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Educ. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 24 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Group work is a popular pedagogical approach used by undergraduate instructors because of the [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Education Sciences in 2019
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010024 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 383
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Physical Science Teacher Skills in a Conceptual Explanation
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010023 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 386
Abstract
There is a long history of philosophical inquiry into the concept of explanation in science, and this work has some implications for the ways in which science teachers, particularly in the physical sciences (physics and chemistry), explain ideas to students. Recent work has [...] Read more.
There is a long history of philosophical inquiry into the concept of explanation in science, and this work has some implications for the ways in which science teachers, particularly in the physical sciences (physics and chemistry), explain ideas to students. Recent work has outlined a constructivist approach to developing, delivering, and refining explanations focused on enhancing student’s understanding of the powerful concepts of science. This paper reviews the history of concepts of explanation in science and in science teaching, and reports research findings that describe some ways in which science teachers have been observed to explain ideas in Year 11 Physics classrooms in Australia and Canada. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Digital Workbooks in Flipped Nutrition Education: Student Perspectives’
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010022 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Nutrition and dietetic (N&D) education is traditionally taught didactically; however, the flipped classroom approach (FCA) is an emerging pedagogical approach in this discipline. Technological tools providing cognitive support enhance learning, particularly when students are engaged. In N&D education, students have reported the FCA [...] Read more.
Nutrition and dietetic (N&D) education is traditionally taught didactically; however, the flipped classroom approach (FCA) is an emerging pedagogical approach in this discipline. Technological tools providing cognitive support enhance learning, particularly when students are engaged. In N&D education, students have reported the FCA as engaging; however, evidence for how best to integrate technologies into the FCA is limited. The aim of this research is to explore undergraduate nutrition and dietetic students’ self-reported perceptions of the use of a digital workbook in nutrition courses designed and delivered using an FCA. A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was utilised to investigate Australian undergraduate student (N = 39) satisfaction, frequency of use, engagement with, and usefulness of a digital workbook. Most students (87%) were satisfied/very satisfied with the digital workbook as a tool for learning, applying and consolidating/revising course content. Most students (95%) agreed the digital workbook was engaging, providing comments related to workbook design, encouraged participation and novelty. Most useful aspects reported were workbook structure, development of a learning artefact, self-directed aspects and convenience, whereas, least useful aspects included technological issues. The use of a digital workbook in N&D education was well received and is an innovative approach to delivering courses taught with an FCA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Learning in Open and Flexible Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Industry 4.0 Diagnosis from an iMillennial Educational Perspective
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010021 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Although the new economic paradigm is based on the rapid evolution of technology, it is not clear if this evolution is only dependent on a spectacular transformation of human resources or if the evolution of human resources has imposed major changes at a [...] Read more.
Although the new economic paradigm is based on the rapid evolution of technology, it is not clear if this evolution is only dependent on a spectacular transformation of human resources or if the evolution of human resources has imposed major changes at a technical level as well. The main focus of this paper is to identify how to cope with these new technologies as educational actors, using a diagnosis of contemporary generation characteristics. The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) imposes a rapid evolution (or revolution) of the human resources paradigm in engineering: iMillennials should adapt to that paradigm, and the paradigm should be adapted to them. The research objectives were to identify some relevant characteristics of iMillennials’ technological background and to create a map of the abilities of this generation as required by the evolution of new technologies. For a batch of students with a technical background, two psychological inventories that describe emotional intelligence and motivation acquisition were applied. Each inventory used focuses on certain features that describe motivational achievement (AMI) or emotional intelligence (EQ-I). Besides the motivational features, the AMI questionnaire also refers to socio-emotional abilities. A correlation between the parameters of the two inventories occurred. Three correlated parameters (assertiveness, reality testing, and commitment) were identified. Based on these results, a constellation map of soft skills was designed to match characteristic features of iMillennials with necessary competencies for an Industry 4.0 environment. Furthermore, this paper proposes a tool for educational actors to cope with these transformations based on the new technologies of Industry 4.0 and the characteristics of the iMillennials generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for the Professions in Times of Change )
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Open AccessArticle
Transferring Knowledge in a Knowledge-in-Use Task—Investigating the Role of Knowledge Organization
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010020 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 471
Abstract
Knowledge-in-Use, i.e., the ability to apply what one has learned, is a major goal of education and involves the ability to transfer one’s knowledge. While some general principles of knowledge transfer have been revealed, the literature is full of inconclusive results and it [...] Read more.
Knowledge-in-Use, i.e., the ability to apply what one has learned, is a major goal of education and involves the ability to transfer one’s knowledge. While some general principles of knowledge transfer have been revealed, the literature is full of inconclusive results and it remains hard to predict successful transfer. However, research into expertise suggests that how one organizes one’s knowledge is critical for successful transfer. Drawing on data from a larger study on the learning of energy, we employed network analysis to investigate how the organization of students’ knowledge about energy influenced their ability to transfer and what role achievement goal orientation may have played in this. We found that students that had more coherently organized knowledge networks were more successful in transfer. Furthermore, we also found a connection between mastery goal orientation and the organization of students’ knowledge networks. Our results extend the literature by providing evidence for a direct connection between the organization of students’ knowledge networks, their success in transfer, and their goal orientation and hint at the complexities in the relationship between mastery approach goal orientation and successful transfer beyond what is reported in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Networks Applied in Science Education Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Implications of Assessing Student-Driven Projects: A Case Study of Possible Challenges and an Argument for Reflexivity
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010019 - 08 Jan 2020
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Employing student-driven project work in a higher education setting challenges not only the way in which we understand students’ learning and how we define the expected learning outcomes, it also challenges our ways of assessing students’ learning. This paper will address this question [...] Read more.
Employing student-driven project work in a higher education setting challenges not only the way in which we understand students’ learning and how we define the expected learning outcomes, it also challenges our ways of assessing students’ learning. This paper will address this question specifically and illustrate with a case that highlights some of the challenges that may arise in practice when assessing student-driven, problem-based projects. The case involved an assessment situation in which a discrepancy arose between the internal and external examiner in relation to what was valued. The discrepancy had consequences not only for the concrete assessment of students’ work, but also for the validity of the problem-based university pedagogy in general, and it raised the question of how to assess students’ work adequately. The research focus of this study was to explore the implications of assessing student-driven projects within a progressive approach to higher education teaching, along with the potential underlying issues. We found a need for clear assessment criteria while insisting on a space for students’ creativity and reflexivity as essential parts of a learning process. The paper thus makes a case for the notion of reflexivity as an assessment criterion to be integrated into learning objectives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Problem-based Pedagogies in Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle
Characterising Communication of Scientific Concepts in Student-Generated Digital Products
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010018 - 07 Jan 2020
Viewed by 657
Abstract
New assessment types that include multimodal and digital elements are increasingly being used to assess university students’ ‘soft skills’ such as communication, as well as their science content knowledge. However, very little is known about how or how well such products assess communicative [...] Read more.
New assessment types that include multimodal and digital elements are increasingly being used to assess university students’ ‘soft skills’ such as communication, as well as their science content knowledge. However, very little is known about how or how well such products assess communicative elements, particularly when these elements are so intricately linked with disciplinary knowledge. This paper presents a novel way of looking at these new digital assessments in science. Using semantic density, a concept from the framework of Legitimation Code Theory (LCT) that conceptualises complexity, we consider how to characterise learners’ communication of complex science in the digital products. Results show that successful products ‘negotiate’ complexity in distinct ways and that language and image work together in the products to build meaning. This approach is a ‘first step’ in characterising discipline-based communication skills through the development of a preliminary conceptual framework that will inform pedagogies and assessment practices surrounding student-generated digital products, in an effort to improve outcomes for science students. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Forma Mentis Networks Reconstruct How Italian High Schoolers and International STEM Experts Perceive Teachers, Students, Scientists, and School
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010017 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
This study investigates how students and researchers shape their knowledge and perception of educational topics. The mindset or forma mentis of 159 Italian high school students and of 59 international researchers in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) are reconstructed through forma mentis [...] Read more.
