Previous Issue
Volume 9, September

Table of Contents

Educ. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 2019)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Predictive Models for Imbalanced Data: A School Dropout Perspective
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040275 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Predicting school dropout rates is an important issue for the smooth execution of an educational system. This problem is solved by classifying students into two classes using educational activities related statistical datasets. One of the classes must identify the students who have the [...] Read more.
Predicting school dropout rates is an important issue for the smooth execution of an educational system. This problem is solved by classifying students into two classes using educational activities related statistical datasets. One of the classes must identify the students who have the tendency to persist. The other class must identify the students who have the tendency to dropout. This problem often encounters a phenomenon that masks out the obtained results. This study delves into this phenomenon and provides a reliable educational data mining technique that accurately predicts the dropout rates. In particular, the three data classifying techniques, namely, decision tree, neural networks and Balanced Bagging, are used. The performances of these classifies are tested with and without the use of a downsample, SMOTE and ADASYN data balancing. It is found that among other parameters geometric mean and UAR provides reliable results while predicting the dropout rates using Balanced Bagging classifying techniques. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Digital Literacy of Teachers in Training: Moving from ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to LKTs (Learning and Knowledge Technologies)
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040274 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study is based on the need to work on the digital literacy of our Infant Education degree, Primary Education degree and Master in Secondary Education students so that, as future teachers, they are able to make the necessary transition from ICTs (Information [...] Read more.
This study is based on the need to work on the digital literacy of our Infant Education degree, Primary Education degree and Master in Secondary Education students so that, as future teachers, they are able to make the necessary transition from ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to LKTs (Learning and Knowledge Technologies) Through a mixed methodology, knowledge and perceptions of basic technological concepts and tools of our trainee teachers are identified. The instrument used has been a Likert scale questionnaire, adapted and validated by experts from the participating universities. Its internal consistency demonstrates its worth and functionality for the proposed analysis (α = 0.958). The first results show a clear lack of knowledge of certain technological concepts essential for their future teaching work and, in turn, show significant differences regarding the knowledge of ICTs according to the age of the participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Learning in Open and Flexible Environments)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
A Review of Nontraditional Teaching Methods: Flipped Classroom, Gamification, Case Study, Self-Learning, and Social Media
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040273 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
Traditional teaching methods rely solely on the use of textbooks, but teaching effectiveness assessment methods have demonstrated that most students taught by this method do not absorb the course content up to the expected level. Multiple researchers have introduced nontraditional teaching methods, but [...] Read more.
Traditional teaching methods rely solely on the use of textbooks, but teaching effectiveness assessment methods have demonstrated that most students taught by this method do not absorb the course content up to the expected level. Multiple researchers have introduced nontraditional teaching methods, but there is no scientific consensus on the best nontraditional teaching methods that are tailored to learners’ abilities while most effectively addressing the course objectives. Therefore, the goal of this review was to address the following questions across all engineering disciplines, based on learners’ abilities and the course objectives: (a) What are the benefits of nontraditional teaching methods? and (b) How would you categorize the benefits of nontraditional teaching methods? A qualitative review was conducted to achieve these goals, and the initial search for papers, using relevant keywords, resulted in more than 2000 peer-reviewed articles that were published between 2000 and 2017. A total of 125 peer-reviewed articles pertaining to the most frequently studied nontraditional teaching methods were comprehensively studied and analyzed. The analysis resulted in practical guidelines, including a list of the benefits of the five studied nontraditional teaching methods (flipped classroom, gamification, case study, self-learning, and social media) belonging to four categories: technical/professional, personal skills/ability, personal attitude, and time and space. Based on the results, the authors established significant guidelines for instructors who aim to optimize learners’ achievements by adopting the most effective teaching styles, based on their course objectives and the learners’ abilities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reimagining the Place of the Professional, before It Is too Late: Five Dystopias and an Oxymoron?
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040272 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
The trustworthiness and expertise of professionals is much in demand even while they are derided as members of slippery, credentialized and self-serving elites. Eliot Friedson’s three ‘logics’ provide a contextual lens for this deconstruction of ‘professional’ and are updated by adding Artificial Intelligence [...] Read more.
