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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 291 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The anti-proliferative/pro-oxidant efficacy of green pea, soybean, radish, Red Rambo radish, and rocket microgreens, cultivated under either fluorescent lighting (predominant spectral peaks in green and orange) or combination light-emitting diode (LED, predominant spectral peak in blue) was investigated using Ewing sarcoma lines, RD-ES and A673, respectively. All aqueous microgreen extracts significantly reduced cell proliferation (cancer prevention effect) to varying extents in two-dimensional sarcoma cell cultures. View this paper
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Review
Plant Proteins for Future Foods: A Roadmap
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1967; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081967 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4339
Abstract
Protein calories consumed by people all over the world approximate 15–20% of their energy intake. This makes protein a major nutritional imperative. Today, we are facing an unprecedented challenge to produce and distribute adequate protein to feed over nine billion people by 2050, [...] Read more.
Protein calories consumed by people all over the world approximate 15–20% of their energy intake. This makes protein a major nutritional imperative. Today, we are facing an unprecedented challenge to produce and distribute adequate protein to feed over nine billion people by 2050, in an environmentally sustainable and affordable way. Plant-based proteins present a promising solution to our nutritional needs due to their long history of crop use and cultivation, lower cost of production, and easy access in many parts of the world. However, plant proteins have comparatively poor functionality, defined as poor solubility, foaming, emulsifying, and gelling properties, limiting their use in food products. Relative to animal proteins, including dairy products, plant protein technology is still in its infancy. To bridge this gap, advances in plant protein ingredient development and the knowledge to construct plant-based foods are sorely needed. This review focuses on some salient features in the science and technology of plant proteins, providing the current state of the art and highlighting new research directions. It focuses on how manipulating plant protein structures during protein extraction, fractionation, and modification can considerably enhance protein functionality. To create novel plant-based foods, important considerations such as protein–polysaccharide interactions, the inclusion of plant protein-generated flavors, and some novel techniques to structure plant proteins are discussed. Finally, the attention to nutrition as a compass to navigate the plant protein roadmap is also considered. Full article
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Review
Pharmacological Activities for Morus alba L., Focusing on the Immunostimulatory Property from the Fruit Aqueous Extract
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081966 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
Depending on the extraction method, numerous compounds that have specific pharmacological effects can be obtained from M. alba L. There is a growing scientific interest in health problems related to aging. Efforts to develop safe immune-enhancing pharmaceuticals are increasing. This review aims to [...] Read more.
Depending on the extraction method, numerous compounds that have specific pharmacological effects can be obtained from M. alba L. There is a growing scientific interest in health problems related to aging. Efforts to develop safe immune-enhancing pharmaceuticals are increasing. This review aims to summarize and critically discuss the immunity enhancement effects and pharmaceutical efficacy of M. alba L. extracts. The scientific database search was conducted using Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed until May 2021. Additional articles were identified and obtained from references in the retrieved articles. Ethanol or methanol extraction of various parts of M. alba L. identified a large amount of phenols and flavonoids, which are effective for immunosuppression, antioxidants, and cardiovascular diseases, and are antibacterial, and anticancer. Water extraction of M. alba L. enhanced the innate immune response based on immune cell activation. A polysaccharide and an alkaloid related to increased macrophage activity were isolated from M. alba L. fruit extracts. M. alba L. fruit water extracts primarily induced the production of pro-inflammatory substances, in model organisms, via TLR4 in immune cells. Water extracts have been shown to be effective in pathogen defense and tumor suppression by enhancing macrophage activity. Based on our literature review on the bioactivity of M. alba L. fruit extracts, particularly in relation to their immunity enhancement activity, we anticipate that M. alba-derived pharmaceuticals will have excellent potential in future medical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in the Biological Functions of Plant-Based Foods)
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Review
Casein Micelles as an Emerging Delivery System for Bioactive Food Components
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081965 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1382
Abstract
Bioactive food components have potential health benefits but are highly susceptible for degradation under adverse conditions such as light, pH, temperature and oxygen. Furthermore, they are known to have poor solubilities, low stabilities and low bioavailabilities in the gastrointestinal tract. Hence, technologies that [...] Read more.
Bioactive food components have potential health benefits but are highly susceptible for degradation under adverse conditions such as light, pH, temperature and oxygen. Furthermore, they are known to have poor solubilities, low stabilities and low bioavailabilities in the gastrointestinal tract. Hence, technologies that can retain, protect and enable their targeted delivery are significant to the food industry. Amongst these, microencapsulation of bioactives has emerged as a promising technology. The present review evaluates the potential use of casein micelles (CMs) as a bioactive delivery system. The review discusses in depth how physicochemical and techno-functional properties of CMs can be modified by secondary processing parameters in making them a choice for the delivery of food bioactives in functional foods. CMs are an assembly of four types of caseins, (αs1, αs2, β and κ casein) with calcium phosphate. They possess hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties that make them ideal for encapsulation of food bioactives. In addition, CMs have a self-assembling nature to incorporate bioactives, remarkable surface activity to stabilise emulsions and the ability to bind hydrophobic components when heated. Moreover, CMs can act as natural hydrogels to encapsulate minerals, bind with polymers to form nano capsules and possess pH swelling behaviour for targeted and controlled release of bioactives in the GI tract. Although numerous novel advancements of employing CMs as an effective delivery have been reported in recent years, more comprehensive studies are required to increase the understanding of how variation in structural properties of CMs be utilised to deliver bioactives with different physical, chemical and structural properties. Full article
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Article
Metabolic Engineering of Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 for Heterologous Expression of Synthetic alaD Gene Cassette and L-Alanine Production in the Recombinant Strain Using Fed-Batch Fermentation
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1964; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081964 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
Metabolic engineering substantially aims at the development of more efficient, robust and industrially competitive microbial strains for the potential applications in food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. An efficient lab scale bioprocess was developed for high level fermentative production of L-alanine using metabolically engineered [...] Read more.
