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Article

A FT-NIR Process Analytical Technology Approach for Milk Renneting Control

1
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Giovanni Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 103, 41125 Modena, Italy
3
Centro di ricerca Zootecnia e Acquacoltura (CREA-ZA), Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’Analisi dell’Economia Agraria, Via Antonio Lombardo 11, 26900 Lodi, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ana M Vivar-Quintana
Foods 2022, 11(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010033
Received: 26 November 2021 / Revised: 14 December 2021 / Accepted: 20 December 2021 / Published: 23 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in NIR Spectroscopy Analytical Technology in Food Industries)
The study proposes a process analytical technology (PAT) approach for the control of milk coagulation through near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), computing multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) charts, based on principal component analysis (PCA). Reconstituted skimmed milk and commercial pasteurized skimmed milk were mixed at two different ratios (60:40 and 40:60). Each mix ratio was prepared in six replicates and used for coagulation trials, monitored by fundamental rheology, as a reference method, and NIRS by inserting a probe directly in the coagulation vat and collecting spectra at two different acquisition times, i.e., 60 s or 10 s. Furthermore, three failure coagulation trials were performed, deliberately changing temperature or rennet and CaCl2 concentration. The comparison with fundamental rheology results confirmed the effectiveness of NIRS to monitor milk renneting. The reduced spectral acquisition time (10 s) showed data highly correlated (r > 0.99) to those acquired with longer acquisition time. The developed decision trees, based on PC1 scores and T2 MSPC charts, confirmed the suitability of the proposed approach for the prediction of coagulation times and for the detection of possible failures. In conclusion, the work provides a robust but simple PAT approach to assist cheesemakers in monitoring the coagulation step in real-time. View Full-Text
Keywords: FT-NIR spectroscopy; Industry 4.0; milk coagulation; multivariate statistical process control charts; MSPC; PAT; skimmed milk powder FT-NIR spectroscopy; Industry 4.0; milk coagulation; multivariate statistical process control charts; MSPC; PAT; skimmed milk powder
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grassi, S.; Strani, L.; Alamprese, C.; Pricca, N.; Casiraghi, E.; Cabassi, G. A FT-NIR Process Analytical Technology Approach for Milk Renneting Control. Foods 2022, 11, 33. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010033

AMA Style

Grassi S, Strani L, Alamprese C, Pricca N, Casiraghi E, Cabassi G. A FT-NIR Process Analytical Technology Approach for Milk Renneting Control. Foods. 2022; 11(1):33. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010033

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grassi, Silvia, Lorenzo Strani, Cristina Alamprese, Nicolò Pricca, Ernestina Casiraghi, and Giovanni Cabassi. 2022. "A FT-NIR Process Analytical Technology Approach for Milk Renneting Control" Foods 11, no. 1: 33. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010033

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