Topic Editors

Dr. Abderrahmane AIT KADDOUR
UMR F, Clermont University, INRA, VetAgro Sup, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
Dr. Sandra Abreu
1. Faculty of Psychology, Education and Sports, Lusófona University of Porto, 4000-098 Porto, Portugal
2. Research Center in Physical Activity, health and Leisure (CIAFEL), Faculty of Sports, University of Porto (FADEUP), 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
3. Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health (ITR), Porto, Portugal

Advances in Dairy Foods: From Production to Nutritional and Health Attributes

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 April 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
30 June 2022
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Consumer interest in food products has gradually shifted from a request for sensory satisfying products to a demand for foods that are both nutritionally valuable for human health and environmentally sustainable. In this regard, milk and dairy products have been subjected to many controversies. Nonetheless, nowadays, the benefits of dairy foods to human health have been recognised worldwide, and sustainable dairy production and consumption are expected to grow steadily over the coming years, especially in developing countries. This is especially due to the tremendous progress that has been made in the past decade in all areas of research related to milk and dairy foods, such as methane emission abatement in dairy production, mitigation of heat stress on milk production, deep lipidomic and glycomic analysis of milk from various mammals, and health outcomes of dairy bioactives.

In this interdisciplinary topic, we invite researchers to submit papers that are aimed to provide a comprehensive coverage of recent advances and innovation in the field of dairy production, dairy composition analysis, dairy nutrient components and human health, and dairy products. Both research papers and up-to-date reviews will be accepted in this Special Issue.

Dr. Abderrahmane AIT KADDOUR
Dr. Sandra Abreu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • milk
  • dairy products
  • human nutrition
  • health risks
  • microbiology
  • nutrient bioavailability
  • bioactive compounds
  • products processing
  • analysis and monitoring technologies
  • agri-food production

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Dairy
dairy
- - 2020 31 Days 1000 CHF Submit
Foods
foods
5.561 4.1 2012 17.6 Days 2200 CHF Submit
Nutrients
nutrients
6.706 7.9 2009 19.6 Days 2600 CHF Submit
Children
children
2.835 2.0 2014 20.6 Days 1800 CHF Submit

Published Papers (33 papers)

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Article
Consumption of Yoghurt and Other Dairy Products and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Iran: The IROPICAN Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2506; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122506 - 16 Jun 2022
Abstract
Background: There is evidence of an inverse association between yoghurt intake and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed at investigating the association between the intake of yoghurt and other dairy foods consumed in Iran and CRC risk. Methods: Our analysis included 4070 [...] Read more.
Background: There is evidence of an inverse association between yoghurt intake and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed at investigating the association between the intake of yoghurt and other dairy foods consumed in Iran and CRC risk. Methods: Our analysis included 4070 subjects within the IROPICAN (Iran Study of Opium and Cancer) study. Detailed information was collected by the use of validated questionnaires. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between the intake of total dairy products, and, separately, of yoghurt, milk, cheese, kashk, dough, cream, ice cream, and other milk products, and CRC using unconditional logistic regression analyses. The intake was categorized in tertiles. Results: Overall, we analyzed 865 cases and 3205 controls. Total dairy products intake was not associated with CRC. The OR for one tertile increase (OR_T) in yoghurt intake was 0.97 (95% CI 0.87–1.08) for CRC and 0.66 (95% CI 0.52–0.84) for proximal colon cancer. Cream intake was associated with CRC (OR_T3 = 1.33, 95% CI 1.08–1.64), colon (OR_T3 = 1.37, 95% CI 1.03–1.81), and proximal cancer (OR_T3 = 1.29, 95% CI 1.04–1.61). The OR of distal colon cancer for ice cream intake was 0.59 (95% CI 0.43–0.82). Other dairy products were not associated with CRC risk. Full article
Article
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei as a Modulator of Fatty Acid Compositions and Vitamin D3 in Cream
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1659; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111659 - 05 Jun 2022
Abstract
Butter is an important source of essential fatty acids, lipid-soluble vitamins, and antioxidants in the diet. However, this study showed that the presence of the Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain has a great influence on the fatty acid profile as well as provitamin D3 and [...] Read more.
Butter is an important source of essential fatty acids, lipid-soluble vitamins, and antioxidants in the diet. However, this study showed that the presence of the Lacticaseibacillus paracasei strain has a great influence on the fatty acid profile as well as provitamin D3 and vitamin D3 content in the cream—the raw material from which the butter is obtained. The addition of this lactic acid bacteria enriches the cream in 9-hexadecenoic acid, oleic acid, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid, which exhibit antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Moreover, a higher level of monounsaturated fatty acids can extend the shelf life of butter in the future. In the present work, we observed that the presence of lactic acid bacteria contributed to an increase in the level of provitamin D after 6 h of incubation and an increase in the levels of vitamin D3 after 24 and 48 h. Fatty acid profiles and the content of vitamins were largely dependent on the presence of light and mixing, which are probably associated with the status of lipid peroxidation. Full article
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Article
Effect of Parmigiano Reggiano Consumption on Blood Pressure of Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats
Dairy 2022, 3(2), 364-376; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3020028 - 23 May 2022
Abstract
In recent years, due to the significant increase in hypertension, peptides which are able to reduce blood pressure have gained special interest by scientific research and food industry. Several bioactive peptides with ascertained ACE-inhibitory activity have been found in Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese [...] Read more.
In recent years, due to the significant increase in hypertension, peptides which are able to reduce blood pressure have gained special interest by scientific research and food industry. Several bioactive peptides with ascertained ACE-inhibitory activity have been found in Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese and/or mixtures deriving from its digestion in vitro, and this may be predictive of its potential antihypertensive effect in vivo. This study investigated the long-term effect of feeding (PR) cheese on blood pressure (BP) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). A total of 30 male SHRs, 13 weeks old, were subdivided into 6 groups balanced for body weight and BP, to receive daily dietary supplementation with: 0.1–0.2–0.4–0.6 g PR/rat, captopril, and water. Systolic and diastolic BP were recorded every two weeks, for 10 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the trial. Dietary integration with PR led to a transitory reduction in rats’ pressure in the first 35 days of treatment and pressure decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In the second part of the study, the beneficial effect of PR antihypertensive peptides may have been masked and reduced by the increase in BP of rats linked to the rise in age of animals. No PR derived peptides were detected in rats’ serum. Highlights: Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese led to a transitory reduction in rats’ pressure in the first 35 days of treatment. This effect was PR dose dependent. The highest amounts of PR tested did not increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressures of hypertensive rats. Full article
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Article
Effect of Packaging and Salt Content and Type on Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibitory Activities in Requeson Cheese
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091264 - 27 Apr 2022
Abstract
Requeson cheese is obtained from whey proteins. The production of this cheese is the most economical way to recover and concentrate whey proteins, which is why it is frequently made in some Latin American countries. Four requeson cheese treatments were prepared with different [...] Read more.