This study investigates how students and researchers shape their knowledge and perception of educational topics. The mindset or forma mentis of 159 Italian high school students and of 59 international researchers in science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) are reconstructed through forma mentis networks, i.e., cognitive networks of concepts connected by free associations and enriched with sentiment labels. The layout of conceptual associations between positively/negatively/neutrally perceived concepts is informative on how people build their own mental constructs or beliefs about specific topics. Researchers displayed mixed positive/neutral mental representations of “teacher”, “student” and, “scientist”. Students’ conceptual associations of “scientist” were highly positive and largely non-stereotypical, although links about the “mad scientist” stereotype persisted. Students perceived “teacher” as a complex figure, associated with positive aspects like mentoring/knowledge transmission but also to negative sides revolving around testing and grading. “School” elicited stronger differences between the two groups. In the students’ mindset, “school” was surrounded by a negative emotional aura or set of associations, indicating an anxious perception of the school setting, mixing scholastic concepts, anxiety-eliciting words, STEM disciplines like maths and physics, and exam-related notions. Researchers’ positive stance of “school” included concepts of fun, friendship, and personal growth instead. Along the perspective of Education Research, the above results are discussed as quantitative evidence for test- and STEM anxiety co-occurring in the way Italian students perceive education places and their actors. Detecting these patterns in student populations through forma mentis networks offers new, simple to gather yet detailed knowledge for future data-informed intervention policies and action research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Networks Applied in Science Education Research)
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Open AccessArticle
A Meta-Analysis of Graduate School Enrollment from Students in the Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Program
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010016 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 523
Abstract
The Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program provides higher education institutions with federal funds to increase the doctoral attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. We conducted a meta-analysis of the impact of the McNair program on graduate program enrollment. After an exhaustive literature [...] Read more.
The Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program provides higher education institutions with federal funds to increase the doctoral attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. We conducted a meta-analysis of the impact of the McNair program on graduate program enrollment. After an exhaustive literature search, we found 7 publications containing 13 studies that met the inclusion criteria. From these studies, we found that McNair program students were almost six times as likely to enroll in a graduate program as the comparison group. Nonetheless, there was much unexplained variability in effects across studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impacts of Different Sorts of Art Education on Pupils’ Preference for 20th-Century Art Movements
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010015 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 583
Abstract
The research presented here aims to determine how art education influences students’ preferences for the 20th-century art movements. An educational experiment that spanned through one school year was conducted on 200 primary school students. It included three types of intervention: observing works of [...] Read more.
The research presented here aims to determine how art education influences students’ preferences for the 20th-century art movements. An educational experiment that spanned through one school year was conducted on 200 primary school students. It included three types of intervention: observing works of art from the 20th century, introducing works of art using a puppet, and the students’ art activities/artwork based on the 20th-century art movements. The results show that the model of art education is an important factor in changing students’ preferences for the 20th century art movements. Students reacted positively to each kind of education, as evidenced in the wider acceptance of 20th-century art (abstract, fauvism, cubism, pop art, and surrealism). The type of education did not influence preferences (as much) when it came to classical art and visual works without artistic value. We concluded that puppets and independent creative work should be used more often in art education. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Implementation of an Ethical Education Curriculum in Secondary Schools in Ireland
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010014 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 697
Abstract
The paper investigates teachers’ and principals’ experiences of implementing a pilot of an ethical education (EE) curriculum to a senior cycle programme in Educate Together secondary schools in Ireland. The development of this curriculum was informed by the Integrative Ethical Education Model (Lapsley [...] Read more.
The paper investigates teachers’ and principals’ experiences of implementing a pilot of an ethical education (EE) curriculum to a senior cycle programme in Educate Together secondary schools in Ireland. The development of this curriculum was informed by the Integrative Ethical Education Model (Lapsley and Narvaez, 2004). Thirteen teachers and two school principals were interviewed about their experiences of this curriculum and its impact on school culture and organisation. An implementation science approach informed a thematic analysis of transcripts that interrogated the perspectives of participants, and revealed the systemic factors that included barriers to, and facilitators of, EE curriculum implementation. Interviews were analysed inductively, by exploring participants’ experiences, and deductively, using Narvaez’s framework of ethical skills. Results were presented within the domains of school setting, wider school setting, curriculum characteristics and teacher characteristics, reflecting an implementation science approach. Findings suggest that this curriculum nurtured a positive school climate where students identified as having a greater sense of school belonging as a result of access to this curriculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Moral Education and Identity)
Open AccessArticle
‘Nature Is Something We Can’t Replace’: Mexican Students’ Views of the Landscape They Want to Conserve
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010013 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 619
Abstract
The primary aim of this qualitative study was to identify the landscapes that 7−12-year old Mexican students (n = 440) would like to conserve by analysing their drawings. Another aim was to determine the environmental relationship and environmental values of 5th and 6th [...] Read more.
The primary aim of this qualitative study was to identify the landscapes that 7−12-year old Mexican students (n = 440) would like to conserve by analysing their drawings. Another aim was to determine the environmental relationship and environmental values of 5th and 6th graders (n = 152) by studying their texts. The data were analysed using mixed methods. In this study, landscape is understood as a visual experience of the environment, comprising the visible features of an area. Based on the results, all of the three main landscapes—nature, social and built—were deemed worth conserving. Beyond students’ immediate environment, the polar regions, North America, Australia and Africa were mentioned; Europe and Asia were not. The landscape drawings were realistic and carefully made, and the descriptions attached to them were clearly written. The environmental approach was mainly humanistic, and aesthetic values were appreciated by both genders. Utilitarian values were mentioned more often by boys than girls. The students’ descriptions reflected their environmental relationship, e.g., concern about nature, showing causal relationships, appreciation and affection. Concern or worry was often accompanied by the mention of human’s responsibility in the students’ texts, but they seldom considered their own activities in relation to the environment. The students depicted threats to nature, but they externalized themselves from the mechanisms threatening nature. In addition, they did not show familiarity with natural processes and scientific terminology. The study reveals that it is not only theoretically important to have distinct values, but these also need to be recognized by individuals. If the humans’ pro-environmental actions are to be promoted through education, it is important to study students’ values, as they may be important barriers to behavioral change. As students showed concern about preserving nature, teachers can discuss environmental values and different ways to take action and make changes with them, in order to avoid anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geography Education Promoting Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
Taking Universal Design Back to Its Roots: Perspectives on Accessibility and Identity in Undergraduate Mathematics
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010012 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Universal Design has been promoted to address the diversity of learners in higher education. However, rarely have Universal Design implementations been evaluated by listening to the voices of disabled students. For this study, we investigated the perceptions of three disabled students who took [...] Read more.
Universal Design has been promoted to address the diversity of learners in higher education. However, rarely have Universal Design implementations been evaluated by listening to the voices of disabled students. For this study, we investigated the perceptions of three disabled students who took part in an undergraduate mathematics course designed with the principles of Universal Design for Learning and Assessment. The study consists of two parts. First, we observed the experiences students had in relation to the accessibility of the course design. The second part consisted of a further analysis of the students identifying processes to understand how they talked about their learning disabilities during the course. Our results highlight many opportunities and challenges that the course offered to the students, whilst also raising concerns about how the students excluded themselves from their student cohort in their identifying narratives. Based on our results, we argue that Universal Design should be returned to its roots by connecting it with the social model of disability. We call for future research to learn from our mistakes and consider the identifying processes of the students while designing, and hopefully co-designing, inclusive learning environments in mathematics. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Who Am I? Transforming Our Understanding of Identity and Moral Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010009 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 652
Abstract
When I was invited to edit a special issue of Education Sciences on the theme of “Moral education and identity”, I saw an opportunity both to gain a better understanding of how scholars across a range of disciplines construed the task of moral [...] Read more.
When I was invited to edit a special issue of Education Sciences on the theme of “Moral education and identity”, I saw an opportunity both to gain a better understanding of how scholars across a range of disciplines construed the task of moral education in terms of identity and—I can now confess—to defend the claim that moral education, when properly understood, depends upon an account of identity which is quite different from that which dominates the social sciences, the media and popular opinion. My aim here is to provide such an account and, thereby, to suggest how we might construe the challenge of moral education in a world, and at a time, in which self-centered, short-sighted and narrow-minded thinking dominates much of the socio-political landscape. I argue that the dominant view of identity—that our own identities are constituted by those collectives and institutions with which we identify—actually reinforces narratives which bind us to tribal perspectives—in national, religious and cultural terms—in which we increasingly see ourselves and others in terms of who is “in” and who is “out”. I propose a relational view of identity in which each person sees her/himself as “one among others”, where the relationships in question both bind us in familiar and concrete ways to others—i.e., other persons but also other objects in the world—and transcend the boundaries imposed by belonging to this or that nation, religion, culture, or tribe. This idea of what it means to be a person goes hand-in-hand with a framework for moral education which is also both concretely relational and appropriately transcendent. Put briefly, we need to create the conditions in which young people engage one another dialogically in taking responsibility for tackling what I term “the Big Questions”, including: “What do I/we stand for?”, “What/who really matters?”, “What kind of society/world do I/we want to live in (and leave for future generations)?”, and “What is my place in the world?”. (In taking this approach, I aim to address at least some of the questions posed in the original call for submissions for this special issue, as outlined at the Special Issue “Moral Education and Identity”). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Moral Education and Identity)
Open AccessArticle
Measuring Experiential Learning: An Approach Based on Lessons Learned Mapping
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010011 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 682
Abstract
Fostering ‘experiential learning’ in real-life situations is a critical task for engineering educators when creating constructively aligned learning activities. The paper proposes an approach to measure the students’ perception of learning in Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate activities conducted outside the classroom. The approach is based on [...] Read more.
Fostering ‘experiential learning’ in real-life situations is a critical task for engineering educators when creating constructively aligned learning activities. The paper proposes an approach to measure the students’ perception of learning in Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate activities conducted outside the classroom. The approach is based on the opportunity of gathering and analyzing lessons learned from the student reflection reports at the end of a team-based innovation project performed in collaboration with company partners. The approach is intended to provide a basis for the future development of innovation projects with engineering students, supporting the definition of learning outcomes that are relevant for the CDIO Syllabus 2.0, and of constructively aligned learning experiences. The paper exemplifies the approach with regards to a master course named Value Innovation and presents the findings obtained at the third and second level of the CDIO Syllabus 2.0. The results of the course implementation show how short team-based innovation projects largely contributed in developing social and communication-related skills in engineering students, going beyond the mere application of their technical skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Education Addressing Professional Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Representations and Concepts of Borders in Digital Strategy Games and Their Potential for Political Education in Geography Teaching
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010010 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 617
Abstract
In Germany, 93% of young people between the ages of 10 and 18 play video games daily. Political geography, in particular popular geopolitics, have found that video games can help to establish and develop people’s understanding of geopolitics. Consequently, this affects geography education, [...] Read more.
In Germany, 93% of young people between the ages of 10 and 18 play video games daily. Political geography, in particular popular geopolitics, have found that video games can help to establish and develop people’s understanding of geopolitics. Consequently, this affects geography education, providing both challenges and opportunities for teaching. Geography teaching is an integral part of political education as students need to understand how boundaries and territories create spaces with regards to social power and become the object of political conflict. Reflection plays a central role in understanding and deconstructing such spatial constructions. In this article, we examine representations and concepts of borders in digital strategy games and the perception and reflection of these by the players. The results provide an outlook on the potential and the challenges of digital strategy games for political education in geography lessons in secondary schools as well as for teacher training at universities. For this reason, possible approaches for education and training will be outlined on the basis of the results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Makerspaces in First-Year Engineering Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010008 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 641
Abstract
Langara College, as one of the leading undergraduate institutions in the province of British Columbia (BC), offers the “Applied Science for Engineering” two-year diploma program as well as the “Engineering Transfer” two-semester certificate program. Three project-based courses are offered as part of the [...] Read more.
Langara College, as one of the leading undergraduate institutions in the province of British Columbia (BC), offers the “Applied Science for Engineering” two-year diploma program as well as the “Engineering Transfer” two-semester certificate program. Three project-based courses are offered as part of the two-year diploma program in Applied Science (APSC) and Computer Science (CPSC) departments: “APSC 1010—Engineering and Technology in Society”, “CPSC 1090—Engineering Graphics”, and “CPSC 1490—Applications of Microcontrollers”, with CPSC 1090 and CPSC 1490 also part of the Engineering Transfer curriculum. Although the goals, scopes, objectives, and evaluation criteria of these courses are different, the main component of all three courses is a group-based technical project. Engineering students have access to Langara College’s Makerspace for the hands-on component of their project. Makerspaces expand experiential learning opportunities and allows students to gain a skillset outside the traditional classroom. This paper begins with a detailed review of the maker movement and the impact of makerspace in higher education. Different forms of makerspace and the benefits of incorporating them on first-year students’ creativity, sense of community, self-confidence, and entrepreneurial skills are discussed. This paper introduces Langara’s engineering program and its project-based design courses. Langara’s interdisciplinary makerspace, its goals and objectives, equipment, and some sample projects are introduced in this paper in detail. We then explain how the group-project component of APSC 1010, CPSC 1090, and CPSC 1490 are managed and how using makerspace improves students’ performance in such projects. In conclusion, the paper describes the evaluation of learning outcomes via an anonymous student survey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in STEM Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementing Reflective Group Work Activities in a Large Chemistry Lab to Support Collaborative Learning
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010007 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Many classrooms in higher education are becoming increasingly diverse. Diversity is an asset when student interactions are promoted and facilitated by instructors. The challenge is, many times students are grouped together for a collaborative project without attention to or skilled support for the [...] Read more.
