pyranose ring linked by a β-configurational glycosidic bond. Notably, the antioxidant activity of crude exopolysaccharides (CEPS) was stronger, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for ABTS and hydroxyl radicals was significantly lower than that of deproteinized exopolysaccharides (DEPS). Overall, this study indicated a potential application of B. braunii SCS-1905 EPS as a natural antioxidant. In summary, B. braunii EPS could be used as a potential feedstock for the production of antioxidant health foods. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 807 KiB  
Review
Bioproduction of 2-Phenylethanol through Yeast Fermentation on Synthetic Media and on Agro-Industrial Waste and By-Products: A Review
by Sara Mitri, Mohamed Koubaa, Richard G. Maroun, Tristan Rossignol, Jean-Marc Nicaud and Nicolas Louka
Foods 2022, 11(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010109 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 6144
Abstract
Due to its pleasant rosy scent, the aromatic alcohol 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) has a huge market demand. Since this valuable compound is used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, consumers and safety regulations tend to prefer natural methods for its production rather than the synthetic [...] Read more.
Due to its pleasant rosy scent, the aromatic alcohol 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) has a huge market demand. Since this valuable compound is used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, consumers and safety regulations tend to prefer natural methods for its production rather than the synthetic ones. Natural 2-PE can be either produced through the extraction of essential oils from various flowers, including roses, hyacinths and jasmine, or through biotechnological routes. In fact, the rarity of natural 2-PE in flowers has led to the inability to satisfy the large market demand and to a high selling price. Hence, there is a need to develop a more efficient, economic, and environmentally friendly biotechnological approach as an alternative to the conventional industrial one. The most promising method is through microbial fermentation, particularly using yeasts. Numerous yeasts have the ability to produce 2-PE using l-Phe as precursor. Some agro-industrial waste and by-products have the particularity of a high nutritional value, making them suitable media for microbial growth, including the production of 2-PE through yeast fermentation. This review summarizes the biotechnological production of 2-PE through the fermentation of different yeasts on synthetic media and on various agro-industrial waste and by-products. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 1328 KiB  
Review
Intestinal Organoids: New Tools to Comprehend the Virulence of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens
by Mayra Aguirre Garcia, Killian Hillion, Jean-Michel Cappelier, Michel Neunlist, Maxime M. Mahe and Nabila Haddad
Foods 2022, 11(1), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010108 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4158
Abstract
Foodborne diseases cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the relationships between bacteria and epithelial cells throughout the infection process is essential to setting up preventive and therapeutic solutions. The extensive study of their pathophysiology has mostly been performed on transformed cell cultures [...] Read more.
Foodborne diseases cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the relationships between bacteria and epithelial cells throughout the infection process is essential to setting up preventive and therapeutic solutions. The extensive study of their pathophysiology has mostly been performed on transformed cell cultures that do not fully mirror the complex cell populations, the in vivo architectures, and the genetic profiles of native tissues. Following advances in primary cell culture techniques, organoids have been developed. Such technological breakthroughs have opened a new path in the study of microbial infectious diseases, and thus opened onto new strategies to control foodborne hazards. This review sheds new light on cellular messages from the host–foodborne pathogen crosstalk during in vitro organoid infection by the foodborne pathogenic bacteria with the highest health burden. Finally, future perspectives and current challenges are discussed to provide a better understanding of the potential applications of organoids in the investigation of foodborne infectious diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens and Food Safety)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 3266 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Inducing Effect of Bacillus siamensis on Disease Resistance in Postharvest Mango Fruit
by Zecheng Jiang, Rui Li, Yue Tang, Ziyu Cheng, Minjie Qian, Wen Li and Yuanzhi Shao
Foods 2022, 11(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010107 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
Postharvest anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the most important postharvest diseases of mangoes worldwide. Bacillus siamensis (B. siamensis), as a biocontrol bacteria, has significant effects on inhibiting disease and improving the quality of fruits and [...] Read more.