Requeson cheese is obtained from whey proteins. The production of this cheese is the most economical way to recover and concentrate whey proteins, which is why it is frequently made in some Latin American countries. Four requeson cheese treatments were prepared with different concentrations and combinations of salts (sodium chloride and/or potassium chloride) and were conventionally or vacuum packed. Proteolysis, peptide concentration, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS) activities were evaluated over time (one, seven and fourteen days). Requeson cheese presented antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities, however, these values vary depending on salt addition, type of packaging and time of storage. The highest values of antioxidant activity (ABTS) were found in cheese added with 1.5% NaCl and 1.5% (NaCl/KCl, 1:1). Cheese without added salt and vacuum packed presented the highest ACE inhibition percentage at day seven. Therefore, it can be concluded that requeson cheese elaborated exclusively of sweet whey, presents antioxidant and ACE inhibition activity. However, for a cheese with ACE inhibitory capacity, it is recommended not to add salts or add at 1% (NaCl) and vacuum pack it. Additionally, for a cheese with antioxidant activity, it is recommended to add salt at 1.5% either NaCl or (1:1) NaCl/KCl and pack it either in a polyethylene bag or vacuum. In conclusion, requeson cheese elaborate with 100% sweet whey is a dairy product with antioxidant and ACE inhibition activity, being low in salt and fat. Full article
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Article
Influence of Three Extraction Methods on the Physicochemical Properties of Kefirans Isolated from Three Types of Animal Milk
Foods 2022, 11(8), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11081098 - 12 Apr 2022
Abstract
Kefiran is a heteropolysaccharide biopolymer usually extracted from kefir grains cultured in cow milk. Due to the lack of information on exopolysaccharides from other types of animal milk, in the present study, cow, buffalo and goat milks were used as raw materials for [...] Read more.
Kefiran is a heteropolysaccharide biopolymer usually extracted from kefir grains cultured in cow milk. Due to the lack of information on exopolysaccharides from other types of animal milk, in the present study, cow, buffalo and goat milks were used as raw materials for fermentation. The kefiran extractions from kefir grains were carried out with cold water (method I), hot water (method II) and mild heated water-ultrasound (method III), and then the recovery yield and the physicochemical properties of the kefirans were evaluated to establish the influence of both the extraction conditions and the type of milk. The highest yield was recorded for the cow kefiran using method III (4.79%). The recoveries of goat and buffalo kefirans with methods II and III were similar (2.75–2.81%). Method I had the lowest yields (0.15–0.48%). The physicochemical characteristics were studied with Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed the same qualitative profile for all the samples, regardless of the method and the type of milk, confirming that the extraction methods did not affect the chemical structure of the kefirans. Otherwise, the thermal and morphological features of the samples showed differences according to both the type of the milk and the extraction method. The kefiran samples were very thermally stable, having a temperature of degradation (Td) in the range from 264 to 354 °C. The resulting morphological and thermal differences could lead to different practical applications of kefirans in the fields of nutrition and pharmacology. Full article
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Review
Milk Properties and Morphological Characteristics of the Donkey Mammary Gland for Development of an Adopted Milking Machine—A Review
Dairy 2022, 3(2), 233-247; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy3020019 - 06 Apr 2022
Abstract
Donkey milk (DM) has been known in the world for 5000 years for its benefits for human nutrition and health. Nowadays, DM has become more and more attractive as a commercial product. DM contains several physiologically functional components, including high-quality whey proteins, vitamins, [...] Read more.
Donkey milk (DM) has been known in the world for 5000 years for its benefits for human nutrition and health. Nowadays, DM has become more and more attractive as a commercial product. DM contains several physiologically functional components, including high-quality whey proteins, vitamins, important minerals, unsaturated fatty acid and bioactive components. Therefore, it is not only consumed as food but also as a remedy. The average daily milk yield of a female donkey over the entire lactation season was 1.57 ± 1.12 kg/day and fluctuated between 0.20 and 6.00 kg/day. Average milk concentrations (±SD) of fat, protein, lactose, total solids and ash in DM were 0.63 ± 0.41%, 1.71 ± 0.24%, 6.34 ± 0.37%, 9.11 ± 0.95% and 0.39 ± 0.04%, respectively. Interestingly, DM is similar in composition to mare’s milk, and both are similar to mother’s milk. The anatomical and morphological properties of the mammary gland of the female donkey are special and can be compared with those of mare udders. However, the cistern cavity of the mammary gland of female donkeys is characterized by the presence of multiple pockets that open directly into the teat, instead of a single cistern cavity. Therefore, the mammary gland capacity in donkey mare is low and milking technique and routine are of most importance. So far there is no special milking machine for female donkeys and mares. The milking machines used nowadays were initially designed for smaller sheep and goat udders. The company Siliconform, Germany, has set itself the task of developing an optimized milking machine for donkey mares, which is adapted to the anatomical and morphological properties of the donkey mammary gland. Furthermore, it should achieve a physiologically ideal milking process meeting high animal welfare standards for increased milk production with high quality standards. Full article
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Systematic Review
Effect of Camel Milk on Glucose Homeostasis in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061245 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effects of camel milk (CM) intake on glycemic control in patients with diabetes are controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to summarize the effect of CM intake on glucose homeostasis parameters in patients with both [...] Read more.
The effects of camel milk (CM) intake on glycemic control in patients with diabetes are controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to summarize the effect of CM intake on glucose homeostasis parameters in patients with both types of diabetes mellitus; T1DM and T2DM. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed/MEDLINE, EBSCO host, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, ProQuest Medical, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from inception until the end of November 2021. Relevant RCTs were identified, and the effect size was reported as mean difference (MD) and standard deviation (SD). Parameters of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), fasting serum insulin (FI), insulin resistance (expressed in terms of HOMA-IR), insulin dose (ID) received, serum insulin antibody (IA), and C-peptide (CP) were tested. Out of 4054 collected articles, 14 RCTs (total 663 subjects) were eligible for inclusion. The pooled results obtained using a random-effects model showed a statistically significant decrease in HbA1c levels (MD, −1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): −2.00, −0.48, p < 0.001 heterogeneity (I2) = 94%) and ID received (MD, −16.72, 95% CI: −22.09, −11.35 p < 0.00001, I2 = 90%), with a clear tendency was shown, but non-significant, to decrease FBG (MD, −23.32, 95% CI: −47.33, 0.70, p = 0.06, I2 = 98%) in patients with diabetes who consumed CM in comparison to those on usual care. Conversely, the consumption of CM did not show significant reductions in the rest of the glucose homeostasis parameters. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with T2DM were more beneficially affected by CM intake than those with T1DM in lowering FBG, while patients with T1DM were more beneficially affected by CM intake than those with T2DM in lowering HbA1c. Both fresh and treated (pasteurized/fermented) CM gave similar beneficial effects in lowering HbA1c. Lastly, a relatively superior effect for longer duration on shorter duration (>6 months, ≤6 months, respectively) of CM intake is found in lowering HbA1c. To conclude, long-term consumption of CM by patients with diabetes could be a useful adjuvant therapy alongside classical medications, especially in lowering the required insulin dose and HbA1c. Due to the high heterogeneity observed in the included studies, more controlled trials with a larger sample size are warranted to confirm our results and to control some confounders and interfering factors existing in the analyzed articles. Full article
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Article
Cow’s Milk Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051092 - 05 Mar 2022
Abstract
Numerous studies have reported conflicting results associated with cow’s milk intake and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, studies involving postmenopausal women are very limited. This study was therefore undertaken to identify the relationship between cow’s milk intake and CHD risk in postmenopausal women, [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have reported conflicting results associated with cow’s milk intake and coronary heart disease (CHD). However, studies involving postmenopausal women are very limited. This study was therefore undertaken to identify the relationship between cow’s milk intake and CHD risk in postmenopausal women, using data from the 6th period of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2015). A total of 1825 postmenopausal women, aged 50–64 years old, were included in the final analysis. The frequency of cow’s milk consumption for each subject was determined using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and was classified into four groups (Q1–Q4): Q1, group that did not drink milk (no milk, n = 666); Q2, 0 < frequency of milk intake per week ≤ 1 (n = 453); Q3, 1 < frequency of milk intake per week ≤ 3 (n = 319); and Q4, frequency of milk intake >3 times per week (n = 387). General characteristics, such as education, living area, household income, and obesity level, were compared between the four groups. Percentages of daily nutrient intake compared to the dietary reference intake for Koreans (KDRIs) were determined, and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), atherogenic index (AI), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were determined as the CHD risk indicators. Except household income, no significant difference was obtained among the four groups with respect to age, education, living area, or obesity. Compared to KDRIs, the intake ratio of calcium, phosphorus, and riboflavin were significantly higher in the Q4 group than in the Q1–Q3 groups. Blood HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher in Q4 than in Q1. The CHD risk factors FRS (%), AI, and AIP were significantly lower in the Q4 group as compared to the other groups (CHD risk (%): Q1 9.4, Q4 8.5; AI: Q1 3.06, Q4 2.83; API: Q1 0.37, Q2 0.31, Q4 0.32). FRS was determined to be significantly and positively correlated to AI or AIP, and negatively correlated with the cow’s milk intake frequency and calcium intake. In conclusion, compared to women who do not consume cow’s milk, postmenopausal women who consume cow’s milk frequently have a better nutritional status of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin B12, higher HDL levels, and a lower level of CHD risk indicators, such as FRS, AI, and AIP, contributing to decreased CHD risk in a 10-year period. Therefore, to prevent the risk of CHD in postmenopausal women, there needs to be a greater emphasis for cow’s milk consumption four or more times per week. Full article
Article
Cardiometabolic Indices after Weight Loss with Calcium or Dairy Foods: Secondary Analyses from a Randomized Trial with Overweight/Obese Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2022, 14(5), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14051082 - 04 Mar 2022
Abstract
The role of dairy foods and calcium/vitamin D supplements in cardiometabolic diseases is unknown. The objective of this secondary analysis is to investigate cardiometabolic risk factors changes after a 6-month weight-loss intervention in overweight/obese postmenopausal women divided in three groups: Ca+vitamin D supplements [...] Read more.
The role of dairy foods and calcium/vitamin D supplements in cardiometabolic diseases is unknown. The objective of this secondary analysis is to investigate cardiometabolic risk factors changes after a 6-month weight-loss intervention in overweight/obese postmenopausal women divided in three groups: Ca+vitamin D supplements (S); low-fat dairy foods (D; 4–5 servings/day); or control/placebo pills (C), as complements to hypocaloric diets. The original study focused on bone/body composition. This analysis included blood pressure (BP), and serum triglycerides, lipids (including apoproteins Apo1 and ApoB), adipokines, and C-reactive protein in n = 97 participants who finished with complete data points. Systolic BP decreased 5.1%, 4.8%, and 1.8% in S, D, and C groups, respectively (p < 0.05 for S and D vs. baseline and vs. C at 6 months). Reduction in triglycerides and ratio of total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) was the highest in S, while the reduction in TC and LDL-C was the highest in D group (all p < 0.05). Leptin and ApoB significantly decreased and adiponectin and ApoA1 increased in all groups. In conclusion, although the C group’s participants experienced an improvement in some of the cardiometabolic indices with weight loss, those in the S and D groups showed significantly better results in most of the outcomes, indicating the beneficial effects of low-fat dairy foods and/or Ca+vitamin D intake as complements to a hypocaloric diet. Full article
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Review
The Roles of Family and School Members in Influencing Children’s Eating Behaviours in China: A Narrative Review
Children 2022, 9(3), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9030315 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
This review explores the influences of family and school members on children in China, in order to promote healthy eating behaviours among children and prevent childhood malnutrition in the Global South. Family members and school members are defined as parents, guardians (such as [...] Read more.
This review explores the influences of family and school members on children in China, in order to promote healthy eating behaviours among children and prevent childhood malnutrition in the Global South. Family members and school members are defined as parents, guardians (such as grandparents and other relatives), siblings, peers, and teachers. A search of four databases returned 94 articles, 18 of which met the eligibility criteria. Most of the included studies were from mainland China; a few were from Hong Kong and Taiwan. More quantitative than qualitative studies were found, among which, cross-sectional studies were dominant. The 18 papers included in the study explored the influences of family members and school members on the eating behaviours of children, based on seven themes: (1) social–demographic characteristics, (2) food intake of parents, (3) nutritional knowledge and health awareness of family or school members, (4) parents’ perceptions of their children’s body weight, (5) feeding strategies of family members, (6) family relationships, and (7) intergenerational differences of caregivers. In the current analysis, parental education levels, mother’s occupation, health awareness of parents and teachers, and positive feeding styles, such as encouraging healthy eating and controlling overeating, were positively correlated with the healthy eating behaviours of children. Meanwhile, healthy eating behaviours of children were negatively associated with caregivers’ lack of nutritional knowledge, misperception of weight, instrumental and/or emotional feeding, and working on nonstandard shifts. More related research using cross-disciplinary approaches is needed and there should be more discussions about how teachers, siblings, and peers affect the dietary behaviours of children. Full article
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Article
Dietary Linolenic Acid Increases Sensitizing and Eliciting Capacities of Cow’s Milk Whey Proteins in BALB/c Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040822 - 16 Feb 2022
Abstract
α-Lactalbumin (BLA) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) are the major whey proteins causing allergic reactions. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) stand among the extrinsic factors of the food matrix that can bind BLA and BLG and change their bioactivities, but their contribution to change the allergenic [...] Read more.
α-Lactalbumin (BLA) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) are the major whey proteins causing allergic reactions. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) stand among the extrinsic factors of the food matrix that can bind BLA and BLG and change their bioactivities, but their contribution to change the allergenic properties of these proteins has not been investigated. Here, we aimed to determine how PUFAs influence BLA and BLG to sensitize and trigger allergic responses in BALB/c mice. First, tricine–SDS–PAGE and spectroscopic assays identified that α-linolenic acid (ALA, as a proof-of-concept model) can induce BLA and BLG to form cross-linked complexes and substantially modify their conformation. Then, BALB/c mice (n = 10/group) were orally sensitized and challenged with BLA and BLG or ALA-interacted BLA and BLG, respectively. Allergic reactions upon oral challenge were determined by measuring clinical allergic signs, specific antibodies, levels of type-1/2 cytokines, the status of mast cell activation, and percentage of cell populations (B and T cells) in different tissues (PP, MLN, and spleen). Overall, systemic allergic reaction was promoted in mice gavage with ALA-interacted BLA and BLG by disrupting the Th1/Th2 balance toward a Th2 immune response with the decreased number of Tregs. Enhanced induction of Th2-related cytokines, as well as serum-specific antibodies and mast cell activation, was also observed. In this study, we validated that ALA in the food matrix promoted both the sensitization and elicitation of allergic reactions in BALB/c mice. Full article
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Article
Relationships between Dairy and Calcium Intake and Mental Health Measures of Higher Education Students in the United States: Outcomes from Moderation Analyses
Nutrients 2022, 14(4), 775; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040775 - 12 Feb 2022
Abstract
Background: The prevalence of mental health concerns among university students in the United States (U.S.) continues to increase, while current treatments, including medication and counseling, present shortcomings. Higher dairy and calcium intakes are associated with protective effects on mental health; however, previous studies [...] Read more.
Background: The prevalence of mental health concerns among university students in the United States (U.S.) continues to increase, while current treatments, including medication and counseling, present shortcomings. Higher dairy and calcium intakes are associated with protective effects on mental health; however, previous studies have focused on investigating singular relationships between dairy and calcium intakes and mental health measures. A more complex exploration of these relationships is warranted to better examine whether increasing dairy and calcium intakes could serve as an intervention to improve mental health. The present study sought to further characterize the relationships between dairy and calcium intake, perceived stress, and a variety of mental health measures using linear regression and moderation analyses. Methods: The present cross-sectional study involved students studying at three large U.S. universities, and data collection occurred from April to May 2020 when students were learning remotely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey comprising validated tools was distributed among students to assess dairy and calcium intake, perceived stress, anxiety, negative and positive moods, rumination, and resilience, sleep quality and duration, dietary risk, and physical activity. Results: A total of 1233 students completed the study. Higher dairy and calcium intake was coincident with lower perceived stress and higher positive mood scores, while higher calcium intake was also coincident with lower anxiety, rumination, and higher resilience scores. Additionally, as calcium intake increased, the relationship between perceived stress and anxiety and the relationship between perceived stress and negative mood weakened. Dairy intake did not have this effect. Conclusions: Based on the results, and considering that calcium is a shortfall nutrient, universities should consider initiating programs and public health campaigns to promote dairy and calcium intake among this population. Full article
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Review
Insights into the Research Trends on Bovine Colostrum: Beneficial Health Perspectives with Special Reference to Manufacturing of Functional Foods and Feed Supplements
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030659 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 1
Abstract
Bovine colostrum (BC) is the initial mammary secretion after parturition, which is nature’s bountiful source consisting of nutritional and bioactive components present in a highly concentrated low-volume format. All mammalian newborns require colostrum to enhance physiological processes such as lifelong immunity, gastrointestinal development, [...] Read more.
Bovine colostrum (BC) is the initial mammary secretion after parturition, which is nature’s bountiful source consisting of nutritional and bioactive components present in a highly concentrated low-volume format. All mammalian newborns require colostrum to enhance physiological processes such as lifelong immunity, gastrointestinal development, and resistance to microbial infections. The genetic, environmental, and processing methods can all have an impact on the biochemical contents of BC and its supplements. BC and its derivatives have been intensively researched for their potential use in functional foods, medicines, and animal feed. Evidence from clinical studies suggests that BC products are well-tolerated, nontoxic, and safe for human ingestion. Functional foods, feed, and pharmaceutical formulations based on bovine colostrum are playing noteworthy roles in the development of innovative products for promoting health and the prevention of chronic illnesses. This systematic review sheds light on recent research on (a) the effects of processing techniques on BC components, (b) emerging techniques used in the isolation and identification of novel components, (c) BC-based functional foods for human consumption and animal feed supplements, and (d) the role of BC in current drug delivery, as well as future recommendations. Full article
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Article
A Consumer Segmentation Study of Nutrition Information Seeking and Its Relation to Food Consumption in Beijing, China
Foods 2022, 11(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030453 - 03 Feb 2022
Abstract
The aim of this study is to identify consumer groups based on nutrition information-seeking behavior and how it relates to food consumption. Although the Chinese public can now access nutrition information through different channels, research on the segmentation of homogeneous consumer groups seeking [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to identify consumer groups based on nutrition information-seeking behavior and how it relates to food consumption. Although the Chinese public can now access nutrition information through different channels, research on the segmentation of homogeneous consumer groups seeking nutrition information is lacking. This study closes this research gap and, in doing so, also shows how information seeking is related to dietary behavior. A questionnaire was sent out to a stratified random sample in Beijing, resulting in 448 responses. A cluster analysis using hierarchical methods was conducted, identifying four distinct consumer groups: Multi-Channel (27.43%), Mass Media (20.57%), Moderate (27.88%), and Uninterested (24.12%). The four segments differed significantly concerning food consumption frequencies, food literacy, and sociodemographic characteristics. Consumers who were more involved in nutrition information tended to eat healthier. Our findings indicate that nutrition information is worth promoting, but this kind of intervention is not a cure-all. Targeted interventions should focus on uninterested populations by providing non-informational nudging strategies to promote healthy eating behaviors. This study contributes to the identification of meaningful profiles for targeted interventions, particularly as regards uninterested or unreached consumers. Full article
Article
Characterization and In Vitro Fecal Microbiota Regulatory Activity of a Low-Molecular-Weight Exopolysaccharide Produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum NMGL2
Foods 2022, 11(3), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030393 - 29 Jan 2022
Abstract
The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum NMGL2 isolated from traditional fermented dairy cheese was purified chromatographically with DEAE-Sepharose and Sepharose CL-6B columns. The purified EPS was characterized by various physicochemical methods and in vitro fecal microbiota regulation assay. The results showed that [...] Read more.
The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum NMGL2 isolated from traditional fermented dairy cheese was purified chromatographically with DEAE-Sepharose and Sepharose CL-6B columns. The purified EPS was characterized by various physicochemical methods and in vitro fecal microbiota regulation assay. The results showed that the EPS had a relatively low molecular weight of 3.03 × 104 Da, and it had a relatively high degradation temperature of 245 °C as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Observation of the EPS by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed a highly branched and tangled fibrous network microstructure with many hollow microtubules and spherical particles. Structural study by 1H NMR spectroscopy suggested that the EPS contained a tetrasaccharide repeating unit with monosaccharide components of β-galactose (4.6%), α-glucose (20.6%), and α-mannose (74.8%). The EPS was highly resistant to hydrolysis of simulated human saliva, gastric, and intestinal juices. Moreover, the EPS beneficially affected the composition and diversity of the fecal microbiota, e.g., increasing the relative abundance of Firmicutes and inhibiting that of Proteobacteria. The results of this study indicated significant bioactivity of this novel low-molecular-weight EPS produced by Lpb. plantarum NMGL2, which could serve as a bioactive agent for potential applications in the food and health care industry. Full article
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Article
Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Natural Whey Cultures of Buffalo and Cow Milk
Foods 2022, 11(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020233 - 16 Jan 2022
Abstract
In southern Italy, some artisanal farms produce mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses by using natural whey starter (NWS), whose microbial diversity is responsible for the characteristic flavor and texture of the final product. We studied the microbial community of NWS cultures of cow’s milk [...] Read more.
In southern Italy, some artisanal farms produce mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses by using natural whey starter (NWS), whose microbial diversity is responsible for the characteristic flavor and texture of the final product. We studied the microbial community of NWS cultures of cow’s milk (NWSc) for the production of caciocavallo and buffalo’s milk (NWSb) for the production of mozzarella, both from artisanal farms. Bacterial identification at species and strain level was based on an integrative strategy, combining culture-dependent (sequencing of the 16S rDNA, species/subspecies-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and clustering by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) and culture-independent (next-generation sequencing analysis, NGS) approaches. Results obtained with both approaches showed the occurrence of five species of lactic acid bacteria in NWSb (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactobacillus helveticus) and five species in NWSc (Lc. lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium, and S. thermophilus, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. delbrueckii), with the last two found only by the NGS analysis. Moreover, RAPD profiles, performed on Lc. lactis subsp. lactis different isolates from both NWSs, showed nine strains in NWSb and seven strains in NWSc, showing a microbial diversity also at strain level. Characterization of the microbiota of natural whey starters aims to collect new starter bacteria to use for tracing microbial community during the production of artisanal cheeses, in order to preserve their quality and authenticity, and to select new Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains for the production of functional foods. Full article
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Article
A Comparative Analysis of Lipid Digestion in Human Milk and Infant Formulas Based on Simulated In Vitro Infant Gastrointestinal Digestion
Foods 2022, 11(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11020200 - 12 Jan 2022
Abstract
To investigate the lipid digestive behaviors of human and infant formulas and analyze the differences between them, we investigated the fat globule particle size distribution, lipolysis rate, and fatty acid release of infant formulas with different fat sources and human milk using an [...] Read more.
To investigate the lipid digestive behaviors of human and infant formulas and analyze the differences between them, we investigated the fat globule particle size distribution, lipolysis rate, and fatty acid release of infant formulas with different fat sources and human milk using an in vitro infant digestion model. The results suggested that the particle size in infant formula increased rapidly during gastric digestion and decreased significantly after intestinal digestion, whereas the particle size in human milk increased slowly during gastric digestion but increased rapidly during intestinal digestion (p < 0.05). Despite having a larger droplet size, human milk demonstrated a very high lipolysis rate due to the presence of MFGM. In terms of the distribution of fatty acids in digestion products, the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in vegetable oil-based infant formulas was close to that of human milk. The amount of SFAs in milk fat-based infant formulas was significantly higher than that in human milk, and the content of MUFAs in all infant formulas was significantly lower than that in human milk (p < 0.05). After digestion, the most abundant fatty acid released by human milk was C18:2n6c, while the fatty acids released by infant formulas were SFAs, such as C14:0, C16:0, and C18:0. Full article
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Article
Methodological Approach to Designing Fermented Dairy Products with Optimal Biological Value
Foods 2022, 11(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010114 - 03 Jan 2022
Abstract
The development of food products implies ensuring the optimal composition and ratio of the basic components, as well as their technological compatibility. A priori, the quality of raw materials, the optimal formula of the product and the efficiency of the technological process determine [...] Read more.
The development of food products implies ensuring the optimal composition and ratio of the basic components, as well as their technological compatibility. A priori, the quality of raw materials, the optimal formula of the product and the efficiency of the technological process determine the quality of products, including biological value. The use of whole-cell sensors such as infusoria Tetrahymena pyriformis is most productive for screening biological studies. At present, for a comprehensive assessment there are no data on the use of simplest technology of fermented dairy products and the design of their biological value. The purpose of this research is to develop a methodology for creating whole-milk products of optimal biological value using the express method of biotesting. The research object was yogurt with the ratio of the mass fraction of fat and protein in the range of 0.36 ÷ 1.5, sucrose in the range of 5 ÷ 10%. An express method for determining the relative biological value of fermented dairy products using test organisms and an original methodology for creating whole-milk products of optimal biological value have been developed. A software has been developed to calculate formula of the product optimized for the following indicators: the relative biological value of the product, the cost of raw material and basic materials. The methodology is a tool to assist industry organizations in improving production technologies and quality management systems. Full article
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Communication
Lactoferrin Alleviated AFM1-Induced Apoptosis in Intestinal NCM 460 Cells through the Autophagy Pathway
Foods 2022, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010023 - 23 Dec 2021
Abstract
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the only mycotoxin with maximum residue limit in milk, which may result in serious human diseases. On the contrary, lactoferrin (Lf) is an active protein with multiple functions. Studies have confirmed that Lf has a powerful potential to protect [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the only mycotoxin with maximum residue limit in milk, which may result in serious human diseases. On the contrary, lactoferrin (Lf) is an active protein with multiple functions. Studies have confirmed that Lf has a powerful potential to protect the intestines, but the influence of Lf on mycotoxins is not clear. This study aims to explore whether Lf can protect the cytotoxicity induced by AFM1, and determine the underlying mechanisms in human normal colonic epithelial NCM460 cells. The results indicated that AFM1 decreased the cell viability, and increased the levels of apoptosis and autophagy of NCM460 cells. Lf can alleviate the cytotoxicity induced by AFM1 through enhancing cell viability, significantly down-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and proteins (BAX, caspase3, caspase9, caspase3, and caspase9), and regulated the gene and protein expression of autophagy factors (Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin1, ULK1, ULK2, LC3, and p62). Furthermore, interference of the key gene Atg5 of autophagy can reduce AFM1-induced apoptosis, which is consistent with the role of Lf, implying that Lf may protect AFM1-induced intestinal injury by inhibiting excessive autophagy-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, our data indicated that Lf has a mitigating effect on apoptosis induced by AFM1 through the autophagy pathway. Full article
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Review
Dairy Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Potential Function in Dietetics: The Food–Gut-Health Axis
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3099; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123099 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 7
Abstract
Fermented dairy products are the good source of different species of live lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are beneficial microbes well characterized for their health-promoting potential. Traditionally, dietary intake of fermented dairy foods has been related to different health-promoting benefits including antimicrobial activity [...] Read more.
Fermented dairy products are the good source of different species of live lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are beneficial microbes well characterized for their health-promoting potential. Traditionally, dietary intake of fermented dairy foods has been related to different health-promoting benefits including antimicrobial activity and modulation of the immune system, among others. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests a contribution of dairy LAB in the prophylaxis and therapy of non-communicable diseases. Live bacterial cells or their metabolites can directly impact physiological responses and/or act as signalling molecules mediating more complex communications. This review provides up-to-date knowledge on the interactions between LAB isolated from dairy products (dairy LAB) and human health by discussing the concept of the food–gut-health axis. In particular, some bioactivities and probiotic potentials of dairy LAB have been provided on their involvement in the gut–brain axis and non-communicable diseases mainly focusing on their potential in the treatment of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cancer. Full article
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Article
Association of Feed Efficiency, Feeding Rate, and Behaviour with the Milk Performance of Dairy Cows
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 684-694; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040053 - 01 Dec 2021
Abstract
Identification of the associations of cow feed efficiency with feeding behaviour and milk production is important for supporting recommendations of strategies that optimise milk yield. The objective of this study was to identify associations between measures of feed efficiency, feed intake, feeding rate, [...] Read more.
Identification of the associations of cow feed efficiency with feeding behaviour and milk production is important for supporting recommendations of strategies that optimise milk yield. The objective of this study was to identify associations between measures of feed efficiency, feed intake, feeding rate, rumination time, feeding time, and milk production using data collected from 26 dairy cows during a 3 month period in 2018. Cows averaged (mean ± standard deviation) 2.2 ± 1.7 lactations, 128 ± 40 days in milk, 27.5 ± 5.5 kg/day milk, 1.95 ± 0.69 kg feed/1 kg milk—the measure used to express feed conversion ratio (FCR), 575 ± 72 min/day rumination time, and 264 ± 67 min/day feeding time during the observation period. The coefficient of variation for rumination time (min/d) was 12.5%. A mixed linear model was selected for analyses. The most feed inefficient cows with the highest FCR (≥2.6 kg feed/1 kg milk) showed the lowest milk yield (24.8 kg/day), highest feed intake (78.8 kg), highest feeding rate (0.26 kg/min) and BCS (3.35 point). However, the relative milk yield (milk yield per 100 kg of body weight) was the highest (4.01 kg/day) in the most efficient group with the lowest FCR (≤1.4 kg feed/1 kg milk). Our study showed that the most efficient cows with the lowest FCR (≤1.4 kg feed/1 kg milk) had the highest rumination time (597 min/day; p < 0.05), feeding time (298 min/day; p < 0.05), rumination/activity ratio (4.39; p < 0.05) and rumination/feeding ratio (2.04; p < 0.05). Less active cows (activity time 164 min/day; p < 0.05) were the most efficient cows with the lowest FCR (≤1.4 kg feed/1 kg milk). The behavioural differences observed in this study provide new insight into the association of feed behaviour and feed efficiency with milk performance. Incorporating feeding behaviour into the dry matter intake model can improve its accuracy in the future and benefit breeding programmes. Full article
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Article
Accuracy of Subclinical Ketosis Detection with Rapid Test Methods for BHBA in Blood in Commercial Dairy Farms
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 671-683; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040052 - 25 Nov 2021
Abstract
This study gives an overview of the performance and accuracy of devices used for the fast measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood for the on-farm indication of subclinical ketosis. Data were collected on ten dairy farms. In each farm, blood samples were taken [...] Read more.
This study gives an overview of the performance and accuracy of devices used for the fast measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood for the on-farm indication of subclinical ketosis. Data were collected on ten dairy farms. In each farm, blood samples were taken from ten cows on four test days (2, 4, 9 and 11), resulting in 400 samples. The reference method was the BHBA concentration in blood serum (BHBALAB). Four different devices that measure BHBA in whole blood were tested. The thresholds applied for identifying subclinical ketosis were ≥1.0, ≥1.2 and ≥1.4 mmol/L in blood serum. The BHBALAB was assigned in three classes: low—≤0.9 mmol/L; high—>0.9 mmol/L; and total—all values unclassified. Due to initial negative effects on the health and performance of cows with BHBA levels ≥0.9 mmol/L, this cut-off was chosen. The Passing–Bablok regression revealed different constant as well as absolute biases for each device in the aforementioned classes. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve indicated highly accurate results, with 94–97% accuracy levels. As an overall conclusion, the performance of the devices was good and supports their use by farmers for the detection of subclinical ketotic cows in their herds. Full article
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Article
Effect of Different Temperature-Controlled Ultrasound on the Physical and Functional Properties of Micellar Casein Concentrate
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2673; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112673 - 03 Nov 2021
Abstract
Micellar casein concentrate (MCC) is a novel dairy ingredient with high protein content. However, its poor functional properties impair its potential for further application, highlighting the importance of using innovative processing methods to produce modified MCC, such as ultrasound (US). This work investigated [...] Read more.
Micellar casein concentrate (MCC) is a novel dairy ingredient with high protein content. However, its poor functional properties impair its potential for further application, highlighting the importance of using innovative processing methods to produce modified MCC, such as ultrasound (US). This work investigated the impact of US on the physical and functional properties of MCC under temperature-controlled and -uncontrolled conditions for different time intervals. Under temperature-controlled ultrasound (TC-US) treatment, a reduction was found in the supernatant particle size of casein micelles. Soluble calcium content and hydrophobicity increased following ultrasound treatment at 20 °C, resulting in a remarkable improvement in emulsification. However, long-time ultrasonication led to an unstable state, causing the MCC solutions to show shear thinning behavior (pseudoplastic fluid). Compared with 50 °C temperature-controlled ultrasonication, ultrasonication at 20 °C had a greater influence on particle size, viscosity and hydrophobicity. These findings indicate that 20 °C TC-US could be a promising technology for the modification of MCC. Full article
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Article
Effects of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Physicochemical Properties and Solubility and Bitterness of Milk Protein Hydrolysates
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102462 - 15 Oct 2021
Cited by 5
Abstract
Milk protein concentrate (MPC) is a high-protein dairy product. It is underutilized due to its poor solubility compared with other milk protein products. This study aimed to investigate the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the physicochemical properties and solubility of MPC. Results showed [...] Read more.
Milk protein concentrate (MPC) is a high-protein dairy product. It is underutilized due to its poor solubility compared with other milk protein products. This study aimed to investigate the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the physicochemical properties and solubility of MPC. Results showed that Alcalase hydrolysates possessed a higher degree of hydrolysis (DH) than Protamex and Flavourzyme hydrolysates. Similar results could be obtained using sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The molecular weight of the hydrolysate of Alcalase was less than 10 kDa. Changes to the molecular weight thereby led to a modification in the fluorescence intensity, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, and ultraviolet absorption. The solubility of all hydrolysates was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between solubility, DH, and bitterness; the correlation coefficients were 0.81 for DH and 0.61 for bitterness. Electronic tongue analysis showed that the bitterness of Alcalase hydrolysates was the highest, while the values for Protamex hydrolysates were the lowest. Full article
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Article
In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of the Effects of a Compound Based on Plants, Yeast and Trace Elements on the Ruminal Function of Dairy Cows
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 542-555; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040043 - 04 Oct 2021
Abstract
The high production levels reached by the dairy sector need adjustment in nutritional inputs and efficient feed conversion. In this context, we evaluated a compound (QY—Qualix Yellow) combining optimized inputs in trace elements and 20% MIX 3.0. In a first step, the effects [...] Read more.
The high production levels reached by the dairy sector need adjustment in nutritional inputs and efficient feed conversion. In this context, we evaluated a compound (QY—Qualix Yellow) combining optimized inputs in trace elements and 20% MIX 3.0. In a first step, the effects of MIX 3.0 on ruminal function were assessed in vitro by incubating ruminal fluid with the mixture at a ratio of 20:1. The results obtained encouraged us to test QY in vivo, on a herd of dairy cows. The herd was divided into one group of 19 dairy cows receiving the compound and a control group of 20 animals conducted in the same conditions, but which did not received the compound; the production performance and feed efficiency of the two groups were compared. In vitro experiments showed improved digestion of acid and neutral detergent fibres by 10%. The propionate production was enhanced by 14.5% after 6 h incubation with MIX 3.0. The plant mixture decreased the production of methane and ammonia by 37% and 52%, respectively, and reduced the number of protozoa by 50%. An increase in milk yield by 2.4 kg/cow/d (p < 0.1), combined with a decrease in concentrate consumption of 0.27 kg DM/cow/d (p < 0.001), was observed in vivo after consumption of the compound. Sixty-six days after the beginning of the trial, methane emissions per kg of milk were significantly lower in the group receiving QY. In conclusion, MIX 3.0 induced change in ruminal function in vitro and, when it entered into the composition of the QY, it appeared to improve feed efficiency and production performance in vivo. Full article
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Article
Applicable Plant Proteins and Dietary Fibers for Simulate Plant-Based Yogurts
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102305 - 28 Sep 2021
Abstract
Effects of plant proteins and dietary fibers on the physical properties of stirred soy yogurt were investigated. Buffering capacity against lactic acid was not affected by the protein concentration for any of the four proteins that were examined: isolate soy protein (ISP), pea [...] Read more.
Effects of plant proteins and dietary fibers on the physical properties of stirred soy yogurt were investigated. Buffering capacity against lactic acid was not affected by the protein concentration for any of the four proteins that were examined: isolate soy protein (ISP), pea protein (PP), rice protein (RP), and almond protein (AP). Three proteins other than AP exhibited an increase in buffering capacity (dB/dPH) following a physical treatment, whereas AP saw a decrease in buffering capacity. Furthermore, physically treated PP revealed a significant increase in viscosity, reaching up to 497 cp in the pH 6.0~6.2 range during the titration process. Following fermentation, PP produced the highest viscosity and coagulum strength with no syneresis. In the case of dietary fiber, Acacia Fiber (AF) was completely dissolved in the solvent and did not affect the physical properties of the fermented coagulum. Soy fiber (SF) was also not suitable for fermented milk processes because precipitation occurred after the physical treatment. In the case of citrus fiber (CF), however, syneresis did not occur during storage after the physical treatment, and the viscosity also increased up to 2873 cP. Consequently, PP and CF were deemed to be a suitable plant protein and dietary fiber for stirred soy yogurt, respectively. Full article
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Article
Physicochemical, Functional, Fatty Acids Profile, Health Lipid Indices, Microstructure and Sensory Characteristics of Walnut-Processed Cheeses
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2274; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102274 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
In the present study, processed cheeses fortified with walnut paste (a high source of omega-3 fatty acids) were developed and characterized. In order to identify the best cheese formulation, the effects of different proportions of walnut paste (0, 5, 10, and 15%) on [...] Read more.
In the present study, processed cheeses fortified with walnut paste (a high source of omega-3 fatty acids) were developed and characterized. In order to identify the best cheese formulation, the effects of different proportions of walnut paste (0, 5, 10, and 15%) on cheese physicochemical, functional, fatty acids profile, health lipid indices (atherogenic and thrombogenic), microstructure, and sensorial characteristics were studied. Results showed that walnut-added samples had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher levels of acidity, protein, fat, and ash contents with lower meltability and oil separation index compared to the control. Processed cheeses with walnuts contained significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher percentages of MUFAs, and ω-3 PUFAs (mainly α-linolenic acid) and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of SFAs (mainly myristic, palmitic and stearic acids) and ω6/ω3 ratio. Scanning Electron Micrograph of processed cheese containing walnut paste showed uniform distribution of walnut in the protein matrix. Processed cheeses made with 5 or 10% walnut paste presented the most acceptable sensory properties. These results indicated that walnut paste supplementation can be used as a nutritional strategy to increase concentrations of human health-promoting fatty acids in processed cheeses while maintaining good sensory and technological properties. Full article
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Article
The Use of Membrane Filtration to Increase Native Whey Proteins in Infant Formula
Dairy 2021, 2(4), 515-529; https://doi.org/10.3390/dairy2040041 - 23 Sep 2021
Abstract
The introduction of membrane filtration during infant milk formula (IMF) processing represents an innovative approach to increasing native protein content compared to standard IMF. The objective of this study was to compare IMF powder produced using a standard process and IMF produced from [...] Read more.
The introduction of membrane filtration during infant milk formula (IMF) processing represents an innovative approach to increasing native protein content compared to standard IMF. The objective of this study was to compare IMF powder produced using a standard process and IMF produced from raw bovine skim milk with added whey protein isolate using a split-stream process incorporating a ceramic 1.4 μm filter followed by a polyvinylidene difluoride polymeric 0.2 μm filter. Retentates from 0.2 μm microfiltration (MF) were blended with fat, lactose, and minerals and subsequently high-temperature treated (125 °C × 5 s). The heat-treated retentate was merged with the permeate from the 0.2 μm MF, homogenised, and spray-dried (referred to as membrane-filtered IMF or MEM-IMF). A control IMF was also produced using standard treatment (referred to as high-temperature IMF or HT-IMF) without membrane filtration. Both IMF products were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography, particle size, and enzyme activity assays. MEM-IMF powder had significantly higher amounts of native (1.1 g per 100 g powder) and monomeric (1.48 g per 100 g powder) whey proteins when compared to 0.18 and 0.46 g per 100 g powder in HT-IMF, respectively. MEM-IMF also exhibited a lower degree of protein aggregation compared to HT-IMF. Comparison of microbial and Maillard by-products markers demonstrated that a safe IMF product could be produced at scale, although levels of the Maillard by-product marker, carboxymethyl-lysine, were not significantly reduced in MEM-IMF. This study demonstrates how membrane filtration can be used to retain native proteins during IMF manufacture. Full article
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Article
Co-Culture Strategy of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens HL1 for Developing Functional Fermented Milk
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092098 - 05 Sep 2021
Abstract
Our previous studies indicated that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens HL1, isolated from kefir grain, has strong antioxidant activities and anti-aging effects. However, this strain is difficult to use in isolation when manufacturing fermented products due to poor viability in milk. Thus, the purpose of this [...] Read more.
Our previous studies indicated that Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens HL1, isolated from kefir grain, has strong antioxidant activities and anti-aging effects. However, this strain is difficult to use in isolation when manufacturing fermented products due to poor viability in milk. Thus, the purpose of this study was to apply a co-culture strategy to develop a novel probiotic fermented milk rich in L. kefiranofaciens HL1. Each of four selected starter cultures was co-cultured with kefir strain HL1 in different media to evaluate their effects on microbial activity and availability of milk fermentation. The results of a colony size test on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar agar, microbial viability, and acidification performance in MRS broth and skimmed milk suggested that Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris APL15 is a suitable candidate for co-culturing with HL1. We then co-cultured HL1 and APL15 in skimmed milk and report remarkable improvement in fermentation ability and no negative impact on the viability of strain HL1 or textural and rheological properties of the milk. Through a co-culture strategy, we have improved the viability of kefir strain HL1 in fermented skimmed milk products and successfully developed a novel milk product with a unique flavor and sufficient probiotics. Full article
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Review
Analysis of Caloric and Noncaloric Sweeteners Present in Dairy Products Aimed at the School Market and Their Possible Effects on Health
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092994 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Over the past decades, Mexico has become one of the main sweetener-consuming countries in the world. Large amounts of these sweeteners are in dairy products aimed at the children’s market in various presentations such as yogurt, flavored milk, flan, and cheeses. Although numerous [...] Read more.
Over the past decades, Mexico has become one of the main sweetener-consuming countries in the world. Large amounts of these sweeteners are in dairy products aimed at the children’s market in various presentations such as yogurt, flavored milk, flan, and cheeses. Although numerous studies have shown the impact of sweeteners in adults, the current evidence for children is insufficient and discordant to determine if these substances have any risk or benefit on their well-being. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the sweeteners present in 15 dairy products belonging to the school-age children’s market in Mexico and their impact on health. These dairy products were selected through a couple of surveys directed at parents of school-age children. After that, the list of ingredients of each product was analyzed to identify their sweetener content. From there, exhaustive bibliographic research on sweeteners and their possible health effects was carried out, which included 109 articles and 18 studies. The results showed that at a neurological, endocrinological, cardiovascular, metabolic, osseous, renal, hepatic, dental, reticular, carcinogenic, and gut microbiota level; sucrose, fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, maltodextrins, sucralose, and acesulfame K, have a negative effect. While maltodextrins, stevia, polydextrose, and modified starch have a positive one. For these reasons, it is necessary to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages that the consumption of each sweetener entails, as well as a determination of the appropriate acceptable daily intake (ADI). Full article
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Article
Bovine Colostrum Supplementation Improves Bone Metabolism in an Osteoporosis-Induced Animal Model
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 2981; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13092981 - 27 Aug 2021
Abstract
Osteoporosis is characterized by bone loss. The present study aims to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum (BC) on bone metabolism using ovariectomized (OVX) and orchidectomized (ORX) rat models. Twenty-seven-week-old Wistar Han rats were randomly assigned as: (1) placebo control, (2) BC supplementation [...] Read more.
Osteoporosis is characterized by bone loss. The present study aims to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum (BC) on bone metabolism using ovariectomized (OVX) and orchidectomized (ORX) rat models. Twenty-seven-week-old Wistar Han rats were randomly assigned as: (1) placebo control, (2) BC supplementation dose 1 (BC1: 0.5 g/day/OVX, 1 g/day/ORX), (3) BC supplementation dose 2 (BC2: 1 g/day/OVX, 1.5 g/day/ORX) and (4) BC supplementation dose 3 (BC3: 1.5 g/day/OVX, 2 g/day/ORX). Bone microarchitecture, strength, gene expression of VEGFA, FGF2, RANKL, RANK and OPG, and bone resorption/formation markers were assessed after four months of BC supplementation. Compared to the placebo, OVX rats in the BC1 group exhibited significantly higher cortical bone mineral content and trabecular bone mineral content (p < 0.01), while OVX rats in the BC3 group showed significantly higher trabecular bone mineral content (p < 0.05). ORX rats receiving BC dose 2 demonstrated significantly higher levels of trabecular bone mineral content (p < 0.05). Serum osteocalcin in the ORX was pointedly higher in all BC supplementation groups than the placebo (BC1: p < 0.05; BC2, BC3: p < 0.001). Higher doses of BC induced significantly higher relative mRNA expression of OPG, VEGFA, FGF2 and RANKL (p < 0.05). BC supplementation improves bone metabolism of OVX and ORX rats, which might be associated with the activation of the VEGFA, FGF2 and RANKL/RANK/OPG pathways. Full article
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Article
Breastmilk Feeding during the First 4 to 6 Months of Age and Childhood Disease Burden until 10 Years of Age
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082825 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 6
Abstract
Background: Breastfeeding is recommended due to its beneficial effects on human health. However, the effect of breastfeeding on health differs, resulting in various childhood diseases. Objective: Our purpose was to investigate the association between breastfeeding at least in the first 4 months and [...] Read more.
Background: Breastfeeding is recommended due to its beneficial effects on human health. However, the effect of breastfeeding on health differs, resulting in various childhood diseases. Objective: Our purpose was to investigate the association between breastfeeding at least in the first 4 months and the subsequent development of 15 certainly defined childhood diseases until 10 years of age, the all-cause hospitalization rate and growth at 6–7 years of age. Methods: Participants included propensity-score matched 188,052 children born between January 2008 and December 2009, who were followed up till 10 years of age. Data were taken from the National Investigation of birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 database. Risk ratios were obtained using a modified Poisson regression and weighted risk differences using binomial regression. Results: Compared to formula feeding, breastfeeding was associated with decreased risks of febrile convulsion, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder, pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, asthma, all-cause hospitalization, overweight/obesity and short stature. Exclusive breastfeeding at 4 to 6 months of age had similar results to exclusive breastfeeding over 6 months of age. Conclusions: Breastfeeding in early infancy reduces the risk for various childhood diseases, all-cause hospitalization rate, obesity, and short stature during childhood. Full article
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Review
High Hydrostatic Pressure Induced Changes in the Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Milk and Dairy Products: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1867; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081867 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 4
Abstract
High-pressure processing (HPP) is a nonthermal technology used for food preservation capable of generating pasteurized milk products. There is much information regarding the inactivation of microorganisms in milk by HPP, and it has been suggested that 600 MPa for 5 min is adequate [...] Read more.
High-pressure processing (HPP) is a nonthermal technology used for food preservation capable of generating pasteurized milk products. There is much information regarding the inactivation of microorganisms in milk by HPP, and it has been suggested that 600 MPa for 5 min is adequate to reduce the number of log cycles by 5–7, resulting in safe products comparable to traditionally pasteurized ones. However, there are many implications regarding physicochemical and functional properties. This review explores the potential of HPP to preserve milk, focusing on the changes in milk components such as lipids, casein, whey proteins, and minerals, and the impact on their functional and physicochemical properties, including pH, color, turbidity, emulsion stability, rheological behavior, and sensory properties. Additionally, the effects of these changes on the elaboration of dairy products such as cheese, cream, and buttermilk are explored. Full article
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