Many classrooms in higher education are becoming increasingly diverse. Diversity is an asset when student interactions are promoted and facilitated by instructors. The challenge is, many times students are grouped together for a collaborative project without attention to or skilled support for the learning and development that can occur through the intercultural collaborative process itself. Instructors often assume this learning happens automatically or organically and does not need to be acted upon explicitly. However, collaboration skills do not come naturally; simply putting students in groups is not enough. When collaboration is facilitated skillfully it benefits all students, especially those from marginalized and historically underserved groups. Here, we enumerate barriers instructors face in supporting groups, describe/share a model, and explore the implementation of this model in a general chemistry lab, which relies heavily on group work. We found that these activities are feasible in a large STEM class, that students participated and found value in them, and that they enhanced students’ content learning and the development of cross-cutting competencies sought by employers. We hope after reading this paper, instructors will recognize the responsibility and opportunity they have in supporting interactions, and have new inspiration and a pathway to do so. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Problem-Oriented Project Learning as a First Year Experience: A Transformative Pedagogy for Entry Level PPL
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010006 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 592
Abstract
This paper explores how Problem-oriented Project Learning (PPL) can be organized in a context that meets the pedagogical needs of first year students. Under the assumption that, while PPL provides a fruitful context for learning, it is also challenging for early stage learners, [...] Read more.
This paper explores how Problem-oriented Project Learning (PPL) can be organized in a context that meets the pedagogical needs of first year students. Under the assumption that, while PPL provides a fruitful context for learning, it is also challenging for early stage learners, the article formulates the theoretical considerations underlying a strategy for entry-level PPL. On that foundation, this paper discusses a case study where a set of scaffolding structures has been put in place to support the transformative development of first year students acquiring the study habits of PPL. This paper finds that a highly structured approach to entry level PPL promotes the students’ academic achievements as well as their sense of meaning in the PPL programme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Problem-based Pedagogies in Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Teaching and Learning Methods in Geography Promoting Sustainability
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010005 - 23 Dec 2019
Viewed by 755
Abstract
Understanding and learning geographic knowledge and applying it to sustainable development (SD) depends not only on the knowledge itself, but also on how it is taught and studied. The teaching and learning methods for promoting sustainability in geography have not been thoroughly studied. [...] Read more.
Understanding and learning geographic knowledge and applying it to sustainable development (SD) depends not only on the knowledge itself, but also on how it is taught and studied. The teaching and learning methods for promoting sustainability in geography have not been thoroughly studied. This qualitative study examined articles on geography teaching and SD. The material was selected using keywords related to geography education. The study describes 17 articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2008 to 2018. The focus group varied from primary to higher education. The proportion of teaching and learning methods were determined. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The foci of the analyses were the teaching and learning methods, topics, goals, and levels of thinking skills. Additionally, features of the teaching methods used in geography education, including outdoor education, to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs) were investigated. Different teaching methods used together and interactive learning were the most often preferred. Group work and teachers’ presentations were mentioned in 12 articles, and inquiry-based learning and argumentation in half of the articles. The most often written expressions promoting SD in geography education concerned environmental sustainability (42%), followed by social (25%), economic (19%), and cultural sustainability (14%). The most emphasized features of the current teaching methods were active participation, thinking skills, animation, evaluation, dialog, demonstrations, and information and communication technology skills. The whole school approach and forward-looking perspective in geography should be implemented in school education to reach the SDGs and to support SD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geography Education Promoting Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle
On Augmented Reality for the Learning of 3D-Geometric Contents: A Preliminary Exploratory Study with 6-Grade Primary Students
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010004 - 21 Dec 2019
Viewed by 674
Abstract
Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies with a greater impact in the Education field. Research has proved that AR-based activities improve the teaching and learning processes. Also, the use of this type of technology in classroom facilitates the understanding [...] Read more.
Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies with a greater impact in the Education field. Research has proved that AR-based activities improve the teaching and learning processes. Also, the use of this type of technology in classroom facilitates the understanding of contents from different areas as Arts, Mathematics or Science. In this work we propose an AR-based instruction in order to explore the benefits in a 6th-grade Primary course related to 3D-geometry shapes. This first experiment, designed from an exploratory approach, will shed light on new study variables to perform new implementations whose conclusions become more consistent. The results obtained allow us to envisage that AR-based proposals slightly improve the classical didactic methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Teaching Mathematical Concepts and Methods)
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Open AccessReview
Nurturing Family Environments for Children: Compassion-Focused Parenting as a Form of Parenting Intervention
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010003 - 19 Dec 2019
Viewed by 779
Abstract
The style of parenting a child receives has profound long-term impacts on that child’s life. Yet, the rates of child maltreatment globally are high (in both developing and developed countries), indicating that many children around the world are being raised in toxic environments. [...] Read more.
The style of parenting a child receives has profound long-term impacts on that child’s life. Yet, the rates of child maltreatment globally are high (in both developing and developed countries), indicating that many children around the world are being raised in toxic environments. Evidence-based parenting programs (EBPPs) have been demonstrated to have positive impacts on improving parenting style, whilst reducing childhood social, emotional and behavioural problems. EBPPs originated out of a need to address externalizing behaviour problems and to address conduct problems, and compliance became a key target of these parenting models. Thus, many EBPPs were developed in an era where operant and social learning theory-based approaches to parenting were most prominent and these parenting models still prevail today. This paper has one major aim—to demonstrate how the next generation of EBPPs need to be grounded in evolved caring motivational systems and affiliative emotion processing, which requires an understanding of the evolved processes involved in parent-offspring caring. This new approach to parenting is called, ‘compassion-focused parenting’, and this new approach to parenting will be described. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Expectations Versus Reality: What Matters to Students of Economics vs. What They Receive from Universities?
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010002 - 19 Dec 2019
Viewed by 608
Abstract
The phenomenon of increasing tuition fees is one of the factors which reinforce the increasingly consumerist attitudes among students towards the product (understood as a whole process of university education) they receive from universities. The aim of the study is to characterise the [...] Read more.
The phenomenon of increasing tuition fees is one of the factors which reinforce the increasingly consumerist attitudes among students towards the product (understood as a whole process of university education) they receive from universities. The aim of the study is to characterise the difference between the expectations of students and the extent to which those expectations are met by universities. This analysis also focuses on the conditions that determine this perception of what universities offer and discusses selected issues concerning the relations between universities and industry. The findings demonstrate why creativity, apart from practical knowledge, is one of the most important aspects in the process of education, where a student’s graduation work is aimed at solving specific problems in companies and institutions. In the empirical part of the paper, students’ opinions about the importance of selected aspects of the education process are compared with the level of support provided by universities. The research covered 505 students of economics from 10 different countries. Their expectations of the educational process with regard to the majority of its aspects (apart from theoretical knowledge) proved to be higher than those of their universities. The findings of this research may thus be useful in formulating optimal study plans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proportions of Women in STEM Leadership in the Academy in the USA
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010001 - 18 Dec 2019
Viewed by 681
Abstract
A considerable body of research exists on women in leadership and likewise, on women in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) fields. However, the intersection of the two is terra incognita: women in leadership in STEM. At the most fundamental level, we do not [...] Read more.
A considerable body of research exists on women in leadership and likewise, on women in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) fields. However, the intersection of the two is terra incognita: women in leadership in STEM. At the most fundamental level, we do not even have a solid idea of how many women hold leadership positions in STEM. This study determined the proportion of women in leadership positions in several academic STEM areas via a sampling of institutions across the United States. In every area studied, women held fewer leadership positions than the proportion of female PhDs in those fields. The proportion of women in non-STEM specific top academic leadership roles was also examined to see what proportion of those individuals leading academic institutions might have background in a STEM discipline and how that compares to men in the same positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in STEM Education)
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