Postharvest anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the most important postharvest diseases of mangoes worldwide. Bacillus siamensis (B. siamensis), as a biocontrol bacteria, has significant effects on inhibiting disease and improving the quality of fruits and vegetables. In this study, pre-storage application of B. siamensis significantly induced disease resistance and decreased disease index (DI) of stored mango fruit. To investigate the induction mechanisms of B. siamensis, comparative transcriptome analysis of mango fruit samples during the storage were established. In total, 234,808 unique transcripts were assembled and 56,704 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparative transcriptome analysis. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of DEGs showed that most of the DEGs involved in plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, and biosynthesis of resistant substances were enriched. Fourteen DEGs related to disease-resistance were validated by qRT-PCR, which well corresponded to the FPKM value obtained from the transcriptome data. These results indicate that B. siamensis treatment may act to induce disease resistance of mango fruit by affecting multiple pathways. These findings not only reveal the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that govern postharvest disease, but also develop a biological strategy to maintain quality of post-harvest mango fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety Control of Postharvest Fruits and Vegetables)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 3509 KiB  
Article
Lab Scale Extracted Conditions of Polyphenols from Thinned Peach Fruit Have Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic, and Hypolipidemic Properties
by Kun Dai, Yingying Wei, Shu Jiang, Feng Xu, Hongfei Wang, Xin Zhang and Xingfeng Shao
Foods 2022, 11(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010099 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
Thinned peach polyphenols (TPPs) were extracted by ultrasonic disruption and purified using macroporous resin. Optimized extraction conditions resulted in a TPPs yield of 1.59 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g FW, and optimized purification conditions resulted in a purity of 43.86% with NKA-9 resin. TPPs [...] Read more.
Thinned peach polyphenols (TPPs) were extracted by ultrasonic disruption and purified using macroporous resin. Optimized extraction conditions resulted in a TPPs yield of 1.59 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g FW, and optimized purification conditions resulted in a purity of 43.86% with NKA-9 resin. TPPs composition was analyzed by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS; chlorogenic acid, catechin, and neochlorogenic acid were the most abundant compounds in thinned peaches. Purified TPPs exhibited scavenging activity on DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl radical, and FRAP. TPPs inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase by competitive and noncompetitive reversible inhibition, respectively. TPPs also exhibited a higher binding capacity for bile acids than cholestyramine. In summary, TPPs from thinned peaches are potentially valuable because of their high antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic capacities, and present a new incentive for the comprehensive utilization of thinned peach fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Extraction Technology of Polyphenols from Food By-Product)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

13 pages, 2265 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Cooking Method and Cooked Color on Consumer Acceptability of Boneless Pork Chops
by Lauren T. Honegger, Erin E. Bryan, Hannah E. Price, Taylor K. Ruth, Dustin D. Boler and Anna C. Dilger
Foods 2022, 11(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010106 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2290
Abstract
The objective was to determine the effects of sous-vide cooking and degree of doneness on consumer eating experience of pork chops when cooked color was expected to differ. The hypothesis was consumers would prefer a cooked brown color and would rate grilled chops [...] Read more.
The objective was to determine the effects of sous-vide cooking and degree of doneness on consumer eating experience of pork chops when cooked color was expected to differ. The hypothesis was consumers would prefer a cooked brown color and would rate grilled chops more acceptable than sous-vide chops. Chops were cooked to 63 °C or 71 °C using either an open-hearth grill or a sous-vide device. Participants evaluated four samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability. Participants rated a greater percentage of chops cooked sous-vide at 63 °C as tender (82.82%), juicy (55.83%) and acceptable (60.34%) compared with all other cooking method and degree of doneness combinations. Participants rated a greater percentage of sous-vide chops as tender and acceptable compared to grilled chops. Participants rated a greater percentage of chops cooked to 63 °C as tender, juicy, flavorful, and acceptable when compared to 71 °C. Even when participants could visualize cooked color, they preferred chops cooked to 63 °C compared with chops cooked to 71 °C. Overall, participants preferred chops cooked to 63 °C compared to 71 °C regardless of the cooking method and preferred chops cooked to 63 °C using the sous-vide cooking method the most among all treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postmortem Factors Affecting Meat Quality)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop