Special Issue "Consumer Behavior and Food Choice"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensory and Consumer Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2021) | Viewed by 47821

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Cristina Calvo-Porral
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Business Administration, University of La Coruña, Coruña, Galicia, Spain
Interests: food marketing; consumer behavior; consumer science; food store brands; emotions in food consumption; food sensory analysis; alcoholic beverage consumption; food waste
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Understanding consumer behavior is one of the major challenges for food managers and food companies in order to meet consumers’ needs and demand. Nowadays, consumers care about what they eat, how their food is produced, and the impact that food production and consumption have on the environment and society, but consumers do not behave in a homogeneous way and differ in the way they make decisions about food. In addition, today consumers are more demanding when making food choices, and previous research highlights health, convenience, functionality, and pleasure as the main drivers of food selection. Similarly, there are multiple factors potentially influencing food choice that could be product-based or consumer-based, such as consumer underlying motivations, food involvement, lifestyle, and cultural and social aspects, as well as food products’ packaging, labelling, price, country of origin, and even appearance.

This Special Issue invites researchers to submit high-quality original research contributions and reviews on consumer behavior in food selection, food consumption, and purchase decisions, including “hot topics”, innovative research perspectives, innovations in research methodologies, and insights from interdisciplinary fields.

This Special Issue welcomes original research that covers all aspects of consumer behavior related to food choice, and potentially encompasses topics such as food consumption behavior; consumer multisensory perception; healthy, nutritional, or quality food choices; hedonic and functional food selection; as well as social and cultural aspects of food choice.

Prof. Dr. Cristina Calvo-Porral
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Consumer behavior
  • Food multisensory perception
  • Quality and safety food choices
  • Healthy and nutritional food choices
  • Food package and labelling
  • Local food and organic food
  • Hedonic and functional food choices
  • Food choice motivations
  • Social and cultural aspects of food choice
  • Consumer lifestyle and food choices

Published Papers (35 papers)

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Article
Perspectives and Attitudes towards the Functional and Safety Aspects of Seaweeds for Edible Applications in India
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3026; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123026 - 06 Dec 2021
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Seaweeds are inevitable resources of nutrition bearing favorable rheological characteristics, which has resulted in their inclusion in a variety of daily consumer products. India, with its vast coastline and over 1000 species of seaweeds, presents tremendous potential to bring this resource into nutraceuticals [...] Read more.
Seaweeds are inevitable resources of nutrition bearing favorable rheological characteristics, which has resulted in their inclusion in a variety of daily consumer products. India, with its vast coastline and over 1000 species of seaweeds, presents tremendous potential to bring this resource into nutraceuticals and the food sector. The present survey was designed for the Indian population, which was further classified according to diet preferences, age groups, gender and various occupations. Their perceptions regarding nutritional aspects, sensory views, safety hazards and resource reliability were recorded. Among all groups studied, gender represented significant differences upon the various safety opinions recorded (p < 0.001) compared to the occupations, age groups and diet preferences studied. In addition, the dataset revealed the pro-phycological behavior of consumers subjected to vital concerns about bioresource reliability and pre-processing to avoid health hazards related to wild harvest or on-shore cultivated samples. In addition, consumer responses also revealed potential inhibitory factors in edible applications such as taste and smell. This study suggests that collaborative efforts among media, culinary experts and phycologists could play a pivotal role in promoting seaweeds in the rapidly expanding food sector industry of India. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Who Are the Superfoodies? New Healthy Luxury Food Products and Social Media Marketing Potential in Germany
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2907; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122907 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1249
Abstract
Superfoods, former traditional foods that in some cases are now regarded as new healthy luxury food products (NHLFP), have been growing in popularity in high- and middle-income societies. Despite a growing interest in superfoods, a precise definition of NHLFP, which appears to mark [...] Read more.
Superfoods, former traditional foods that in some cases are now regarded as new healthy luxury food products (NHLFP), have been growing in popularity in high- and middle-income societies. Despite a growing interest in superfoods, a precise definition of NHLFP, which appears to mark a subcategory of superfoods, together with a comprehensive analysis of NHLFP consumer segments does not yet exist. This is of particular relevance to managers as profound knowledge of different consumer groups is a prerequisite for the use of marketing approaches such as social media marketing. Therefore, this research proposes and validates an NHLFP definition and investigates whether promising NHLFP consumer groups can be identified based on selected psychographic and sociodemographic consumer characteristics and whether these groups are also accessible through social media marketing. A data set of 697 fruit consumers in Germany was retrieved in the time period of May to June 2020 and analyzed through exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Eleven factors and four consumer groups were identified, two of which represented favorable superfood consumer groups—one group consumed for intrinsic, health-related reasons rather than for luxury-driven motives, while the other showed tendencies to purchase superfoods for luxury reasons, thus emerging as a promising NHLFP target group. This group is relatively younger, well-educated, and highly receptive of online marketing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Adding Flavours: Use of and Attitudes towards Sauces and Seasonings in a Sample of Community-Dwelling UK Older Adults
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2828; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112828 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
Adding flavours can encourage food intake in older adults for health benefits. The use and attitudes of 22 community-dwelling UK older adults (15 females, aged 65–83 years) towards foods and products that add flavour, e.g., sauces and seasonings, were investigated. Participants used foods/products [...] Read more.
Adding flavours can encourage food intake in older adults for health benefits. The use and attitudes of 22 community-dwelling UK older adults (15 females, aged 65–83 years) towards foods and products that add flavour, e.g., sauces and seasonings, were investigated. Participants used foods/products to add flavour when cooking and eating from 0 to 17 times/day. Taste and flavour were important, and foods/products could add flavour, make foods more pleasant and did not cause discomfort. There were concerns, however, over the healthiness of some foods/products, while consuming a healthy diet and one’s health were important. Reasons for adding flavours largely centred around ‘meal enhancement’, reasons for not adding flavours focused on ‘the product itself’ and ‘characteristics of the meal’, but there was ‘variation’ and many ‘individual differences’. Our findings highlight the benefits of adding flavours for food intakes, particularly the use of naturally flavoursome foods, such as herbs, spices, onion and garlic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
Article
Health Star Ratings and Beverage Purchase Intentions: A Study of Australian and New Zealand Hospitality Consumers
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2764; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112764 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 761
Abstract
This study examines the effects of a health star rating system on the attitudes of consumers and their purchase intentions towards beverage products sold in hospitality venues. Previous studies linking health ratings to the food and beverages of consumers mainly focus on fast-moving [...] Read more.