Metabolic engineering substantially aims at the development of more efficient, robust and industrially competitive microbial strains for the potential applications in food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. An efficient lab scale bioprocess was developed for high level fermentative production of L-alanine using metabolically engineered Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 (alaD+). Computational biology tools assisted the designing of a synthetic alaD gene cassette, which was further cloned in shuttle vector pLES003 and expressed using an auto-inducible P289 promoter. Further, L-alanine production in the recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (alaD+) strain was carried out using fed-batch fermentation under oxygen depression conditions, which significantly enhanced L-alanine levels. The recombinant strain expressing the synthetic alaD gene produced 229.12 g/L of L-alanine after 42 h of fed-batch fermentation, which is the second highest microbial L-alanine titer reported so far. After extraction and crystallization, 95% crystal L-alanine (217.54 g/L) was recovered from the culture broth with an enantiomeric purity of 97%. The developed bioprocess using recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (alaD+) is suggested as the best alternative to chemical-based commercial synthesis of L-alanine for potential industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology Approaches in Food Preservation and Food Safety)
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Communication
Single and Repeated Oral Dose Toxicity and Genotoxicity of the Leaves of Butterbur
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081963 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Butterbur (Petasites japonicus (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim) leaves are available to consumers in the marketplace, but there is no guarantee that they are safe for human consumption. Previously, we demonstrated that hot water extracts of P. japonicus leaves (KP-1) had anti-inflammatory properties [...] Read more.
Butterbur (Petasites japonicus (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim) leaves are available to consumers in the marketplace, but there is no guarantee that they are safe for human consumption. Previously, we demonstrated that hot water extracts of P. japonicus leaves (KP-1) had anti-inflammatory properties and attenuated memory impairment. However, data regarding KP-1 toxicity are lacking. This study assessed the safety of KP-1 by examining oral and genotoxic effects using in vivo and in vitro tests, respectively. In a single oral dose toxicity and two-week repeated oral dose toxicity study, we observed no toxicologically significant clinical signs or changes in hematology, blood chemistry, and organ weights at any dose during the experiment. Following a thirteen-week repeated oral dose, toxicity, hyperkeratosis, and squamous cell hyperplasia of the limiting ridge in the stomach were observed. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was found to be 1250 mg/kg/day in male and female rats. However, hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia were not considered to be of toxicological significance when extrapolating the NOAEL to humans because the limiting ridge in the stomach is species-specific to rats. Therefore, in our study, the NOAEL was considered to be 5000 mg/kg/day when the changes in the stomach’s limiting ridge were discounted. Moreover, in vitro bacterial reverse mutations and chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells and the in vivo micronucleus in Institute of cancer research (ICR) mice assays showed that KP-1 possessed no mutagenicity. Although additional research is required, these toxicological evaluations suggest that KP-1 could be safe for human consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Toxicology)
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Article
Effects of Vacuum Frying on the Preparation of Ready-to-Heat Batter-Fried and Sauced Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus)
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081962 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 917
Abstract
Chub mackerel (CM) is a commercial fish in Korea, owing to its availability and nutritional values. This study aimed to develop a ready-to-heat (RTH) Korean preparation of CM, known as Godeungo gangjeong. We utilized vacuum frying technology to fry the CM and evaluated [...] Read more.
Chub mackerel (CM) is a commercial fish in Korea, owing to its availability and nutritional values. This study aimed to develop a ready-to-heat (RTH) Korean preparation of CM, known as Godeungo gangjeong. We utilized vacuum frying technology to fry the CM and evaluated its quality. Conventional frying with a deep fryer was performed in parallel to assess the superiority of the vacuum fryer. We optimized the frying conditions of vacuum frying (VBF) and deep frying (DBF) using response surface methodology. At optimum conditions of 95 °C for 7 min 42 s, VBF produced better sensory, chemical, and microbial properties than DBF at 190 °C for 5 min 30 s. The nutritional values, including amino acid and fatty acid contents, were investigated and found to be higher in VBF than in DBF. Sensory properties also showed better scores on VBF than DBF, especially in appearance, aroma, taste, and overall acceptability. The VBF produced lower volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total bacterial count (TBC) than DBF. The findings confirmed that vacuum frying is a better option to produce RTH Godeungo gangjeong, since it provides less oxidation and maintains the product quality. Using the Arrhenius approach, the product was concluded to preserve both quality and safety for 9 months of storage at −18 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Technologies in Quality Improvement of Animal Production)
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Article
How Individual Variations in the Perception of Basic Tastes and Astringency Relate with Dietary Intake and Preferences for Fruits and Vegetables
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081961 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Background: Oral food perception plays a major role in food acceptance, although the way it relates with food preferences and final choices in adults is still debatable. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between gustatory function, dietary [...] Read more.
Background: Oral food perception plays a major role in food acceptance, although the way it relates with food preferences and final choices in adults is still debatable. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between gustatory function, dietary habits and fruit and vegetable preferences. Methods: Recognition thresholds, suprathreshold and hedonics were accessed for sweet, bitter, sour, salty and astringency in 291 adult participants. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a questionnaire for assessment of preferences for individual fruit and vegetables were filled by the participants. Results: Three clusters were obtained: “most sensitive”, “less sensitive” and “less sensitive only for sour”. The less sensitive cluster showed lower preferences for fruit and vegetables and higher intake of sweets and fast foods, whereas higher preferences for sweet veggies were observed in the “most sensitive” cluster. Basic tastes and astringency hedonics did not associate with fruit and vegetable preferences, but the sensitivity for these oral sensations did. Conclusions: Taste and astringency sensitivities are related with the preference for fruit and vegetables, being also associated with some dietary habits. The effectiveness of the strategies to promote plant-based healthy food consumption may benefit from the knowledge of individuals’ gustatory function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Influencing Factors of Food Choice and Food Consumption)
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Article
Influence of Glycomacropeptide on Rehydration Characteristics of Micellar Casein Concentrate Powder
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1960; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081960 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1013
Abstract
Glycomacropeptide (GMP) shows potential for enhancing the rehydration properties of high-protein dairy powders due to its hydrophilic nature. This study involved formulating micellar casein concentrate (MCC) solutions (8.6% final protein content) with 0, 10, and 20% GMP as a percentage of total protein, [...] Read more.
Glycomacropeptide (GMP) shows potential for enhancing the rehydration properties of high-protein dairy powders due to its hydrophilic nature. This study involved formulating micellar casein concentrate (MCC) solutions (8.6% final protein content) with 0, 10, and 20% GMP as a percentage of total protein, and investigated the physicochemical and rehydration properties of the resultant freeze-dried powders (P-MCC-0G, P-MCC-10G, and P-MCC-20G, respectively). The surface charges of caseins in the control MCC and 10 or 20% GMP blended solutions were −25.8, −29.6, and −31.5 mV, respectively. Tablets prepared from P-MCC-10G or P-MCC-20G powders displayed enhanced wettability with contact angle values of 80.6° and 79.5°, respectively, compared with 85.5° for P-MCC-0G. Moreover, blending of GMP with MCC resulted in faster disintegration of powder particles during rehydration (i.e., dispersibility) compared to P-MCC-0G. Faster and more extensive release of caseins from powder particles into solution was evident with the increasing proportion of GMP, with the majority of GMP released within the first 15 min of rehydration. The results of this study will contribute to further development of formulation science for achieving enhanced solubility characteristics of high-protein dairy powder ingredients, such as MCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Article
Incorporation of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan in a Low-Fat Beef Burger: Assessment of Technological Quality and Oxidative Stability
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081959 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
In the present work, incorporating low molecular weight chitosan (LMWCH) (0, 0.5, 1, and 2%) as a fat replacer into low-fat beef burgers and technological, textural, and oxidative stability were investigated. The weight loss and shrinkage of samples decreased with the increase of [...] Read more.
In the present work, incorporating low molecular weight chitosan (LMWCH) (0, 0.5, 1, and 2%) as a fat replacer into low-fat beef burgers and technological, textural, and oxidative stability were investigated. The weight loss and shrinkage of samples decreased with the increase of LMWCH concentration. In contrast, the water-holding capacity and color of burgers were enhanced by the addition of LMWCH. The instrumental TPA results indicated an increase in the LMWCH levels, significantly increasing the hardness, springiness, and gumminess but decreasing the cohesiveness of low-fat beef burgers. The TBARS and peroxide values and free fatty acid content in the burgers supplemented with LMWCH increase slower than the control sample during refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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Article
Effect of Filter Types on Physicochemical Properties, Volatile Compounds, and Sensory Evaluations of Purified Water by Point-of-Use Water Treatment
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1958; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081958 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
This study investigated purified water from four different filter types for removing minerals, anions, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and affecting sensory perception and consumer acceptability. Ultrafiltration (UF), CSM-ultrafiltration (CU), alumina nanofiber (AN), and reverse osmosis (RO) filters were used for a point-of-use [...] Read more.
This study investigated purified water from four different filter types for removing minerals, anions, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and affecting sensory perception and consumer acceptability. Ultrafiltration (UF), CSM-ultrafiltration (CU), alumina nanofiber (AN), and reverse osmosis (RO) filters were used for a point-of-use water treatment system with a pre-carbon filter (PR) and post-carbon filter (PO). Filters efficiently removed VOCs, which could negatively affect the sensory perception of water. The total VOC concentration of tap water (TW) (14.97 µg/Kg) was reduced by 70% by the PR, 75.3–88.7% by the PR-main filter, and >97% by the PR-RO-PR. Using the polarized sensory position test, the subjects clearly discriminated TW from the samples; however, most of the purified water was not. The difference in the mean ratings of consumer acceptability among the purified samples was <1 except for PR-RO-PO in consumer testing. These results suggested that although there are differences in the capability of different filter types to eliminate minerals, anions, and VOCs, overall consumers did not identify sensory differences among them, and demonstrated similar consumer acceptability of the purified water produced. Simply applying a pre-carbon filter for TW treatment is enough to minimize VOCs, which negatively influence consumer acceptability. Full article
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Article
Detection of Enteric Viruses and Core Microbiome Analysis in Artisanal Colonial Salami-Type Dry-Fermented Sausages from Santa Catarina, Brazil
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081957 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Microbial fermentation plays an important role in the manufacturing of artisanal sausages and can have major effects on product quality and safety. We used metagenomics and culture-dependent methods to study the presence of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Rotavirus-A (RV-A), and fungal and [...] Read more.
Microbial fermentation plays an important role in the manufacturing of artisanal sausages and can have major effects on product quality and safety. We used metagenomics and culture-dependent methods to study the presence of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Rotavirus-A (RV-A), and fungal and bacterial communities, in artisanal Colonial salami-type dry-fermented sausages in Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast dominated the microbiome. Latilactobacillus sakei and Debaryomyces hansenii were ubiquitous and the most abundant species. The DNA of some foodborne pathogens was found in very low concentrations although viable cells of most of these species were undetectable by cultivation methods. The characteristics of the raw material and hygiene of the artisanal sausage manufacturing process resulted in high loads of beneficial microorganisms and the absence of HEV and RV-A viruses as determined by RT-qPCR assays. In conclusion, high LAB load in sausages was more relevant to preventing pathogen growth than the ripening time and/or physicochemical characteristics. However, the presence of Clostridium spp. and other pathogens in some samples must be taken into account for the development of future preservation methods; appropriate LAB starter cultures and health surveillance are required in the production process to prevent foodborne outbreaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Food Fermentation)
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Article
Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Seeds from Apple Cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.) Grown in Norway
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081956 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
Apple production generates large amounts of apple pomace including seeds, leading to high transportation costs, public health hazards and undesirable odor. A new reuse strategy of this kind of waste could solve environmental issues and/or create unconventional sources of health beneficial products. In [...] Read more.