The trustworthiness and expertise of professionals is much in demand even while they are derided as members of slippery, credentialized and self-serving elites. Eliot Friedson’s three ‘logics’ provide a contextual lens for this deconstruction of ‘professional’ and are updated by adding Artificial Intelligence (AI) as putative fourth logic to provide a contextual background—so, Markets, Bureaucracy and AI are seen as alternatives to and influences on professionalism. This context suggests that it may already be too late to save ‘professionals’, but them paper confronts a significant conceptual deficit by using a second interdisciplinary lens, Clarke’s Place Model, to critically deconstruct the ‘place’ of professionals to reimagine a commodious and accessible conceptualization, consisting of five dystopias and a potentially potent oxymoron—inclusive professional. The Place Model is presented as an example of a Geographical Imagination (Massey), combining two conceptions of ‘place’: place as esteem and place as a changing position on the expanding horizons of a career-long growth of expertise. This novel conceptualization is then used to examine the dystopias and potential ideals of ‘professional’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for the Professions in Times of Change )
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Rolling Stone Gathers No Moss? The Case of Mature Students in Higher Education and Their Plurilingual Repertoires
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040271 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study diagnoses how the plurilingual repertoires of mature students (MS) in higher education (HE) are constructed throughout their lives. It addresses the main characteristics of MS; the contexts in which they move throughout their lives, and the situations they contact with languages. [...] Read more.
This study diagnoses how the plurilingual repertoires of mature students (MS) in higher education (HE) are constructed throughout their lives. It addresses the main characteristics of MS; the contexts in which they move throughout their lives, and the situations they contact with languages. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, mostly comprising open-ended questions. The questionnaire was emailed to 485 MS and was filled in by 195 (40.2%). The results highlight the intrinsic relationship between the MS’ life histories and the construction of their plurilingual repertoires. The findings reinforce the relevance of considering the MS’ plurilingual repertoires and life histories in the development of educational linguistic policies in HE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Language Education in the 21 Century)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Has the Portuguese Compensatory Education Program Been Successful in Reducing Disadvantaged Schools’ Performance Gaps? A 15-Year Quantitative Analysis of National Exams
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040270 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
A central goal of the Portuguese compensatory education program—Territórios Educativos de Intervenção Prioritária (TEIP)—is the improvement of the academic performance of socioeconomically disadvantaged students. In this article, we seek to understand whether the schools involved in the program have been successful in reducing [...] Read more.
A central goal of the Portuguese compensatory education program—Territórios Educativos de Intervenção Prioritária (TEIP)—is the improvement of the academic performance of socioeconomically disadvantaged students. In this article, we seek to understand whether the schools involved in the program have been successful in reducing their academic performance gaps—as measured by grades in national exams—relative to non-TEIP schools. We also analyze the evolution in the proportion of national exams carried out in TEIP schools relative to non-TEIP schools, as these are a proxy for students’ desire to proceed into higher education. The analysis points to a general failure of the program in reducing the gap between TEIP and non-TEIP public schools regarding academic performance. In addition, the proportion of national exams undertaken in TEIP schools has been decreasing. These results question TEIP’s ability not only to enhance academic performance, but also to drive students into higher education. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Mapping the Evaluation of Problem-Oriented Pedagogies in Higher Education: A Systematic Literature Review
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040269 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
Problem-oriented pedagogies have emerged as strategic way for universities to respond to an international higher education agenda that increasingly prioritises innovative, student-centred learning, and the cultivation of both civic and employability competences. Alongside this pedagogic shift is a policy-driven emphasis on monitoring teaching [...] Read more.
Problem-oriented pedagogies have emerged as strategic way for universities to respond to an international higher education agenda that increasingly prioritises innovative, student-centred learning, and the cultivation of both civic and employability competences. Alongside this pedagogic shift is a policy-driven emphasis on monitoring teaching and learning for quality assurance purposes. This article aims to untangle the ways problem- and inquiry-based pedagogies are currently evaluated in universities, and thus consider how ‘quality’ implementation, and the effects of this suite of pedagogic approaches, might be better understood, practised, and measured. Taking a systematic approach to the review of the literature, the article maps evaluation methods that assess the effectiveness of problem-oriented and inquiry-based pedagogies implemented in university settings. The key findings include that evaluation methods in the field (i) prioritise qualification-related outcomes, (ii) are limited in scale and scope, and (iii) often function as demonstrations of performativity rather than as part of an ongoing improvement cycle. The article argues that evaluations that take a multi-method approach from the perspective of a range of stakeholders, with an exploration of civic and social competences in addition to employability outcomes, would significantly strengthen the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Problem-based Pedagogies in Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle
Advantages and Disadvantages of Modeling Beliefs by Single Item and Scale Models in the Context of the Theory of Planned Behavior
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040268 - 07 Nov 2019
Abstract
Teachers’ beliefs about science teaching vary greatly. To analyze the relationships between teachers’ beliefs and other variables related to teaching and learning, researchers can use the following two options: single item belief models or belief scales. In this study, we compared both models [...] Read more.
Teachers’ beliefs about science teaching vary greatly. To analyze the relationships between teachers’ beliefs and other variables related to teaching and learning, researchers can use the following two options: single item belief models or belief scales. In this study, we compared both models in the context of teachers’ beliefs regarding teaching about cancer. Although both models exhibited a good model fit, each approach had both advantages and disadvantages when we judged the modelling approaches in terms of fulfilling the requirements of common psychometric standards and adequately acknowledging the diversity of different beliefs. We discuss the predictive value of both models and their contribution to planning belief-based interventions for cancer education. We argue that researchers should combine the advantages of single item and scale models when analyzing the diversity of teachers’ beliefs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Take-Home Exams in Higher Education: A Systematic Review
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040267 - 06 Nov 2019
Abstract
This work describes a systematic review of the research on take-home exams in tertiary education. It was found that there is some disagreement in the community about the virtues of take-home exams but also a lot of agreement. It is concluded that take-home [...] Read more.
This work describes a systematic review of the research on take-home exams in tertiary education. It was found that there is some disagreement in the community about the virtues of take-home exams but also a lot of agreement. It is concluded that take-home exams may be the preferred choice of assessment method on the higher taxonomy levels because they promote higher-order thinking skills and allow time for reflection. They are also more consonant with constructive alignment theories and turn the assessment into a learning activity. Due to the obvious risk of unethical student behavior, take-home exams are not recommended on the lowest taxonomy level. It is concluded that there is still a lot of research missing concerning take-home exams in higher education and some of this research may be urgent due to the emergence of massive online open courses (MOOCs) and online universities where non-proctored exams prevail. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Children’s Play—The Educator’s Opinion
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040266 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
The educator’s personal role in understanding children’s play is a key factor in planning organization of educational process in kindergarten. An educator´s personal paradigm is assumed to be an experiential and educational construct. This research examines the possible correlation of educators’ personal paradigms [...] Read more.
The educator’s personal role in understanding children’s play is a key factor in planning organization of educational process in kindergarten. An educator´s personal paradigm is assumed to be an experiential and educational construct. This research examines the possible correlation of educators’ personal paradigms (N = 291) and contextual factors in the region of Dalmatia (Croatia). A questionnaire Q-EOCP (α = 0.78) was designed for this research. Research findings suggest that most educators are reluctant to introduce information and communication technology /ICT into the educational process (M = 2.25; SD = 1.02) or work with children with disabilities (M = 2.03; SD = 1.33). There was a slightly positive correlation between the educator’s professional work experience and the view that children with disabilities /CWD should be taught how to play (r = 0.35; p ≤ 0.05). Work experience is slightly negatively correlated with the opinion that natural materials encourage creative play in children more than the didactic toys (r = −0.29; p ≤ 0.05) and with the assessment of daily play in nature (r = −0.21; p ≤ 0.05). The research measured the correlation of assessments of daily play in nature and the educators’ level of education (F = 3.47; p ≤ 0.05). Findings suggest that early childhood and preschool educators need additional education on children’s play and the possibilities of augmentative technology. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Getting Past the Gateway: An Exploratory Case on Using Utilitarian Scientific Literacy to Support First-Year Students At-Risk of Leaving STEM
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040265 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
First-year students who enter college pursuing a STEM degree still face challenges persisting through the STEM pipeline (Chen, 2013; Leu, 2017). In this case study, researchers examine the impact of a utilitarian scientific literacy based academic intervention on retention of first-year students in [...] Read more.
First-year students who enter college pursuing a STEM degree still face challenges persisting through the STEM pipeline (Chen, 2013; Leu, 2017). In this case study, researchers examine the impact of a utilitarian scientific literacy based academic intervention on retention of first-year students in STEM using a mixed methods approach. A sample (n = 116) of first-year students identified as at-risk of not persisting in STEM were enrolled in a for credit utilitarian scientific literacy course. Participants of the semester long course were then compared with a control group of first-year students identified as at-risk of persisting in STEM. A two-proportion z test was performed to assess the mean differences between students and participants of the course were given a survey to gauge student experiences. Quantitative results (φ 0.34, p < 0.05) indicate that the utilitarian scientific literacy course had a statistically significant impact on retention among first-year students at-risk of persisting in STEM. Moreover, qualitative data obtained from participant responses describe internal and external growth as positive outcomes associated with the intervention. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reclaiming Liberal Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040264 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
The main purpose of this paper is to articulate and defend an updated concept of liberal education. To achieve this purpose, the paper has attempted two things. First, to provide a meaning for the notion of liberal education by drawing upon, and discussing [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this paper is to articulate and defend an updated concept of liberal education. To achieve this purpose, the paper has attempted two things. First, to provide a meaning for the notion of liberal education by drawing upon, and discussing briefly, the ideas of three British philosophers, namely, Paul Hirst, Richard Stanley Peters, and Michael Oakeshott. And second, to discuss the need for an updated concept of liberal education, by pointing out the shortcomings of the traditional/classical concept of liberal education, in the context of contemporary reality. The implications of an updated notion of liberal education are also pointed out. The discussion highlights the fact that there is a need to reclaim the value of liberal learning not only in higher education but at all levels of education. Full article
Open AccessArticle
People with Learning Disabilities and Smartphones: Testing the Usability of a Touch-Screen Interface
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040263 - 27 Oct 2019
Abstract
Mobile phone technology is becoming ubiquitous. However, a number of unique usability challenges are still unresolved, including small screen size, device orientation changes, and an array of interaction methods (tap, flick, pinch, etc.) These challenges may be particularly acute for people with learning [...] Read more.
Mobile phone technology is becoming ubiquitous. However, a number of unique usability challenges are still unresolved, including small screen size, device orientation changes, and an array of interaction methods (tap, flick, pinch, etc.) These challenges may be particularly acute for people with learning disabilities. This study examined the usability of touchscreen interactions, the difficulties, and possible solutions. An app was developed in which (12) participants accessed Google Maps and manipulated it to find various London Underground station locations. Text input (a password), tap, swipe, and pinch were required, and their usage was analysed. Many participants were successful in finding the required information. However, many difficulties arose, including misunderstandings of the labelling (a live ‘Welcome’ button was not tapped, whereas a short list of instructions was erroneously seen as a menu and so erroneously tapped to access each step in the process) and an over-sensitive zoom feature. Three categories of error were formulated from the findings: affordance, user, and functionality. Recommendations are offered, such as using more appropriate ‘signage’ for link buttons (affordance); manipulating the zoom feature using + and - buttons rather than a ‘pinch’, which requires two fingered dexterity (functionality); and more formal training and familiarity (user). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Academic Approach to Education)
Open AccessArticle
FrogVLE Application in Science Teaching in Secondary Schools in North Malaysia: Teachers’ Perspective
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040262 - 25 Oct 2019
Abstract
The frogVLE application was launched in Malaysia to provide a virtual learning environment in order to produce competitive and relevant students in the 21st century. As science is one of the most important subjects for the development of a nation, the perspective of [...] Read more.
The frogVLE application was launched in Malaysia to provide a virtual learning environment in order to produce competitive and relevant students in the 21st century. As science is one of the most important subjects for the development of a nation, the perspective of teachers as policy implementers should be taken into account in ensuring that the desire is achieved. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the level of application of frogVLE in secondary school science teaching in the northern peninsular of Malaysia. This qualitative study involved 50 secondary school science teachers in Perak, Kedah, Penang and Perlis. Each respondent was required to answer a questionnaire which consists of 20 questions. Five teachers were randomly interviewed by the researcher. The data were analyzed descriptively. The analysis results provide a real picture of how the frogVLE application is used in teaching, as well as the issues, challenges and suggestions for improvements in frogVLE while teaching secondary school science subjects. The findings from this study are expected to help the Ministry of Education to develop programs and improve the use of the frogVLE application in teaching science in secondary schools. In conclusion, a virtual learning environment such as the frogVLE application can only be used optimally to help improve science teaching excellence if the relevant issues are solved and supportis received from all parties. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
To Be or Not to Be: Social Justice in Networked Learning
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040261 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
The potential for more egalitarian or democratic forms of engagements among people is accepted to be somehow actualised naturally within collaborative or cooperative forms of learning. There is an urgent need for a theoretical framework that does not limit social justice with access [...] Read more.
The potential for more egalitarian or democratic forms of engagements among people is accepted to be somehow actualised naturally within collaborative or cooperative forms of learning. There is an urgent need for a theoretical framework that does not limit social justice with access or participation, but focuses on the otherwise hidden ways in which group work can yield suboptimal outcomes. This article aims to expand the current understandings of social justice in networked learning practices by challenging the ways in which online subjectivities are conceptualised in communal settings. It is argued that the mediated experience in online spaces should be conceptualised in tandem with one’s social presence and social absence if education is to be studied more rigorously and if claims of justice are to be made in networked learning. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Mystery Method Reconsidered—A Tool for Assessing Systems Thinking in Education for Sustainable Development
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040260 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Influence diagrams, derived from the mystery method as its learning output, represent an externalization of systems thinking and are, therefore, valid to research; so far they have not been conceptualized in the research literature for teaching systems thinking in education for sustainable development. [...] Read more.
Influence diagrams, derived from the mystery method as its learning output, represent an externalization of systems thinking and are, therefore, valid to research; so far they have not been conceptualized in the research literature for teaching systems thinking in education for sustainable development. In this study, 31 of those diagrams are confronted with (1) three different expert references, in (2) two different ways, by (3) three different scoring systems to determine which evaluation option is both valid and easy to implement. As a benchmark, the diagrams’ diameters are used, which allows statements about the quality of the maps/diagrams in general. The results show that, depending on the combination of variables that play a role in the evaluation (1, 2, 3), the quality of the influence diagram becomes measurable. However, strong differences appear in the various evaluation schemes, which can be explained by each variable’s peculiarities. Overall, the tested methodology is effective, but will need to be sharpened in the future. The results also offer starting points for future research to further deepen the path taken here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geography Education Promoting Sustainability)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Undergraduate Disabled Students as Knowledge Producers including Researchers: A Missed Topic in Academic Literature
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040259 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Research experience is beneficial for undergraduate students for many reasons. For example, it is argued in academic literature and in reports produced by various organizations that engage with science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education and science education that undergraduate research experience increases [...] Read more.
Research experience is beneficial for undergraduate students for many reasons. For example, it is argued in academic literature and in reports produced by various organizations that engage with science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education and science education that undergraduate research experience increases the graduation rate in STEM disciplines as well as the amount of students thinking about STEM careers. As such, being researchers should also be of benefit to undergraduate disabled students in all disciplines including STEM education. However, given that undergraduate disabled students encounter many problems within post-secondary education, including STEM education, undergraduate disabled students might encounter problems in becoming researchers. Policies are to be guided by knowledge and evidence. However, knowledge and evidence deficits exist in relation to the lived experience of disabled people. Undergraduate disabled students could decrease the knowledge deficit as researchers and knowledge producers. The numbers of disabled academic faculty are judged as being too low and efforts are under way to increase the number of disabled academics. Increasing the number of undergraduate disabled researchers might increase the available pool of disabled students that pursue an academic career. Given the important role research performed by undergraduate disabled students can play and given that many studies highlight problems for disabled students in post-secondary education in general, we used a scoping review approach to investigate the coverage of undergraduate disabled students as knowledge producers, including as researchers, in the academic literature. Using various search strategies, we obtained 1299 initial hits. However, only 15 had relevant content. No study investigated how undergraduate disabled students select their research topics or how they are enticed to pursue research projects outside of a course-based framework. No study looked at the linkage between being an undergraduate disabled researcher and career choices or using the obtained research skills on the undergraduate level in one’s role as a community member after graduation. Our findings suggest an opportunity for many fields, ranging from disability studies to STEM education, to generate more empirical data and conceptual work on the role of undergraduate disabled students as knowledge producers including as researchers. Such studies could help to increase the numbers of undergraduate disabled students as knowledge producers, including researchers, which in turn could help to increase (a) the number of disabled academics, (b) the number of disabled students who perform research in the community after graduation, (c) the degree success of disabled students and (d) the knowledge available on the social situation of disabled people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Undergraduate Research as a High Impact Practice in Higher Education)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Systematic Review of Project Allocation Methods in Undergraduate Transnational Engineering Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040258 - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
The final year design project is one of the most important components of any undergraduate engineering program. Fair and efficient project allocation procedures can be vital in ensuring a great student experience and exceptional learning out of these projects, which then could contribute [...] Read more.
The final year design project is one of the most important components of any undergraduate engineering program. Fair and efficient project allocation procedures can be vital in ensuring a great student experience and exceptional learning out of these projects, which then could contribute in shaping students’ future prospects. In this paper, we review a wide range of project allocation strategies used in various universities at undergraduate levels. We then focus on the project allocations in transnational education (TNE) contexts, which inherit additional allocation challenges. We highlight these challenges and provide recommendations to solve them. We present and compare project allocation strategies adopted at two of the largest TNE programs in China. We also present the factors that influence the project allocations, particularly regarding TNE provisions. Finally, we describe the challenges associated with the project allocations in the TNE scenario, along with proposing some feasible solutions to address these challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Education and Technological / Professional Learning)
Open AccessArticle
Characteristic and Enlightenment on Universities Collaborative Innovation Mode of Japan Shikoku Area
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040257 - 21 Oct 2019
Viewed by 103
Abstract
Collaborative innovation, with universities as the main body, is an important foundation for deepening the cooperation between industry, universities, and research institutes. Taking the collaborative innovation of five universities in Japan Shikoku area as an example, this paper summarizes the content of collaborative [...] Read more.
Collaborative innovation, with universities as the main body, is an important foundation for deepening the cooperation between industry, universities, and research institutes. Taking the collaborative innovation of five universities in Japan Shikoku area as an example, this paper summarizes the content of collaborative innovation in colleges and universities. The Shikoku SICO, which is established by government, is set to integrate the resource of university, enterprises, industry, and government, expand and broaden the knowledge chain, and promote knowledge flow and value realization through knowledge gathering and diffusion, knowledge dissemination and sharing, and knowledge transfer and application. Based on SICO’s collaborative innovation mode of the Japan Shikoku area, five universities have established a virtuous circle of knowledge, capital, and talents, forming a collaborative innovation ecosystem characterized by symbiosis. From an ecology perspective, this paper establishes a regional collaborative innovation symbiotic system, which is characterized by knowledge, with the components of producer, consumer, decomposer, and catalyzer. Finally, from the perspective of constructing symbiosis system, this paper puts forward the experience of colleges and universities in Japan in terms of knowledge dissemination, knowledge transfer, and knowledge gathering. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Connecting Status and Professional Learning: An Analysis of Midwives Career Using the Place© Model
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040256 - 17 Oct 2019
Viewed by 99
Abstract
This paper seeks to deconstruct the place of midwives as professionals using the novel interdisciplinary lens of the Place Model—an innovative analytical device which originated in education and has been previously applied to both teachers and teacher educators. The Place Model allows us [...] Read more.
This paper seeks to deconstruct the place of midwives as professionals using the novel interdisciplinary lens of the Place Model—an innovative analytical device which originated in education and has been previously applied to both teachers and teacher educators. The Place Model allows us to map the metaphorical professional landscape of the midwife and to consider how and where midwives are located in the combined context of two senses of place: in the sociological sense of public esteem and also the humanistic geography tradition of place as a cumulative process of professional learning. A range of exemplars will bring this map to life uncovering both the dystopias and potentially utopian places in which midwives find their various professional places in the world. The Model can be used to help student midwives to consider and take charge of their learning and status trajectories within the profession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for the Professions in Times of Change )
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Teachers Co-Designing and Implementing Career-Related Instruction
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040255 - 16 Oct 2019
Viewed by 125
Abstract
Teachers encounter the challenge of how to provide students adequate awareness of science-related careers. Therefore, innovative teaching material for promoting science-related careers needs to be designed. Educational innovations can be successful if teachers experience ownership and agency towards the designed teaching material. In [...] Read more.
Teachers encounter the challenge of how to provide students adequate awareness of science-related careers. Therefore, innovative teaching material for promoting science-related careers needs to be designed. Educational innovations can be successful if teachers experience ownership and agency towards the designed teaching material. In this case study, a multi-professional group of two science teachers, a researcher, and a dentist co-designed instruction including a career presentation and relevant information about field-specific education and skills needed by a professional in that field. We refer to this as career-related instruction. The designed learning unit includes a scenario, inquiries and career-related activities. Teachers’ perceptions about co-designing and implementing the learning unit in science education are examined as well as students’ perceptions about the scenario. Data consists of teacher interviews and discussions and student questionnaires. A content analysis reveals the teachers’ high ownership and agency in co-designing the instruction, which was relevant, interesting and informative for students. It was easy for teachers to implement the learning unit even though they were not involved in every phase of the design process. We conclude that by strengthening teachers’ ownership and agency through multi-professional co-designing, relevant and interesting career-related instruction can be designed and implemented. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
PLATON: Developing a Graphical Lesson Planning System for Prospective Teachers
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040254 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 183
Abstract
Lesson planning is both an important and demanding task—especially as part of teacher training. This paper presents the requirements for a lesson planning system and evaluates existing systems regarding these requirements. One major drawback of existing software tools is that most are limited [...] Read more.
Lesson planning is both an important and demanding task—especially as part of teacher training. This paper presents the requirements for a lesson planning system and evaluates existing systems regarding these requirements. One major drawback of existing software tools is that most are limited to a text- or form-based representation of the lesson designs. In this article, a new approach with a graphical, time-based representation with (automatic) analyses methods is proposed and the system architecture and domain model are described in detail. The approach is implemented in an interactive, web-based prototype called PLATON, which additionally supports the management of lessons in units as well as the modelling of teacher and student-generated resources. The prototype was evaluated in a study with 61 prospective teachers (bachelor’s and master’s preservice teachers as well as teacher trainees in post-university teacher training) in Berlin, Germany, with a focus on usability. The results show that this approach proofed usable for lesson planning and offers positive effects for the perception of time and self-reflection. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Shaping the Identity of the New Maltese through Ethics Education in Maltese Schools
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040253 - 04 Oct 2019
Viewed by 163
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to show how changes in the social fabric of Malta have resulted in amendments to the school curriculum in respect to the teaching of moral values. The curriculum now caters for a new subject in schools called [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to show how changes in the social fabric of Malta have resulted in amendments to the school curriculum in respect to the teaching of moral values. The curriculum now caters for a new subject in schools called Ethics, which is aimed at students who opt out of the mainstream Catholic Religious Education classes. As educators directly involved in its introduction in Maltese schools, as well as in the training of the subject teachers, we reflect on how this new subject relates to the development of both Maltese and migrant students’ identities. We highlight some of the challenges the subject of Ethics presents to parents, teachers and students, and the tensions some students encounter between the religious values taught at home and secular values taught at school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Moral Education and Identity)
Open AccessArticle
Developing Connective Pedagogy in Cultural Research—A Case Study from the Teachers’ Perspective in Adopting a Problem-Based Approach in Higher Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040252 - 04 Oct 2019
Viewed by 336
Abstract
The article examines the challenges university teachers face when adopting connective pedagogy in organizing teaching. Instead of studying the learning outcomes of the method, we decided in this research to focus on the teachers’ experiences when doing things differently in a fairly traditional [...] Read more.
The article examines the challenges university teachers face when adopting connective pedagogy in organizing teaching. Instead of studying the learning outcomes of the method, we decided in this research to focus on the teachers’ experiences when doing things differently in a fairly traditional pedagogical institution like a university. In spring 2019, as a part of our new degree programme entitled Culture, Communities, and Change (KUMU) at the University of Jyväskylä, we implemented a multisensory ethnography course in collaboration with a third sector development project promoting village tourism in Central Finland. On the course, we applied a problem-based approach to implement the connective pedagogy through which we wanted to increase the students’ working life skills and public engagement. While the main objective of the multisensory ethnography course was to develop village tourism and teach the students how to do ethnographic research, we also scrutinized our own teaching experience in developing higher education pedagogy through documenting our own activities in field diaries and analysing our own roles through self-reflexive ethnographic practice. The group discussions and the diaries of the teachers during the course are the data that has been analysed by means of social practice theory. The three elements of social practices—material, competence, and meaning—helped us to identify the important factors that should be taken into consideration when trying to change everyday practices in our work, in this case to organize collaborative teaching with a third sector development project. According to our results, a problem-based approach is an effective tool on a collaborative project course between the university and a third sector organization because it enabled us to practice connective pedagogy at a very practical level. There are also challenges in applying a new method. Studying our diaries and notes of group discussions and reflecting our experiences, we identified the following critical stages and weak spots: Planning and co-ordinating the course took a lot of time and resources and teachers must tolerate a certain amount of uncertainty. The competence of the teachers was also challenged; they needed to be open, for example, to dealing with unfamiliar research topics. Even if the teachers’ meanings, motivation, and values were in accordance with the principles of connective pedagogy, there are still many contradictions in the meaning element of problem-based teaching practice. Above all, the teachers were compelled to question their role as experts when taking third sector actors as equal partners in producing new knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Problem-based Pedagogies in Higher Education)
Open AccessReview
Dental Trauma First-Aid Knowledge and Attitudes of Physical Education Teachers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature with Meta-Regressions
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040251 - 03 Oct 2019
Viewed by 137
Abstract
The main objective of the present review is to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of physical education (PE) teachers concerning dental trauma first-aid through a systematic appraisal of the literature, meta-analysis and meta-regressions. The entire content of PubMed and ISI/Web of Science was [...] Read more.
The main objective of the present review is to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of physical education (PE) teachers concerning dental trauma first-aid through a systematic appraisal of the literature, meta-analysis and meta-regressions. The entire content of PubMed and ISI/Web of Science was mined. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies were studies evaluating dental trauma first-aid knowledge and/or attitudes and/or the effectiveness of mouthguards use by PE teachers. Articles written in any language and published or accepted by peer-reviewed journals were considered. Methodological quality was assessed using an adapted version of the Downs and Black instrument. Of 15 selected articles, three were of strong quality, three were moderate, and the remaining nine were rated as weak. The majority of studies showed that PE teachers had an inadequate knowledge of the initial management of dental trauma. Specifically, there was a lack of knowledge concerning an appropriate washing and transporting medium and the extra-alveolar period of an avulsed tooth. Due to the inadequate knowledge of PE teachers regarding dental trauma management, specific education should be added to PE classes to improve the emergency treatment of dental injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Didactics of Physical Education and Sport)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Impact of Ethics and Social Awareness Curriculum on the Engineering Identity Formation of High School Girls
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040250 - 28 Sep 2019
Viewed by 266
Abstract
A national need exists to effectively engage women and people categorized as minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and career paths. Given the minimal existence of standards and accreditation boards for engineering design and holistic engineering practice in K–12 contexts, [...] Read more.