This study examines the effects of a health star rating system on the attitudes of consumers and their purchase intentions towards beverage products sold in hospitality venues. Previous studies linking health ratings to the food and beverages of consumers mainly focus on fast-moving consumer goods and retail purchasing. However, purchasing patterns in hospitality and foodservice environments are distinct as consumers may be less concerned about health and more interested in the dining experience. Thus, this research focuses on: (1) whether the presence of health star ratings on beverage products influences the willingness of consumers to purchase in the context of the hospitality industry, and (2) identifying the demographic and psychographic factors influencing these behavioural intentions. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression to analyse data from an e-survey of 1021 consumers in Australia and New Zealand, the study found that health star ratings do have an impact on the willingness of consumers to purchase healthy beverages. Specifically, psychographic segmentation around ‘health goals’ is far more pertinent to understanding purchase behaviour in a hospitality setting than age, gender, income, or country. The findings present new insights into the importance of health star labelling on beverages and the purchase intentions of consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
Article
Food Consumption Patterns in Romania during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2712; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112712 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic has changed worldwide as a consequence of the restrictions imposed by law and/or due to the fear of contamination. Although some similarities are found among countries, there are still many particularities for each nation. The present [...] Read more.
Food consumption behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic has changed worldwide as a consequence of the restrictions imposed by law and/or due to the fear of contamination. Although some similarities are found among countries, there are still many particularities for each nation. The present study focused on Romanian consumers and their consumption behavior related to four main food categories: fruits and vegetables, meat and meat products, bread and bakery products, and milk and milk products. Frequency of buying, shopping habits, place of purchase, and concerns related to the place of purchasing food products during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed in comparison with the pre-COVID-19 period using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics regarding an online survey. Three types of behavior were identified as being related to the frequency of buying and to organizing a shopping list (less often, no change, more often). Two groups of consumers were identified as being related to the place of purchasing food: people with the same habits and people with new habits. Concerns related to the location of the stores and to the choice of buying directly from producers were also investigated using the ordered logistic regression. The empirical study revealed the new consumption patterns with a reflection on future trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Organic Foods Purchase Behavior among Generation Y of Bangladesh: The Moderation Effect of Trust and Price Consciousness
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2278; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102278 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
This study aims to identify the factors influencing the purchase behavior of organic foods among young generation customers in Bangladesh. The study adopted the theory of planned behavior as a base and developed 11 hypotheses based on the extant empirical literature. Adopting the [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify the factors influencing the purchase behavior of organic foods among young generation customers in Bangladesh. The study adopted the theory of planned behavior as a base and developed 11 hypotheses based on the extant empirical literature. Adopting the purposive sampling method, the primary data were obtained from a cross-sectional sample of 464 young Bangladeshi consumers using a survey method. In order to identify the key relationship among the study variables, the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was employed using AMOS software, version 25. The study employed a purposive sampling method to pick young respondents through online media. The study revealed that health consciousness, environmental consciousness, food safety consciousness, price consciousness, novelty consciousness, and trust are factors that significantly affect purchase intention and subsequently, the actual purchase of organic foods. The novelty consciousness factor got the highest predicting power, followed by food safety concerns among Generation Y. The research also found that trust and price consciousness exhibit positive and negative moderating effects, respectively, on the relationship between purchase intention and actual purchase. However, the study did not find any moderating role of price consciousness on the association between environmental consciousness and purchase intention. As policy recommendations, informing and educating young consumers about organic products, their novelty, and other benefits of consuming is critical for fostering their purchase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
The Influence of Celebrity Endorsement on Food Consumption Behavior
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2224; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092224 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1980
Abstract
“Is consumer food behavior influenced by celebrity endorsement?”. This question remains unsolved despite celebrities constantly recommending different products in their social media networks. Much of the literature on celebrity endorsement focuses on the characteristics of celebrities influencing consumers’ behavior, but there is scarce [...] Read more.
“Is consumer food behavior influenced by celebrity endorsement?”. This question remains unsolved despite celebrities constantly recommending different products in their social media networks. Much of the literature on celebrity endorsement focuses on the characteristics of celebrities influencing consumers’ behavior, but there is scarce research about how celebrity endorsements about food and food products influence consumers’ behavior. In this context and based on the source credibility and source attractiveness models, as well as on the match-up theory, this study aims to examine whether consumers’ food purchase intention and consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price is influenced by celebrity endorsement. For this purpose, an empirical study is developed through Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) based on data gathered from 316 consumers who read celebrity recommendations. Findings report that consumers are most influenced in their food consumption behavior by the congruence between the celebrity endorsement and the product being recommended, and by the celebrity credibility. Interestingly, celebrity recommendations show a similar influencing pattern both for consumers’ food purchase intention and consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for food. The major contribution of this research is to show that congruence is the main route by which celebrity endorsement influences food consumption behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
The Role of Sensory Perception in Consumer Demand for Tinned Meat: A Contingent Valuation Study
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2185; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092185 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
This study presents an analysis of consumer preferences for a new food product: Tinned Chianina meat. Respondents (N = 249) participated in a sensory test, where they were also asked to declare their willingness to pay (WTP) for the tasted product. The [...] Read more.
This study presents an analysis of consumer preferences for a new food product: Tinned Chianina meat. Respondents (N = 249) participated in a sensory test, where they were also asked to declare their willingness to pay (WTP) for the tasted product. The WTP data were collected after the sensory test by means of the contingent valuation method using a payment card elicitation format. Data were analysed with Cragg’s double-hurdle model to understand which factors influenced market participation (WTP > 0) and then the variables that influenced the declared WTP. According to our results, sensory perception played a key role in explaining both participation in the market and the magnitude of the expressed WTP. Moreover, we found that the sensory aspects have a different effect on the decision to participate in the market and on the magnitude of the expressed WTP. Smell and flavour are the most important in determining the probability of entering the market, while texture has the greatest impact on the declared WTP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Effects of Rural Restaurants’ Outdoor Dining Environment Dimensions on Customers’ Satisfaction: A Consumer Perspective
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2172; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092172 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
The catering industry is one of the important industries that promote rural tourism development. Hence, rural restaurants have high research value. However, few studies have examined rural restaurants and their outdoor dining environments (ODE). In this study, from the perspective of consumers and [...] Read more.
The catering industry is one of the important industries that promote rural tourism development. Hence, rural restaurants have high research value. However, few studies have examined rural restaurants and their outdoor dining environments (ODE). In this study, from the perspective of consumers and using exploratory factor analysis, three ODE dimensions (quality and facilities, image and atmosphere, and landscape elements) were proposed that affect customers’ satisfaction with rural restaurants. Moreover, the differences between different customer groups in terms of the various dimensions were analyzed. The research results provide management recommendations and fundamental knowledge for rural restaurant managers and rural restaurant designers and articulate different consumer groups’ expectations with regard to rural restaurants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Neuroorganoleptics: Organoleptic Testing Based on Psychophysiological Sensing
Foods 2021, 10(9), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10091974 - 24 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
There is an increasing interest, in consumer behaviour research related to food and beverage, in taking a step further from the traditional self-report questionnaires and organoleptic properties assessment. With the growing availability of psychophysiological data acquisition devices, and advancements in the study of [...] Read more.
There is an increasing interest, in consumer behaviour research related to food and beverage, in taking a step further from the traditional self-report questionnaires and organoleptic properties assessment. With the growing availability of psychophysiological data acquisition devices, and advancements in the study of the underlying signal sources seeking affective state assessment, the use of psychophysiological data analysis is a natural evolution in organoleptic testing. In this paper we propose a protocol for what can be defined as neuroorganoleptic analysis, a method that combines traditional approaches with psychophysiological data acquired during sensory testing. Our protocol was applied to a case study project named MobFood, where four samples of food were tested by a total of 83 participants, using preference and acceptance tasks, across three different sessions. Best practices and lessons learned regarding the laboratory setting and the acquisition of psychophysiological data were derived from this case study, which are herein described. Preliminary results show that certain Heart Rate Variability (HRV) features have a strong correlation with the preferences self-reported by the participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
A Hybrid Recommendation Approach for Viral Food Based on Online Reviews
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081801 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
Nowadays, there are many types of viral foods and consumers expect to be able to quickly find foods that meet their own tastes. Traditional recommendation systems make recommendations based on the popularity of viral foods or user ratings. However, because of the different [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there are many types of viral foods and consumers expect to be able to quickly find foods that meet their own tastes. Traditional recommendation systems make recommendations based on the popularity of viral foods or user ratings. However, because of the different sentimental levels of users, deviations occur and it is difficult to meet the user’s specific needs. Based on the characteristics of viral food, this paper constructs a hybrid recommendation approach based on viral food reviews and label attribute data. A user-based recommendation approach is combined with a content-based recommendation approach in a weighted combination. Compared with the traditional recommendation approaches, it is found that the hybrid recommendation approach performs more accurately in identifying the sentiments of user evaluations, and takes into account the similarities between users and foods. We can conclude that the proposed hybrid recommendation approach combined with the sentimental value of food reviews provides novel insights into improving the existing recommendation system used by e-commerce platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Is the Consumer Ready for Innovative Fruit Wines? Perception and Acceptability of Young Consumers
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071545 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
The consumption of traditional wine has decreased in Europe during the last fifteen years. In parallel, new wine alternatives obtained by blending wines and fruit juices or by flavoring wines with artificial or natural flavors have appeared on the market. Recently, an innovative [...] Read more.
The consumption of traditional wine has decreased in Europe during the last fifteen years. In parallel, new wine alternatives obtained by blending wines and fruit juices or by flavoring wines with artificial or natural flavors have appeared on the market. Recently, an innovative fruit wine obtained by co-fermentation of grape must and kiwi juice has been proposed and its potential of attraction for consumers should be exploited. To assess the potential consumer acceptability and expectations towards this new product, an online choice experiment has been conducted involving a consumer group of young adults (18–35 years old; n = 373). After the data collection, participants were divided into two groups according to whether they had already tasted a fruit wine (neophiles) or had never tasted it (new entries). For each group, the individual’s responses (on wine consumption habits, expectations and willingness to consume and pay a fruit wine) were analyzed through Principal Component Analysis. Different consumption styles and expectation patterns were defined in the two groups. However, in general, neophiles showed consumption patterns based on the evaluation of fruit quality, sales format, alcoholic content and the presence or not of bubbles, not giving importance to the brand. In contrast, new entries’ responses identified consumption patterns driven by the willingness to pay for a new product, the product value for money and packaging features. Differences between the two groups in expectations about the product sensory characteristics also emerged. These findings should contribute to this area of study by integrating environmental, economic and social dimensions and addressing food innovation and sustainability in the fruit and wine chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Good Attitudes Are Not Good Enough: An Ethnographical Approach to Investigate Attitude-Behavior Inconsistencies in Sustainable Choice
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061317 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1341
Abstract
This research explores reasons for the attitude-behavior gap of consumers involved with sustainable food choice. For this purpose, the Food Choice Process Model by was applied. The study follows a qualitative approach. Data were collected through ethnographical fieldwork. Over the course of nine [...] Read more.
This research explores reasons for the attitude-behavior gap of consumers involved with sustainable food choice. For this purpose, the Food Choice Process Model by was applied. The study follows a qualitative approach. Data were collected through ethnographical fieldwork. Over the course of nine months, researchers repeatedly accompanied six families. Each visit lasted several hours and included multiple in-depth discussions, food shopping observations and participation in everyday food behavior. Findings show that beliefs, positive attitudes, and behavioral intentions do play an important role for sustainable choice. Rooted in one’s personal life course experiences and the socio-cultural conditions one grew up in, however, their determinacy is heavily impaired by household realities and by various personal and situational factors. Sustainability attributes, even if dominant on an abstract level, tend to be inferior for actual choice, especially when competing with the taste, price, and preferences of other household members. Product evaluation and food choice are seldomly a result of comprehensive information processing, but rather based on simplifications and strategies. Conflicts are aggravated by competing sustainability values and attributes. Confronted with diverse product-related, personal, external, and situational influences, sustainable choices come with conflicts, tensions, and ambivalences forcing participants to make compromises and remain flexible in their decisions. However, participants were aware of their inadequacies and accept personal inconsistencies, without showing much dissonance. This research extends current knowledge about the impact and the origin of attitudes towards and barriers for sustainable food choice behavior that help to understand the complexity of the phenomena in its natural setting. It points out practical implications for practitioners, updates the theoretical framework, and can widen researchers’ perspective on sustainable food choice behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Environmental Behavior Spillover or Public Information Induction: Consumers’ Intention to Pay a Premium for Rice Grown with Green Manure as Crop Fertilizer
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061285 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
Nowadays, there is a growing interest in pro-environmental foods produced by pro-environmental practices. However, consumers’ payment motivations towards such foods are currently poorly understood. This manuscript provided a critical investigation of Chinese consumers’ intention to pay a premium (ITPP) for rice grown with [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is a growing interest in pro-environmental foods produced by pro-environmental practices. However, consumers’ payment motivations towards such foods are currently poorly understood. This manuscript provided a critical investigation of Chinese consumers’ intention to pay a premium (ITPP) for rice grown with green manure as crop fertilizer (GMR). One focus was the establishment of an explanatory structural research framework that includes effects of environmental behavior spillover (EBS) and public information induction (PII); another focus was to analyze the impacts of the selected structural elements on ITPP by introducing education as a moderator. Results suggest that consumers’ ITPP can be largely influenced by PII, therefore, for GMR marketers and policy makers, measures should be developed to widen consumers’ access to public information related to GMR and to improve their capacity of screening effective information. EBS, when ITPP remains low, emerged as a pivotal predictor of consumers’ ITPP. This observation provides us with the enlightenment that breeding consumers’ daily environmental behaviors is highly valued to inspire their payment intention in the early stages of GMR market development. Another finding is that, with the introduction of the educational variable, the influence coefficients of EBS and PII on ITPP increased from 0.42 and 0.53 to 0.61 and 0.66, respectively, which means that it is possible to boost consumers’ payment intention by improving their educational attainment. This study contributes to the existing literature by providing empirical evidence for the GMR industrial upgrading strategy and have significant implications for the environmental governance of the agricultural sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Consumer Perspectives on Processing Technologies for Organic Food
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061212 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Over the last years, consumer demand for natural and healthy convenient food has increased, and with it the demand for organic convenience food. With convenience food, the processing level increases, which consumers are sceptical of. This holds especially for organic consumers who prefer [...] Read more.
Over the last years, consumer demand for natural and healthy convenient food has increased, and with it the demand for organic convenience food. With convenience food, the processing level increases, which consumers are sceptical of. This holds especially for organic consumers who prefer natural, healthy, and sustainable food products. In the literature, consumer preferences are investigated for processed conventional food, but rarely for organic products. Therefore, this study investigates consumers’ knowledge, expectations, and attitudes towards selected processing technologies for organic food. Nine focus groups with 84 organic consumers were conducted, discussing preservation technologies of organic milk and orange juice. Results showed that participants had little knowledge about processing technologies but were interested in their benefits. Organic processing technologies should include fewer processing steps, low environmental impact, while keeping the product as natural as possible. Since consumers want to know benefits but not details of processing, asking consumers for their specific preferences when developing new processing technologies remains challenging. This paper shows how consumers’ benefit and risk perception including their want for naturalness, and scepticism for new technologies shape their evaluation of (organic) food processing technologies. Two consumer groups with different attitudes towards processing could be identified: ’organic traditionalists’ and ‘organic pragmatics’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
Article
Choice Drivers for Quality-Labelled Food: A Cross-Cultural Comparison on PDO Cheese
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1176; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061176 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
This study aims at examining the consumers’ preferences and drivers affecting the choice of quality-labelled food products, i.e., protected designation of origin (PDO) labelled cheese. We applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to analyse the purchase of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO and Comté [...] Read more.
This study aims at examining the consumers’ preferences and drivers affecting the choice of quality-labelled food products, i.e., protected designation of origin (PDO) labelled cheese. We applied the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to analyse the purchase of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO and Comté PDO hard cheeses in Italy and France, respectively. A cross-sectional sample of 808 consumers (400 French and 408 Italian) completed a questionnaire. Structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated perceived behavioural control (PBC) and attitude to be significant predictors of intention to purchase PDO-labelled cheese in France and Italy. Subjective and moral norms affected intention in France. Intention significantly influenced the hard cheese purchase behaviour. The results confirm that the TPB model predicted the self-reported measure of behaviour more than the observed one, measured with a discrete choice experiment, in both countries. The TPB interrelationships varied between countries, suggesting that food systems operators and public authorities should carefully target their intervention to stimulate the demand of PDO-labelled products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Sweet Talk: A Qualitative Study Exploring Attitudes towards Sugar, Sweeteners and Sweet-Tasting Foods in the United Kingdom
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061172 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Worldwide initiatives currently aim to reduce free sugar intakes, but success will depend on consumer attitudes towards sugar and the alternatives. This work aimed to explore attitudes towards sugar, sweeteners and sweet-tasting foods, towards consumption and related policies, in a sample of the [...] Read more.
Worldwide initiatives currently aim to reduce free sugar intakes, but success will depend on consumer attitudes towards sugar and the alternatives. This work aimed to explore attitudes towards sugar, sweeteners and sweet-tasting foods, towards consumption and related policies, in a sample of the general public of the UK. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with 34 adults (7 males, ages: 18–65 years). Thematic analysis identified six themes: ‘Value’ (e.g., pleasure, emotions), ‘Angle’ (e.g., disinterest), ‘Personal Relevance’ (to be concerned and/or change one’s own behavior), ‘Personal Responsibility’ (one has an active relationship with these food items), ‘Understanding’ (the acquisition, comprehension and application of information) and ‘It’s Not Up to Me’ (a passive approach, because intake is subjected to other factors). Both positive and negative attitudes towards sugar, sweeteners and sweet-tasting foods were expressed in all themes. Participants also reported varied engagement with and motivations towards all food items, with implications for intakes. Suggested challenges and potential strategies for reducing free sugar intakes highlighted the need for differing approaches. Future work should assess associations between attitudes and intakes. For greatest population benefit, evidence of the dominant attitudes in those in greatest need of reduced free sugar intakes would be of value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
How Social Norms Affect Consumer Intention to Purchase Certified Functional Foods: The Mediating Role of Perceived Effectiveness and Attitude
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061151 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Certified functional foods (CFFs) are approved by relevant authorities because of demonstrable efficacy. However, social norms affect consumer perceptions regarding CFFs, and their attitudes toward CFFs remain unclear. Drawing on social influence theory, this study explored how social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive) [...] Read more.
Certified functional foods (CFFs) are approved by relevant authorities because of demonstrable efficacy. However, social norms affect consumer perceptions regarding CFFs, and their attitudes toward CFFs remain unclear. Drawing on social influence theory, this study explored how social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive) affect consumer perceptions and willingness to purchase CFFs. Consumers of CFFs in Taiwan were invited to participate in this study, and 398 valid questionnaires were received. Collected data were assessed through structural equation modeling. The results revealed that descriptive and injunctive norms exerted a positive effect on perceptions of the effectiveness of CFFs. However, although injunctive norms exerted a positive effect on consumer attitude, the effect of descriptive norms on attitude was not significant. Furthermore, consumer perceptions on the effectiveness of CFFs affected their attitude toward CFFs, consequently increasing their intention to purchase CFFs. This study contributes to the literature by providing insights into the relationship between social norms, perceived effectiveness, and attitudes regarding CFFs. The results of this study provide directions to CFF marketers for developing marketing strategies and establishing marketing communication strategies from the perspective of social influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Development of a Simplified Portion Size Selection Task
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051121 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
Portion size is an important determinant of energy intake and the development of easy to use and valid tools for measuring portion size are required. Standard measures, such as ad libitum designs and currently available computerized portion selection tasks (PSTs), have several limitations [...] Read more.
Portion size is an important determinant of energy intake and the development of easy to use and valid tools for measuring portion size are required. Standard measures, such as ad libitum designs and currently available computerized portion selection tasks (PSTs), have several limitations including only being able to capture responses to a limited number of foods, requiring participants’ physical presence and logistical/technical demands. The objective of the current study was to develop and test robust and valid measures of portion size that can be readily prepared by researchers and be reliably utilized for remote online data collection. We developed and tested two simplified PSTs that could be utilized online: (1) portion size images presented simultaneously along a horizontal continuum slider and (2) multiple-choice images presented vertically. One hundred and fifty participants (M = 21.35 years old) completed both simplified PSTs, a standard computerized PST and a series of questionnaires of variables associated with portion size (e.g., hunger, food item characteristics, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire). We found average liking of foods was a significant predictor of all three tasks and cognitive restraint also predicted the two simplified PSTs. We also found significant agreement between the standard PST and estimated portion sizes derived from the simplified PSTs when accounting for average liking. Overall, we show that simplified versions of the standard PST can be used online as an analogue of estimating ideal portion size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Tasty but Nasty? The Moderating Effect of Message Appeals on Food Neophilia/Neophobia as a Personality Trait: A Case Study of Pig Blood Cake and Meatballs
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051093 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Given the development of food tourism, food culture has become an important motivation for tourists. This study focuses on food tourism and examines the effects of message appeal and personality traits (food neophilia or neophobia) on tourists’ willingness to consume pig blood cake [...] Read more.
Given the development of food tourism, food culture has become an important motivation for tourists. This study focuses on food tourism and examines the effects of message appeal and personality traits (food neophilia or neophobia) on tourists’ willingness to consume pig blood cake (PBC) and meatballs, two rice-based Taiwanese street foods. A total of 181 valid questionnaires were administered to foreign tourists in Taiwan (the majority of subjects were Europeans and Americans) through snowball sampling. The questionnaires were analysed using the AMOS 6.0 statistical software package. Foreign tourists’ food neophobia or neophilia was found to significantly affect their willingness to consume rice-based Taiwanese street food (PBC and meatballs) and to strongly regulate the effect of message appeal on their willingness to consume the two delicacies. Past studies on food neophobia/neophilia traits have mostly focused on Western and European foods and have rarely investigated the effect of message appeal on the consumption of traditional rice-based street food in Eastern Asia (e.g., Taiwanese special delicacies). This study’s most important contribution is that food neophilia or neophobia moderates the message appeal effect on foreign tourists’ intention to consume local delicacies. This finding has implications for the hospitality industry and relevant government agencies in Asia for the marketing and promotion of food tourism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
Article
Price Fairness of Processed Tomato Agro-Food Chain: The Italian Consumers’ Perception Perspective
Foods 2021, 10(5), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050984 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Food consumers are increasingly searching for emotions and values when purchasing and consuming food. They search for products that ensure social and environmental sustainability, in addition to more common extrinsic product attributes, such as price, packaging, origin, and brand. In particular, there is [...] Read more.
Food consumers are increasingly searching for emotions and values when purchasing and consuming food. They search for products that ensure social and environmental sustainability, in addition to more common extrinsic product attributes, such as price, packaging, origin, and brand. In particular, there is increasing interest towards product price fairness. The current study aims at exploring consumers’ perception and understanding of price fairness, focusing on the processed tomato products agro-food chain. The study interviewed 832 people. Data were collected through an online questionnaire with the support of Qualtrics software, and data elaboration was carried out with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The elaboration includes an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to identify existing latent factors in the consumers’ perception of enabling agro-food system elements influencing farmers’ reception of fair prices. Then, factor mean values were cross-analysed with socio-economic characteristics and processed tomato consumption habits with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results support the idea that consumers are limitedly aware of the processed tomato agro-food chain dynamics and consider farmers as the most unfairly remunerated partner. Women and frequently purchasing consumers of processed tomato products believe farmers should be treated more fairly. There is a difference between what consumers perceive as fair price distribution and actual price distribution among processed tomato chain actors. Further studies may focus on how fairness attribute impacts on consumer purchasing behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Opuntia ficus-indica as an Ingredient in New Functional Pasta: Consumer Preferences in Italy
Foods 2021, 10(4), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040803 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Opuntia ficus-indica is a source of minerals and vitamins and has recently been used as ingredient to make a new functional variety of pasta. Italy was the first country in the world to produce pasta and is also the second largest producer of [...] Read more.