Apple production generates large amounts of apple pomace including seeds, leading to high transportation costs, public health hazards and undesirable odor. A new reuse strategy of this kind of waste could solve environmental issues and/or create unconventional sources of health beneficial products. In total, seeds from 75 apple cultivars grown in Norway (both domestic and international) have been analyzed for the first time for oil content and fatty acid profile together with tocopherols and carotenoids quantification in defatted seeds. Seeds from cultivar Håkonseple had the highest oil content (22.10%), with linoleic, oleic acid, and palmitic acid as the most abundant fatty acids. The levels of β-carotene and lycopene carotenoids and α-tocopherol were the highest in defatted seeds of the cultivar Sureple Grøn. Principal component analysis separated cultivars according to the total oil content. The Norwegian apple cultivars Håkonseple, Kviteple, Tolleivseple, Vinterrosenstrips, and Tokheimseple are recommended for obtaining vegetable oil due to their high oil contents, while cultivar Sureple Grøn can be separated due to its high levels of β-carotene, lycopene and total tocopherols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Value Added Products from Agro-Food Residues)
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Article
Consumer Preferences and Socioeconomic Factors Decided on Plantain and Plantain-Based Products in the Central Region of Cameroon and Oyo State, Nigeria
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081955 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 941
Abstract
Plantain is a key staple food in Central and West Africa, but there is limited understanding of its market in Africa. In addition, the cooking methods for enhancing the nutritional value, consumer preference, and willingness to pay for plantain and plantain-based products are [...] Read more.
Plantain is a key staple food in Central and West Africa, but there is limited understanding of its market in Africa. In addition, the cooking methods for enhancing the nutritional value, consumer preference, and willingness to pay for plantain and plantain-based products are not well understood. The knowledge gaps in the market and consumer dimension of the food chain need to be known to increase plantain utilization and guide breeding efforts. This research contributes by examining the cooking methods, consumer preference, and willingness to pay for plantain and plantain-based products in Cameroon and Nigeria. A household survey sample of 454 Cameroonian consumers in four divisions of Central Region and 418 Nigerian consumers in seven government areas of Oyo State in southwest Nigeria was the basis for the analysis. The results showed some levels of similarity and difference in the consumption and cooking of boiled, roasted, and fried plantain in both countries. The trend in consumption of all plantain-based products was constant in Cameroon but increased in Nigeria. The most important factor influencing Cameroonian consumers’ choice of plantain and its products was taste, while the nutrition trait influenced Nigerian consumers. Both Cameroonian and Nigerian consumers considered packaging, location of produce, and size and quantity as the least important factors. In addition, socioeconomic characteristics were significant determinants of consumers’ choices to consume plantain and its products. Gender significantly influenced (p < 0.05) taste, while nutrition was significantly driven (p < 0.05) by education and annual income. Household size played a significant role (p < 0.05) in consumers’ choices when the price was considered. These findings serve as a guideline to improve existing products to match the needs of consumers in each country and develop products for different consumer segments and potentially increase production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory Complexity: From Sensory Measurement to Consumption Behavior)
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Article
Dynamic Thermal Properties Estimation Using Sensitivity Coefficients for Rapid Heating Process
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081954 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 981
Abstract
Thermal conductivity determination of food at temperatures > 100 °C still remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of food using rapid heating (TPCell). The experiments were designed based on scaled sensitivity coefficient (SSC), and [...] Read more.
Thermal conductivity determination of food at temperatures > 100 °C still remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of food using rapid heating (TPCell). The experiments were designed based on scaled sensitivity coefficient (SSC), and the estimated thermal conductivity of potato puree was compared between the constant temperature heating at 121.10 °C (R12B10T1) and the rapid heating (R22B10T1). Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity models along with a constant conductivity were used for estimation. R22B10T1 experiment using the k model provided reliable measurements as compared to R12B10T1 with thermal conductivity values from 0.463 ± 0.011 W m−1 K−1 to 0.450 ± 0.016 W m−1 K−1 for 25–140 °C and root mean squares error (RMSE) of 1.441. In the R12B10T1 experiment, the analysis showed the correlation of residuals, which made the estimation less reliable. The thermal conductivity values were in the range of 0.444 ± 0.012 W m−1 K−1 to 0.510 ± 0.034 W m−1 K−1 for 20–120 °C estimated using the k model. Temperature-dependent models (linear and k models) provided a better estimate than the single parameter thermal conductivity determination with low RMSE for both types of experiments. SSC can provide insight in designing dynamic experiments for the determination of thermal conductivity coefficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Modelling and Simulation of Food Systems)
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Article
Antioxidant Activity Level, Bioactive Compounds, Colour and Spectroscopic Analysis (UV-Vis and FT-IR) of Flavoured Drinks Made with Wine and Sour Cherries (Prunuscerasus Var. austera)
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1953; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081953 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
In recent years, the increase in consumer interest towards simpler and authentic lifestyles has led to an explosive growth in the production and business of typical agri-food products and, among these, of wines and its derived beverages. With the aim of promoting a [...] Read more.