A national need exists to effectively engage women and people categorized as minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and career paths. Given the minimal existence of standards and accreditation boards for engineering design and holistic engineering practice in K–12 contexts, we must better understand how said engineering design and holistic engineering practice affects the learning and identity formation of K–12 students. Here, 50 rising 9th–12th grade girls are exposed to either a socio-ethics enhanced engineering curriculum or a standard engineering curriculum through a week-long STEM summer camp. Qualitative methods are used to conduct a thematic analysis on the engineering language used by students in each curriculum group. Significant differences in language and attitudes towards engineering and the practice of STEM subjects is observed through the incorporation of ethics and humanities into a standard model engineering curriculum. The study presented in this paper demonstrates that students have a tendency towards describing scientific ideas through abstract terms, while a group who participated in the social science integrated camp tended to describe scientific ideas using social-emotional terms. Lastly, students who participated in the camp with integrated social sciences displayed an expanded view and sense of responsibility for the society for which their science is developed to serve. These results could have implications on how STEM subjects are communicated to attract and sustain student interest. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Changing by the Click: The Professional Development of UK Journalists
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040249 - 26 Sep 2019
Viewed by 206
Abstract
Changes in technology, audience engagement, the business model and ethical requirements have greatly expanded the skills required to be a professional journalist in the UK. At the same time, the esteem in which the profession is held by the public has diminished. This [...] Read more.
Changes in technology, audience engagement, the business model and ethical requirements have greatly expanded the skills required to be a professional journalist in the UK. At the same time, the esteem in which the profession is held by the public has diminished. This research used the UK journalism profession as a case study of change in a profession. It asked what were the changes in the profession since 2012. The research method includes an in-depth survey of 885 UK journalists, two previous similar surveys, interviews with stakeholders, national data and documentation. The study finds that UK journalist numbers, their educational attainment and workload has increased significantly in the period. The majority have become multiplatform journalists—working across at least two mediums like print and online. There has been a significant shift of job roles from traditional newsroom to a wide range of other organizations and some 36% of journalists are now self-employed. Diversity continues to be an issue with the profession having a white middle-class bias. The implications of these changes for future professional UK journalism education were then analyzed. They include the need to develop a national continuous professional development framework, better cooperation amongst competing accrediting bodies to enhance the public trust in journalists and greater flexibility on the professional pathways to senior qualifications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for the Professions in Times of Change )
Open AccessArticle
The Silence, Exile, and Cunning of “I”: An Analysis of Bildungsroman as the Place Model in the Work of Charlotte Brontë and James Joyce
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040248 - 24 Sep 2019
Viewed by 203
Abstract
Education, be that on a moral, social or intellectual level, in a formal setting or via lived experience is Bildungsroman’s raison d’être. ‘Moments of crisis’ and the resultant demonstration of the journey towards awareness of personal autonomy, agency, identity and place [...] Read more.
Education, be that on a moral, social or intellectual level, in a formal setting or via lived experience is Bildungsroman’s raison d’être. ‘Moments of crisis’ and the resultant demonstration of the journey towards awareness of personal autonomy, agency, identity and place are discussed via geographical imagination. This article examines ‘fictional’ teachers, the impact of the ‘professional’ on formative development and how the fictional characters of Jane Eyre and Stephen Dedalus fit within and extend the Place Model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for the Professions in Times of Change )
Open AccessArticle
Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Interdisciplinary Science Teaching (SElf-ST) Instrument: Drafting a Theory-Based Measurement
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(4), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9040247 - 20 Sep 2019
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Interdisciplinary science teaching is an issue in various countries. One example in Europe is Germany, especially regarding comprehensive schools. At the same time, German teacher education is primarily subject-specific. An examination of data on self-efficacy beliefs is helpful for understanding the qualifications of [...] Read more.
Interdisciplinary science teaching is an issue in various countries. One example in Europe is Germany, especially regarding comprehensive schools. At the same time, German teacher education is primarily subject-specific. An examination of data on self-efficacy beliefs is helpful for understanding the qualifications of teachers for interdisciplinary science. Previous measurement instruments for teaching biology, chemistry, physics, and science lack a literature-based, theory-based, or curricular-valid measurement or a systematic obstacle to overcome. Thus, to meet these requirements, this research developed a draft for a new instrument to measure self-efficacy beliefs of interdisciplinary science teaching (SElf-ST). As the theoretical base, the instrument operationalizes a model of pedagogical content knowledge for teaching science and adapts it to self-efficacy beliefs. In a cross-sectional study (N = 114 pre-service and trainee teachers), a ten-factor-solution for self-efficacy beliefs resulted from an exploratory factor analysis (Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin-criterion = 0.858, α = 0.70–0.86). Nine factors are linked to the theoretical model. An additional tenth factor emerged: Teaching Ethically Relevant Issues. Nine factors show low and medium correlations with teaching experience. Eight factors show at least low correlations with self-rated content knowledge in no less than one of the three subjects. In general, science-specific factors show rather low or medium correlations, and generic factors (e.g., Applying Media, and Applying Methods of Evaluation) show low or no correlations. This result is in accordance with the context specificity of self-efficacy beliefs. These results meet most of the research expectations and provide initial indications of the concurrent, curricular, and divergent validity of the SElf-ST instrument. The paper argues for the development of a new, theory-based instrument to measure self-efficacy beliefs of interdisciplinary science teaching. Full article
Previous Issue
Back to TopTop