Opuntia ficus-indica is a source of minerals and vitamins and has recently been used as ingredient to make a new functional variety of pasta. Italy was the first country in the world to produce pasta and is also the second largest producer of Opuntia in the world. According to an Italian sample, this study considers the main factors that could influence consumers when choosing functional pasta (featuring Opuntia) and characterizes distinct hypothetical consumer segments in terms of their food habits, pasta choices, and perceptions toward functional pasta featuring Opuntia. Data were collected using a web-based survey and with 328 respondents. Factor analysis (FA) with orthogonal rotation (varimax) was used to simplify the observed variables and hierarchical cluster analysis was performed with the FA results. Seven clusters were identified and the main results show that the level of education plays an important role in the perception of functional pasta. In fact, the perceptions of well-educated people differed from poorly-educated people. Moreover, the results showed significant respondent interest regarding health benefits and the nutritional and environmental aspects of functional pasta, which should encourage people’s acceptance and consumption of this new functional food. In addition, the respondent preferences reflect a value of experience towards the pasta, i.e., the belief of cooking typical Italian pasta. This means that Opuntia used for the production of functional pasta should maintain the organoleptic and physical properties of durum wheat-based pasta. In addition, respondent preferences for pasta featuring Opuntia could also be driven by its price. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
Article
The Asymmetric Emotional Associations to Beverages: An Approach through the Theory of Positive Asymmetry
Foods 2021, 10(4), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040794 - 08 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 744
Abstract
Consumers experience mainly positive emotions in response to food products, and the reason is that, for most individuals, eating and drinking is a pleasurable experience. On this premise, in light of the Theory of Positive Asymmetry, this study answers the following question: “ [...] Read more.
Consumers experience mainly positive emotions in response to food products, and the reason is that, for most individuals, eating and drinking is a pleasurable experience. On this premise, in light of the Theory of Positive Asymmetry, this study answers the following question: “What emotions prevail in beverage consumption?” A MANOVA test was developed comparing emotions associated with spirits (n = 247), alcoholic beverages (n = 560) and non-alcoholic beverages (n = 254). The findings report that the positive asymmetry of emotions occurs in beverage consumption, regardless of the type of beverage product, since pleasant or positive emotions are primarily associated with beverages’ consumption. The analysis suggests that individuals predominantly associate beverages with pleasant emotions, regardless of the type of beverage, while the level of alcohol content seems to be influencing the different emotions and affect. The research results provide valuable insights to help managers and marketers understand the choice and preference for different beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Heart Images on Food Labels: A Health Claim or Not?
Foods 2021, 10(3), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030643 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Health claims on food labels are used by food manufacturers to inform consumers about the health effects of a product, and such claims can have notable effects on consumer preferences. According to regulatory definitions, health claims can be either worded or presented as [...] Read more.
Health claims on food labels are used by food manufacturers to inform consumers about the health effects of a product, and such claims can have notable effects on consumer preferences. According to regulatory definitions, health claims can be either worded or presented as images, but it is not clear under which conditions an image on a food label should be considered a health claim. This question has important practical implications, as the use of health claims is strictly regulated. The objective of this study was to determine how commonly images of the heart are used on food labels, and to investigate consumers’ perceptions of products labelled with heart images, using different degrees of health relationships. Both a food supply study (N = 10,573 foods) and experiments with consumers (N = 1000) were performed in Slovenia. The use of heart imagery on food products was very common (9%). The consumer study was conducted using a web panel. Structure of the study population was comparable with Slovenian adult population (18–65 years), according to gender and age. The questionnaire was split into conjoint analysis with constructed elements, a choice-based task with real-life elements and a consumers’ association task. The experiments showed that a heart image as part of the brand name itself—without an additional (worded) health claim—did not cause most consumers to relate it to health. However, consumers tended to strongly relate an image of the heart as part of a brand with health benefits, where the image was accompanied by a worded health claim or if the heart image was designed specifically to imply health benefits. We can conclude that the use of heart images was very common on food products, but references to health were less common. Without a health-related context, heart images could not be considered as a health claim. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
The Heterogeneity of Consumer Preferences for Meat Safety Attributes in Traditional Markets
Foods 2021, 10(3), 624; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030624 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
In this study, we focus principally on Taiwan’s traditional markets, as food safety issues in those markets have been increasing recently. Thus, this poses pressures and challenges in traditional markets in terms of attracting consumers. This research aims to investigate whether there is [...] Read more.
In this study, we focus principally on Taiwan’s traditional markets, as food safety issues in those markets have been increasing recently. Thus, this poses pressures and challenges in traditional markets in terms of attracting consumers. This research aims to investigate whether there is consumer demand for more quality improvement from butchers and additional product information in Taiwan’s traditional markets by surveying consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP). This study determines consumers’ preferences for the important attributes and also investigates the different consumer segmentation in Taiwan’s traditional markets by analyzing the types of Taiwanese consumers who care about food safety and additional product information, including Taiwan Fresh Pork (TFP), QR code (provides product source information), Cold storage, and price. In this study, both Mixed Logit Model and Conditional Logit Model are used to elicit consumers’ WTP, and the Latent Class Model is used to understand the market segmentation in Taiwan’s traditional markets. The results show that the majority of Taiwanese consumers in traditional markets show preferences and WTP for meat products if Cold storage and QR code are available in Taiwan’s traditional markets. This work also provides appropriate strategies for improving the additional product information in Taiwan’s traditional markets, which can influence present and potential customers purchasing decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
U.S. Consumer Demand for Plant-Based Milk Alternative Beverages: Hedonic Metric Augmented Barten’s Synthetic Model
Foods 2021, 10(2), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020265 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Consumers in the U.S. increasingly prefer plant-based milk alternative beverages (abbreviated “plant milk”) to conventional milk. This study is motivated by the need to take into consideration varied nutritional and qualitative attributes in plant milk to examine consumers’ purchasing behavior and estimate demand [...] Read more.
Consumers in the U.S. increasingly prefer plant-based milk alternative beverages (abbreviated “plant milk”) to conventional milk. This study is motivated by the need to take into consideration varied nutritional and qualitative attributes in plant milk to examine consumers’ purchasing behavior and estimate demand elasticities which are achieved by a new approach combing hedonic pricing model with Barten’s synthetic demand system. The method of estimation is enlightened from the common practice of companies differentiating their products in multidimensions in terms of attributes. A research dataset was uniquely created by associating the products’ purchase data from Nielsen Homescan dataset with exclusive first-hand nutritional data. Estimations began with creating a multidimensional hedonic attribute space based on the qualitative information of different types of plant milk and conventional milk available to consumers and then calculating the hedonic distances by Euclidean distance measurement to reparametrize Barten’s synthetic demand system. Estimation results showed that the highest own-price elasticity pertained to soy milk which was −0.25. Three plant milk types had inelastic demand. Soy milk exerted substituting effects on all types of conventional milk products and vice versa. Soy milk, rice milk and almond milk entertained complementary relationships between each other and four types of conventional milk were strong substitutes within the group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Purchase Intention for Organic Food Products in Mexico: The Mediation of Consumer Desire
Foods 2021, 10(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020245 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Socially responsible consumption benefits the environment, the consumer, and the producer. In Mexico, smallholder farmers are vulnerable, and the consumption of organic food products is low. Analysing the purchase intention of organic food products contributes towards generating the most appropriate marketing strategies. Previous [...] Read more.