In recent years, the increase in consumer interest towards simpler and authentic lifestyles has led to an explosive growth in the production and business of typical agri-food products and, among these, of wines and its derived beverages. With the aim of promoting a typical Italian beverage, the so-called “Vino di visciole” or “Visner”, listed in the national table of traditional agri-food products, the antioxidant and colour properties of fifteen samples from different provinces of the Marche region and obtained with different recipes were analysed. The “in vitro” total antioxidant activity (TAA) determined using ABTS assays, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total anthocyanins content (TAC), and colour (Somers assay) were measured. In addition, a spectroscopic FT-IR and UV-Vis analysis was carried out to analyse samples with multivariate techniques. The results showed that the production area, the recipe, and the type of cherries used to make the alcoholic beverage do not influence the antioxidant properties and the phytochemical contents of the samples. The multivariate treatment of the spectroscopic features (mainly UV-Vis) rather allowed the differentiation of samples with high antioxidant activity using easy and low-cost instrumental techniques that require little time and can be employed in routine analysis. Full article
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Review
Tropical Fruits and Their Co-Products as Bioactive Compounds and Their Health Effects: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081952 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Tropical and subtropical fruits are recognized as a source of a high content of bioactive compounds and health promoting properties due to their nutritional composition. These beneficial health effects are related to the content of several of these bioactive compounds, mainly flavonoids and [...] Read more.
Tropical and subtropical fruits are recognized as a source of a high content of bioactive compounds and health promoting properties due to their nutritional composition. These beneficial health effects are related to the content of several of these bioactive compounds, mainly flavonoids and non-flavonoid phenolics. Many of these compounds are common in different tropical fruits, such as epicatechin in mango, pineapple, and banana, or catechin in pineapple, cocoa or avocado. Many studies of tropical fruits had been carried out, but in this work an examination is made in the current literature of the flavonoids and non-flavonoid phenolics content of some tropical fruits and their coproducts, comparing the content in the same units, as well as examining the role that these compounds play in health benefits. Full article
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Article
Geographical Differentiation of Hom Mali Rice Cultivated in Different Regions of Thailand Using FTIR-ATR and NIR Spectroscopy
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081951 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1380
Abstract
Although Hom Mali rice is considered the highest quality rice in Thailand, it is susceptible to adulteration and substitution. There is a need for rapid, low-cost and efficient analytical techniques for monitoring the authenticity and geographical origin of Thai Hom Mali rice. In [...] Read more.
Although Hom Mali rice is considered the highest quality rice in Thailand, it is susceptible to adulteration and substitution. There is a need for rapid, low-cost and efficient analytical techniques for monitoring the authenticity and geographical origin of Thai Hom Mali rice. In this study, two infrared spectroscopy techniques, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, were applied and compared for the differentiation of Thai Hom Mali rice from two geographical regions over two production years. The Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) model, built using spectral data from the benchtop FTIR-ATR, achieved 96.97% and 100% correct classification of the test dataset for each of the production years, respectively. The OPLS-DA model, built using spectral data from the portable handheld NIR, achieved 84.85% and 86.96% correct classification of the test dataset for each of the production years, respectively. Direct NIR analysis of the polished rice grains (i.e., no sample preparation) was determined as reliable for analysis of ground rice samples. FTIR-ATR and NIR spectroscopic analysis both have significant potential as screening tools for the rapid detection of fraud issues related to the geographical origin of Thai Hom Mali rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Origin Analysis with Isotope Fingerprints)
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Article
Consumer Acceptance of Brown and White Rice Varieties
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081950 - 22 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Rice is consumed as a staple food by more than half of the world’s population. Due to a higher fibre and micronutrient content, brown rice is more nutritious than white rice, but the consumption of brown rice is significantly lower than that of [...] Read more.
Rice is consumed as a staple food by more than half of the world’s population. Due to a higher fibre and micronutrient content, brown rice is more nutritious than white rice, but the consumption of brown rice is significantly lower than that of white rice, primarily due to sensory attributes. Therefore, the present research aimed to identify the sensory attributes which drive liking of Australian-grown brown and white rice varieties. Participants (n = 139) tasted and scored (9-point hedonic scale) their liking (i.e., overall liking, aroma, colour and texture) of brown and white rice types of Jasmine (Kyeema), Low GI (Doongara), and Medium grain rice (Amaroo). In addition, participants scored aroma, colour, hardness, fluffiness, stickiness, and chewiness, on Just About Right Scales. A within-subjects crossover design with randomised order (William’s Latin Square design) was used with six repeated samples for liking and Just About Right scales. Penalty analyses were applied to determine the relative influence of perception of sensory attributes on consumer liking of the rice varieties. Across all varieties, white rice was liked more than brown rice due to the texture and colour, and Jasmine rice was preferred over Low GI and Medium Grain. Rice texture (hardness and chewiness) was the most important sensory attribute among all rice varieties and aroma was important for driving of liking between white rice varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Consumer Research for a Sustainable Food System)
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Article
Chemical and Bioactive Characterization of Spanish and Belgian Apple Pomace for Its Potential Use as a Novel Dermocosmetic Formulation
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081949 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Currently, there is a general trend towards reutilizing industrial by-products that would otherwise be discarded or considered as waste, aiming to explore them as alternative sources of valuable compounds. The apple pomace remaining from cider and apple juice industries represents a high-potential source [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a general trend towards reutilizing industrial by-products that would otherwise be discarded or considered as waste, aiming to explore them as alternative sources of valuable compounds. The apple pomace remaining from cider and apple juice industries represents a high-potential source of bioactive compounds with putative application in food or pharmaceutical-related products. Accordingly, the work reported herein was conducted to characterize the phenolic compounds in apple pomace from Belgium and Spain, as well as to evaluate its chemical composition and particular types of bioactivity. As a proof of concept, a new hydrogel was prepared, incorporated with the bioactive compounds and pectin extracted from apple pomace, aiming to obtain the most organic formulation possible. Independently of the extracting agent, it became evident that using lyophilization as the drying step is a better choice than thermal processes as it yielded a richer phenolic profile (fifteen individual compounds), with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid as the major compound (66 to 114 mg/100 g dw) in Belgian samples. In general, the hydroethanolic extracts showed the strongest antioxidant and antimicrobial (particularly against Propionibacterium acnes: MIC = 2.5 mg/mL) activities. This result, together with the lipid nature of human skin, led it to be chosen as the extract type to be incorporated in the hydrogel. In general, apple pomace stood out as a valuable source of bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols and pectin, with good potential to be incorporated in dermal formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Food Additives: From Source to Application)
Article
Domestic Use Simulation and Secondary Shelf Life Assessment of Industrial Pesto alla genovese
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081948 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
The secondary shelf life (SSL) is defined as the time after package opening during which the food product retains a required level of quality. The SSL, indicated in labels as “best if used within x days after opening”, could lead to domestic food [...] Read more.
The secondary shelf life (SSL) is defined as the time after package opening during which the food product retains a required level of quality. The SSL, indicated in labels as “best if used within x days after opening”, could lead to domestic food waste if not correctly evaluated. In this context, the SSL of two brands of industrial shelf-stable pesto products (with an indicated SSL of 5 days) was studied through a domestic use simulation performed in five households under two scenarios simulating real opening and storage conditions. The quality of pesto after opening was assessed through microbiological and sensory analyses, determination of instrumental colour parameters, pH and volatiles profiling. For both pesto sauces tested, a SSL ≥ 20 days was proven. Irrespective of the intensity of use (scenarios 1 and 2), the pesto was microbiologically stable: the maximum count for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TMB) observed during 20 days of storage was 9.64 ± 1.7 × 102 CFU/g, starting from a commercially stable product. Colour parameters L* and ΔE did not change significantly during storage (p > 0.05), while the a* and BI values significantly changed (p < 0.05) during the first 5 days, and then stabilized during the rest of the household storage. Nevertheless, the slight colour modifications were not perceived by the sensory panel. Moreover, sensory assessors were not able to discern pesto samples stored for up to 20 days after first opening, from a just-opened reference sample, proving that the sensory appreciation of pesto was not influenced by the time after opening. The results of this study suggest the possibility to significantly extend or even omit the SSL indications for industrial pesto sauces. The objective assessment of SSL could have impressive practical outcomes both for the industry and the end user. The elongation of the SSL on the food label might increase food sustainability, thanks to the potential reduction of food wastes, thus giving added value to the commercial products. In addition, the end user could benefit the increase of the useful period for the food consumption after first opening, with significant domestic food waste reduction, reduced household stock turnover and consequent cost savings. Full article
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Article
Effect of Tempering Conditions on White Sorghum Milling, Flour, and Bread Properties
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1947; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081947 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 854
Abstract
The effects of room temperature water, hot water, and steam tempering methods were investigated on sorghum kernel physical properties, milling, flour, and bread-making properties. Overall tempering condition and tempering moisture content were found to have a significant effect on the physical properties. Milling [...] Read more.
The effects of room temperature water, hot water, and steam tempering methods were investigated on sorghum kernel physical properties, milling, flour, and bread-making properties. Overall tempering condition and tempering moisture content were found to have a significant effect on the physical properties. Milling properties were evaluated using a laboratory-scale roller milling flowsheet consisting of four break rolls and eight reduction rolls. Room temperature tempering (18% moisture for 24 h) led to better separation of bran and endosperm without negatively impacting flour quality characteristics i.e., particle size distribution, flour yield, protein, ash, damaged starch, and moisture content. Bread produced from the flour obtained from milling sorghum kernels tempered with room temperature water (18% m.c for 24 h) and hot water (16% m.c at 60 °C for 18 h) displayed better bread-making properties i.e., high firmness, resilience, volume index, higher number of cells, and thinner cell walls when compared to other tempering conditions. Room temperature water tempering treatment (18% m.c for 24 h) could be a better pretreatment process for milling white sorghum kernels without negatively impacting the flour and bread-making quality characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cereals and Cereal-Based Foods, Volume II)
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Article
A Real Case Study of a Full-Scale Anaerobic Digestion Plant Powered by Olive By-Products
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1946; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081946 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
The anaerobic digestion plant studied in this paper is one of the first full-scale plants using olive oil by-products. This is a two-stage plant with a power of 100 kWe. Two tests were performed: the first on olive pulp and pitted pomace and [...] Read more.
The anaerobic digestion plant studied in this paper is one of the first full-scale plants using olive oil by-products. This is a two-stage plant with a power of 100 kWe. Two tests were performed: the first on olive pulp and pitted pomace and the second on biomass consisting of 10% crushed cereal. In both cycles, the retention time was 40 days. The production of biogas was between 51 and 52 m3/h, with limited fluctuations. The specific production values of biogas indicate that a volume of biogas greater than 1 m3/kg was produced in both tests. The produced biogas had a methane percentage of about 60% and the specific production (over total volatile solids, TVS) of methane was of the order of 0.70 m3methane/kgTVS. FOS/Alk (ratio between volatile organic acids and alkalinity) was always lower than 1 and tended to decrease in the second digester, indicating a stable methanogenic phase and the proper working of the methanogenic bacteria in the second reactor. The concentration of incoming biomass TPC (total polyphenols content) can vary significantly, due to the seasonality of production or inadequate storage conditions, but all measured values of TPC, between 1840 and 3040 mg gallic acid kg−1, are considered toxic both for acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria. By contrast, during the process the polyphenols decreased to the minimum value at the end of the acidogenic phase, biogas production did not stop, and the methane percentage was high. Full article
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Article
Evolution of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality under Different Storage Conditions
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081945 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
The extent and conditions of storage may affect the stability and quality of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different storage conditions (ambient, 4 °C and −18 °C temperatures, and argon headspace) on three EVOOs (low, [...] Read more.
The extent and conditions of storage may affect the stability and quality of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This study aimed at evaluating the effects of different storage conditions (ambient, 4 °C and −18 °C temperatures, and argon headspace) on three EVOOs (low, medium, and high phenols) over 18 and 36 months, analyzing the main metabolites at six time points. The results showed that low temperatures are able to maintain all three EVOOs within the legal limits established by the current EU regulations for most compounds up to 36 months. Oleocanthal, squalene, and total phenols were affected by storage temperatures more than other compounds and degradation of squalene and α-tocopherol was inhibited only by low temperatures. The best temperature for 3-year conservation was 4 °C, but −18 °C represented the optimum temperature to preserve the organoleptic properties. The present study provided new insights that should guide EVOO manufacturers and traders to apply the most efficient storage methods to maintain the characteristics of the freshly extracted oils for a long conservation time. Full article
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Article
Intensive Environmental Surveillance Plan for Listeria monocytogenes in Food Producing Plants and Retail Stores of Central Italy: Prevalence and Genetic Diversity
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1944; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081944 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) can persist in food processing environments (FPEs), surviving environmental stresses and disinfectants. We described an intensive environmental monitoring plan performed in Central Italy and involving food producing plants (FPPs) and retail grocery stores (RSs). The aim of the [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) can persist in food processing environments (FPEs), surviving environmental stresses and disinfectants. We described an intensive environmental monitoring plan performed in Central Italy and involving food producing plants (FPPs) and retail grocery stores (RSs). The aim of the study was to provide a snapshot of the Lm circulation in different FPEs during a severe listeriosis outbreak, using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate the genetic diversity of the Lm isolated, evaluating their virulence and stress resistance profiles. A total of 1217 samples were collected in 86 FPEs with 12.0% of positive surfaces at FPPs level and 7.5% at RSs level; 133 Lm isolates were typed by multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and core genome MLST (cgMLST). Clonal complex (CC) 121 (25.6%), CC9 (22.6%), CC1 (11.3%), CC3 (10.5%), CC191 (4.5%), CC7 (4.5%) and CC31 (3.8%) were the most frequent MLST clones. Among the 26 cgMLST clusters obtained, 5 of them persisted after sanitization and were re-isolated during the follow-up sampling. All the CC121 harboured the Tn6188_qac gene for tolerance to benzalkonium chloride and the stress survival islet SSI-2. The CC3, CC7, CC9, CC31 and CC191 carried the SSI-1. All the CC9 and CC121 strains presented a premature stop codon in the inlA gene. In addition to the Lm Pathogenicity Island 1 (LIPI-1), CC1, CC3 and CC191 harboured the LIPI-3. The application of intensive environmental sampling plans for the detection and WGS analysis of Lm isolates could improve surveillance and early detection of outbreaks. Full article
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Article
Selected Quality Parameters of Air-Dried Apples Pretreated by High Pressure, Ultrasounds and Pulsed Electric Field—A Comparison Study
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1943; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081943 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
The aim of this work was to compare selected physicochemical properties of air dried ‘Golden Delicious’ apples, pretreated either by high-pressure processing (HPP), ultrasound (US) or pulsed electric field (PEF). Following parameters of pretreatment were used: HPP–400 MPa for 15 min, US–21 kHz, [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to compare selected physicochemical properties of air dried ‘Golden Delicious’ apples, pretreated either by high-pressure processing (HPP), ultrasound (US) or pulsed electric field (PEF). Following parameters of pretreatment were used: HPP–400 MPa for 15 min, US–21 kHz, 180 W for 45 min, PEF–1 kV/cm, 3.5 kJ/kg. The quality of materials was evaluated by their rehydration properties, hygroscopicity, color and total phenolic content. To compare the effectiveness of the utilized methods, determined properties were expressed as relative comparison values against the reference sample obtained without any pretreatment in the same conditions. The performed research demonstrated that properties can be shaped by the application of proper pretreatment methods. For instance, PEF was shown to be the best method for improving water uptake during rehydration, whereas HPP was the most effective in decreasing hygroscopic properties in comparison with untreated dried apples. Among the investigated methods, HPP resulted in the deepest browning and thus total color difference, while the effects of US and PEF were comparable. For all pretreated dried apples, the total phenolic content was lower when compared with reference material, though the smallest drop was found in sonicated samples. Full article
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Article
Steam Explosion-Assisted Extraction of Protein from Fish Backbones and Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Extracts
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081942 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
The development of an efficient pretreatment, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, is a good strategy for the sustainable use of refractory fish byproducts. This study compared hydrothermal pretreatments at 159 °C for 2 min, followed by water extraction (steam explosion-assisted extraction, SE) and 121 [...] Read more.
The development of an efficient pretreatment, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, is a good strategy for the sustainable use of refractory fish byproducts. This study compared hydrothermal pretreatments at 159 °C for 2 min, followed by water extraction (steam explosion-assisted extraction, SE) and 121 °C for 70 min (hot-pressure extraction, HPE), for the recovery of proteins from fish backbones. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the properties of the obtained fish bone protein (FBP) was also evaluated. The results demonstrated that FBP had high contents of protein (81.09–84.88 g/100 g) and hydroxyproline (70–82 residues/1000 residues). After hydrolysis with Flavourzyme, for 3 h, the FBP hydrolysates that were pretreated with SE (SFBP-H) exhibited a better degree of hydrolysis (DH) and nitrogen recovery (NR), and a higher level of umami taste free amino acids (151.50 mg/100 mL), compared with the HPE-treated samples. The obtained SFBP-H mainly distributed below 3000 Da and had strong scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) (IC50 = 4.24 mg/mL) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) (IC50 = 1.93 mg/mL) radicals. Steam explosion-assisted extraction is a promising route for recovering proteins from native fish bone materials, and improving the flavor and antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates. Full article
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Systematic Review
Recent Applications of Mixture Designs in Beverages, Foods, and Pharmaceutical Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1941; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081941 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
Design of Experiments (DoE) is a statistical tool used to plan and optimize experiments and is seen as a quality technology to achieve products excellence. Among the experimental designs (EDs), the mixture designs (MDs) stand out, being widely applied to improve conditions for [...] Read more.