Socially responsible consumption benefits the environment, the consumer, and the producer. In Mexico, smallholder farmers are vulnerable, and the consumption of organic food products is low. Analysing the purchase intention of organic food products contributes towards generating the most appropriate marketing strategies. Previous models provide evidence that the attitude of the consumer is the biggest predictor of purchase intention. However, little is known about the results of the mediating effect of desire on said relationship. The objective of the study is to analyse the mediating effect of desire on the relationship between attitude and purchase intention. 204 consumers of organic food products were surveyed using a structured, self-administrated questionnaire or through face-to-face interviews, in established retail stores, alternative street markets, and via the web. It was found that when the benefits of organic food products to the consumer, environment, and smallholder farmers are evaluated favourably, then consumer desire is higher, and thus also purchase intention. Consumers have the highest purchase intention for organic food products when their desire to buy them to achieve a goal related with social, personal, and environmental benefits intervenes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Investigating the Role of Psychological, Social, Religious and Ethical Determinants on Consumers’ Purchase Intention and Consumption of Convenience Food
Foods 2021, 10(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020237 - 24 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Despite impressive market growth, increasing demand and economic importance of convenience food in emerging economies such as India, comprehensive research regarding the role of psychological and social determinants on convenience food choice is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the influence of [...] Read more.
Despite impressive market growth, increasing demand and economic importance of convenience food in emerging economies such as India, comprehensive research regarding the role of psychological and social determinants on convenience food choice is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the influence of convenience orientation, social status, moral attitude, mood, spiritual concern, religious beliefs and ethical values on purchase intention and consumption of convenience food. The non-probability purposive sampling method was adopted for recruitment of participants. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data from 501 consumers. The descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were carried out to analyse the data. The factor loading, Cronbach’s alpha, composite reliability, average variance extracted, and correlations demonstrated good internal consistency and reliability of scale items as well as convergent and discriminant validity of the constructs. The model fit indices revealed that measurement and structural models fitted well with data. The path analysis of the structural model demonstrated that convenience orientation (β = 0.789 ***, t = 32.462), moral attitude (β = 0.594 ***, t = 20.984), mood (β = 0.586 ***, t = 18.683), spiritual concern (β = 0.145 ***, t = 3.23), religious beliefs (β = 0.451 ***, t = 14.787) and ethical values (β = 0.497 ***, t = 16.678) were positively related with purchase intention and consumption of convenience food (*** Significant at p ≤ 0.01). The path analysis of structural model also indicated that social status was not linked with purchase intention and consumption of convenience food. The convenience orientation was the key determinant influencing purchase intention and consumption of convenience food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Emotions Evoked by Colors and Health Functionality Information of Colored Rice: A Cross-Cultural Study
Foods 2021, 10(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020231 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the emotional responses evoked by cooked colored rice and its health functionality information in both consumers who eat rice as a staple food and consumers who do not eat rice as a staple food. Specifically, Korean and American [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the emotional responses evoked by cooked colored rice and its health functionality information in both consumers who eat rice as a staple food and consumers who do not eat rice as a staple food. Specifically, Korean and American consumers were exposed to colored rice and its health functionality information and an emotion lexicon was generated and measured based on focus group interviews (FGI) and two online consumer surveys. In test 1, the emotions evoked by presentation of stimuli to Koreans (N = 10) and Americans (N = 10) were extracted through FGIs and the first online consumer survey (Koreans = 69; Americans = 68) and an emotion lexicon was generated. As a result, a total of 34 terms were confirmed. Test 2 was conducted during the second online consumer survey (capturing data from a total of 208 Koreans and 208 Americans), utilizing the terms generated in test 1. In this test, only the colors (CO) of colored rice were presented to one group, while colors and health functionality information (CO&H) were presented to the other group. The overall liking for stimuli in both countries was highly correlated with familiarity. Koreans showed significantly more familiarity and liking for CO of white and black CO rice, while Americans showed significantly more familiarity and liking for CO of white and yellow rice. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to categorize the emotion terms, and the emotion terms were sorted into the three clusters, “Positive”, “Negative”, and “New”, for both countries. Under informed conditions, the emotions became more positive, and emotions in the “New” cluster were evoked in both countries. The current study employed a cross-cultural approach to assess consumers’ emotional responses to colored rice and health functionality information. Our findings suggest that providing foods with preferred colors for each culture and providing sufficient information on the said foods will help to promote unfamiliar foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Hypotheses for the Reasons behind Beer Consumer’s Willingness to Purchase Beer: An Expanded Theory from a Planned Behavior Perspective
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1842; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121842 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Because beer is one of the most common alcoholic beverages consumed in the world, this research adopted an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective to understand why beer consumers purchase beer. This study investigated the effects of injunctive norms, descriptive norms, attitude, [...] Read more.
Because beer is one of the most common alcoholic beverages consumed in the world, this research adopted an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective to understand why beer consumers purchase beer. This study investigated the effects of injunctive norms, descriptive norms, attitude, and perceived behavioral control on alcohol identity and purchase intention. The possible mediating role of alcohol identity was also investigated. This study was conducted in Taiwan, and a total of 452 beer consumers participated in the survey. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship among the study variables. The results revealed that alcohol identity positively influences purchase intention, and attitude positively affects alcohol identity and purchase intention. In addition, injunctive norms have a positive influence on alcohol identity, and descriptive norms positively affect purchase intention. In particular, perceived behavioral control has a negative influence on alcohol identity but has a positive influence on purchase intention. This study also found that alcohol identity mediates the attitude–purchase intention relationship. By examining the consumption behavior of beer consumers from the TPB perspective, this study contributed to an understanding of beer consumption behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
Opinions on Insect Consumption in Hungary
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121829 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 951
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess knowledge and opinion in the Hungarian population about the consumption of insect-based food. The questionnaire was filled in by 414 respondents. Their knowledge of edible insect consumption in different countries was average (score 4) or [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess knowledge and opinion in the Hungarian population about the consumption of insect-based food. The questionnaire was filled in by 414 respondents. Their knowledge of edible insect consumption in different countries was average (score 4) or above on a scale of 1 (totally disagree) to 7 (totally agree). Their willingness to consume insect-based food was low, usually below average. Significantly higher scores were attained by men than women, by respondents with a university degree than those who graduated from secondary school, and the highest scores were attained by people of 30–39 age group. However, the effects of residence (town or village) and income were not significant. As Hungarians are not traditional insect consumers, there is a significant emotional response of disgust regarding food made from insects and, as insect food is not commercially available, no significant increase in insect consumption is expected in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
Article
Are the Italian Children Exposed to Advertisements of Nutritionally Appropriate Foods?