Design of Experiments (DoE) is a statistical tool used to plan and optimize experiments and is seen as a quality technology to achieve products excellence. Among the experimental designs (EDs), the mixture designs (MDs) stand out, being widely applied to improve conditions for processing, developing, or formulating novel products. This review aims to provide useful updated information on the capacity and diversity of MDs applications for the industry and scientific community in the areas of food, beverage, and pharmaceutical health. Recent works were selected following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA) flow diagram. Data analysis was performed by self-organizing map (SOM) to check and understand which fields of application/countries/continents are using MDs. Overall, the SOM indicated that Brazil presented the largest number of works using MDs. Among the continents, America and Asia showed a predominance in applications with the same amount of work. Comparing the MDs application areas, the analysis indicated that works are prevalent in food and beverage science in the American continent, while in Asia, health science prevails. MDs were more used to develop functional/nutraceutical products and the formulation of drugs for several diseases. However, we briefly describe some promising research fields in that MDs can still be employed. Full article
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Article
Rice Bran Makes a Healthy and Tasty Traditional Indonesian Goat Meatball, ‘Bakso’
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081940 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Meatballs are popular in Asia and traditionally made from beef or chicken with tapioca (≈8% wt/wt) as filler. Tapioca has a high glycaemic index (GI); therefore, rice bran was evaluated as a substitute to create a healthier meatball of acceptable quality. Substitution [...] Read more.
Meatballs are popular in Asia and traditionally made from beef or chicken with tapioca (≈8% wt/wt) as filler. Tapioca has a high glycaemic index (GI); therefore, rice bran was evaluated as a substitute to create a healthier meatball of acceptable quality. Substitution of tapioca with rice bran (100:0; 75:25, 50:50; 25:75; 0:100% tapioca: % rice bran) decreased the starch content (7.8 to 3.3%) and GI (56.08 to 43.85) whilst increasing the protein (10.9 to 12.8%) and fibre (8.1 to 10.3%) contents. Although consistency (995 to 776 N/mm) was affected, firmness (90.6 to 90.5 N) and shear force (300 to 312 N) were only slightly affected by the ratio of tapioca to rice bran. Sensory analysis revealed that the goat meatball with the substitution of tapioca with up to 25% rice bran was deemed acceptable by 40 Indonesian consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sheep and Goat Meat Processing and Quality)
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Article
Flavonoids as Human Intestinal α-Glucosidase Inhibitors
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1939; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081939 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
Certain flavonoids can influence glucose metabolism by inhibiting enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion and suppressing intestinal glucose absorption. In this study, four structurally-related flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, quercetagetin and galangin) were evaluated individually for their ability to inhibit human α-glucosidases (sucrase, maltase and isomaltase), [...] Read more.
Certain flavonoids can influence glucose metabolism by inhibiting enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion and suppressing intestinal glucose absorption. In this study, four structurally-related flavonols (quercetin, kaempferol, quercetagetin and galangin) were evaluated individually for their ability to inhibit human α-glucosidases (sucrase, maltase and isomaltase), and were compared with the antidiabetic drug acarbose and the flavan-3-ol(−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Cell-free extracts from human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells were used as the enzyme source and products were quantified chromatographically with high accuracy, precision and sensitivity. Acarbose inhibited sucrase, maltase and isomaltase with IC50 values of 1.65, 13.9 and 39.1 µM, respectively. A similar inhibition pattern, but with comparatively higher values, was observed with EGCG. Of the flavonols, quercetagetin was the strongest inhibitor of α-glucosidases, with inhibition constants approaching those of acarbose, followed by galangin and kaempferol, while the weakest were quercetin and EGCG. The varied inhibitory effects of flavonols against human α-glucosidases depend on their structures, the enzyme source and substrates employed. The flavonols were more effective than EGCG, but less so than acarbose, and so may be useful in regulating sugar digestion and postprandial glycaemia without the side effects associated with acarbose treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Foods with Intestinal and Metabolic Health Effects)
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Article
Dynamic In Vitro Gastric Digestion of Sheep Milk: Influence of Homogenization and Heat Treatment
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081938 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
Milk is commonly exposed to processing including homogenization and thermal treatment before consumption, and this processing could have an impact on its digestion behavior in the stomach. In this study, we investigated the in vitro gastric digestion behavior of differently processed sheep milks. [...] Read more.
Milk is commonly exposed to processing including homogenization and thermal treatment before consumption, and this processing could have an impact on its digestion behavior in the stomach. In this study, we investigated the in vitro gastric digestion behavior of differently processed sheep milks. The samples were raw, pasteurized (75 °C/15 s), homogenized (200/20 bar at 65 °C)–pasteurized, and homogenized–heated (95 °C/5 min) milks. The digestion was performed using a dynamic in vitro gastric digestion system, the human gastric simulator with simulated gastric fluid without gastric lipase. The pH, structure, and composition of the milks in the stomach and the emptied digesta, and the rate of protein hydrolysis were examined. Curds formed from homogenized and heated milk had much looser and more fragmented structures than those formed from unhomogenized milk; this accelerated the curd breakdown, protein digestion and promoted the release of protein, fat, and calcium from the curds into the digesta. Coalescence and flocculation of fat globules were observed during gastric digestion, and most of the fat globules were incorporated into the emptied protein/peptide particles in the homogenized milks. The study provides a better understanding of the gastric emptying and digestion of processed sheep milk under in vitro gastric conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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