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1632; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111632 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
Unhealthy eating habits are one of the main risk factors for overweight/obesity, and food marketing plays a major role in their development. The aim of this study was to monitor the amount and the characteristics of food marketing directed to Italian children broadcasted [...] Read more.
Unhealthy eating habits are one of the main risk factors for overweight/obesity, and food marketing plays a major role in their development. The aim of this study was to monitor the amount and the characteristics of food marketing directed to Italian children broadcasted on television (TV). The WHO tool to assess food and beverage multimedia marketing aimed at children was used to analyze TV recordings. Type of product branded, viewing time, channel’s target, and broadcasting company were the exposure variables analyzed. The power of persuasive techniques was also assessed. Food products were categorized as either core or non-core products on the basis of their nutritional profile. A total of 320 h of TV broadcasting was analyzed, including 51.7 h of commercials. Food and beverages were the second most frequently advertised products, with an average of 6 food advertisements per hour during peak viewing time. A total of 23.8% of food advertisements were recorded during the time slot of 3:00 p.m. Considering food and beverage commercials, “humor” was the most frequently used primary persuasive technique, while the “image of the product/packaging” was the most commonly used secondary persuasive technique. Products specifically targeted to children were 94.3% non-core. Our findings indicate that core foods are highly underrepresented in TV commercials, especially during children TV programs and peak viewing time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Article
How Will We Dine? Prospective Shifts in International Haute Cuisine and Innovation beyond Kitchen and Plate
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1369; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101369 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2339
Abstract
Haute cuisine, the cooking style for fine dining at gourmet restaurants, has changed over the last decades and can be expected to evolve in the upcoming years. To engage in foresight, the purpose of this study is to identify a plausible future trend [...] Read more.
Haute cuisine, the cooking style for fine dining at gourmet restaurants, has changed over the last decades and can be expected to evolve in the upcoming years. To engage in foresight, the purpose of this study is to identify a plausible future trend scenario for the haute cuisine sector within the next five to ten years, based on today’s chefs’ views. To achieve this goal, an international, two-stage Delphi study was conducted. The derived scenario suggests that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will lead to significant restaurant bankruptcies and will raise creativity and innovation among the remaining ones. It is expected that haute cuisine tourism will grow and that menu prices will differ for customer segments. More haute cuisine restaurants will open in Asia and America. Local food will remain a major trend and will be complemented by insect as well as plant-based proteins and sophisticated nonalcoholic food pairings. Restaurant design and the use of scents will become more relevant. Also, private dining and fine dining at home will become more important. The scenario also includes negative projections. These findings can serve as a research agenda for future research in haute cuisine, including the extension of the innovation lens towards the restaurant and the business model. Practical implications include the necessity for haute cuisine restaurants to innovate to cope with increasing competition in several regions. Customers should be seen as co-creators of the value of haute cuisine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
Article
Consumers’ Attitude to Consumption of Rabbit Meat in Eight Countries Depending on the Production Method and Its Purchase Form
Foods 2020, 9(5), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050654 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2403
Abstract
The study’s aim was to investigate the consumers’ attitude to their preference of rabbit meat in eight countries depending on the production method and its purchase form. In Spain and China almost all factors got low scores. High scores (above 4 out of [...] Read more.
The study’s aim was to investigate the consumers’ attitude to their preference of rabbit meat in eight countries depending on the production method and its purchase form. In Spain and China almost all factors got low scores. High scores (above 4 out of 5) for origin were found in Italy, France, Poland, Hungary and Brazil. The importance of feeding was highlighted in Italy, Poland, Hungary and Mexico. High values were received for housing conditions in Italy, Poland, Hungary and Mexico. The level of processing was the most important in China and Brazil, while the slaughtering method was considered the most important in Brazil and Mexico. Breed received the lowest score in almost all countries. The preference of fresh meat was the highest (above 50%) in Spain, France and Mexico, and that of frozen in Brazil and Mexico (about 20%). The highest preference for a whole carcass (above 50%) was given by the respondents in France and Mexico. Thigh was mostly preferred in France whereas consumers preferred loin in Mexico. Roasted, smoked and semi-finished forms were mostly favored in Mexico. It can be concluded that the preference of respondents depended on the country. Preferences were different among the Mediterranean countries, and also Latin American countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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Systematic Review
Efficiency of In-Store Interventions to Impact Customers to Purchase Healthier Food and Beverage Products in Real-Life Grocery Stores: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Foods 2021, 10(5), 922; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050922 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Grocery stores are important settings to promote healthier food and beverage choices. The present paper aims at reviewing the effectiveness of different types of in-store interventions and how they impact sales of different product category in real grocery stores. Systematic search was conducted [...] Read more.
Grocery stores are important settings to promote healthier food and beverage choices. The present paper aims at reviewing the effectiveness of different types of in-store interventions and how they impact sales of different product category in real grocery stores. Systematic search was conducted in six databases. In-store interventions were categorized according to the framework by Kraak et al. (2017) into one or more of eight interventions (e.g., place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, prompting and proximity). This systematic theme-based review follows the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) data screening and selection. Thirty-six studies were included in the qualitative synthesis and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis, representing 72 combinations of in-store interventions. The analysis demonstrates that interventions overall had small significant effect size (ES) using Cohen’s d on food purchase behavior (d = 0.17, 95% CI [0.04, 0.09]), with largest ES for pricing (d = 0.21) and targeting fruits and vegetables (d = 0.28). Analysis of ES of in-store interventions show that pricing, and pricing combined with promotion and prompting, effectively impacted purchase behavior. Interventions significantly impacted both sales of healthy and unhealthy products and significantly increased sales of fruits and vegetables, healthy beverage and total volume of healthy products. Results should however be interpreted with some caution, given the relatively low quality of overall evidence and low number of studies and observations for some types of intervention. Further research exploring impact on different in-store interventions and targeting especially unhealthy products are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumer Behavior and Food Choice)
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