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Educ. Sci., Volume 9, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Analyzing Characteristics of Experts in the Context of Stoichiometric Problem-Solving
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030219
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
To gauge the variability in expert problem-solving strategies for stoichiometry problems, a set of experts in different career tracks were studied with the cohort including 17 graduate students in chemistry, three college chemistry instructors, and seven college graduates working in the industry. The [...] Read more.
To gauge the variability in expert problem-solving strategies for stoichiometry problems, a set of experts in different career tracks were studied with the cohort including 17 graduate students in chemistry, three college chemistry instructors, and seven college graduates working in the industry. The goal of the study was to determine whether variability would be observed based upon experience and career trajectories. The data were collected using interviews and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using the COSINE (Coding System for Investigating Sub-problems and Network) method. Although the method was developed for the analysis of undergraduate problem-solving, it appeared to be effective in examining experts’ problem-solving in chemistry as well. The study revealed similar abilities for succeeding at solving a series of problems, but the strategies were variable for the three cohorts of experts. Specifically, the amount of information used to solve the problems differed across the three cohorts with graduate students focusing more upon each of the specific subproblems within each problem compared to industry chemists utilizing the big-picture approach in lieu of breaking down each problem into respective subproblems. Familiarity with the question types and ability to chunk information were common characteristics observed consistently for the expert participants, which is consistent with existing research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations and Contemporary Perspectives in Chemistry Education)
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Open AccessEditorial
Selected Papers from the Eurasian Conference on Educational Innovation 2019
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030218
Received: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 15 August 2019
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Abstract
The Second Eurasian Conference on Educational Innovation 2019 (ECEI 2019) was held in Singapore on 27–29 January 2019, and provided a communication platform for researchers on the topic of educational innovations [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Conceptualization and Evaluation of a School Project on Climate Science in the Context of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030217
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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Abstract
Anchored in the thirteenth of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), climate change is one of the key content areas in education for sustainable development. This evaluation study describes a school project that introduces students to scientific work and, more specifically, to scientific research [...] Read more.
Anchored in the thirteenth of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), climate change is one of the key content areas in education for sustainable development. This evaluation study describes a school project that introduces students to scientific work and, more specifically, to scientific research methods in climate research. Using a pre-post design, the evaluation uses a scale measuring epistemological beliefs, as well as two other scales addressing the relevance of climate change in society and career prospects in the field of climate research. The quantitative questionnaire data indicate an increase in future career aspirations in the field of climate research. The qualitative interview data reveal positive changes in the understanding of science and show that an understanding of the nature of science can be promoted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geography Education Promoting Sustainability)
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Open AccessReview
Reading and Deafness: State of the Evidence and Implications for Research and Practice
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030216
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 7 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
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Abstract
Over the years, persistently low achievement levels have led scholars to question whether reading skill development is different for deaf readers. Research findings suggest that in order for deaf students to become proficient readers, they must master the same fundamental abilities that are [...] Read more.
Over the years, persistently low achievement levels have led scholars to question whether reading skill development is different for deaf readers. Research findings suggest that in order for deaf students to become proficient readers, they must master the same fundamental abilities that are well established for hearing learners, regardless of the degree of hearing loss or communication modality used (e.g., spoken or signed). The simple view of reading (SVR), which hypothesizes the critical role both language abilities and phonological skills play in development of reading comprehension, provides a model for understanding the reading process for a wide range of students and has the potential to shed light on the challenges deaf students have historically experienced in achieving age-appropriate outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review the components of the SVR and use this conceptual model as the basis for exploring and discussing both historical and current research evidence in reading and deafness, with a particular focus on phonological skills. Recommendations for future research and practice based on the existing body of literature will also be provided. Full article
Open AccessArticle
From the Hidden Protest of Students towards Problem-Based Learning
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030215
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents protests from academically successful students who privately conveyed to the researchers their feelings of personal discontent with schools. The criterion to select this “sample” was that these students, dissatisfied with school but having good marks, would reveal what others, academically [...] Read more.
This paper presents protests from academically successful students who privately conveyed to the researchers their feelings of personal discontent with schools. The criterion to select this “sample” was that these students, dissatisfied with school but having good marks, would reveal what others, academically less successful, could not express, by not knowing the syllabus as well as those students. However, their complaints are followed by suggestions of changes to be analyzed in this study. Our questions focused especially on the tenth grade, as this grade starts the three-year-cycle preceding university. We attempt to contribute to the issue of teacher education, by focusing on the stream of participative research in educational institutions, conducted by external researchers in cooperation with the institution’s stakeholders, students, and teachers in this study. The data analyzed for this paper came from in-depth interviews conducted, in a non-directive way, with students and their teachers. From the proposals of the students and the comments from teachers, we conclude it is crucial to substantially reduce the predominant teacher-centered methodology of verbal presentation by engaging in students’ activities, including the model of problem-based learning or alike in opposition, in order to rote memorization activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Fuzzy Functions Aimed at Fairer Grading of Students’ Tests
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030214
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 12 August 2019
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Abstract
The main goal of this research is to achieve fairer assessment of students’ knowledge and skills in tests in view of the fact that learners with similar abilities are often assigned different test grades if their achievements are borderline cases between two grades. [...] Read more.
The main goal of this research is to achieve fairer assessment of students’ knowledge and skills in tests in view of the fact that learners with similar abilities are often assigned different test grades if their achievements are borderline cases between two grades. As an example, a student who has scored 29 points out of 60 in a test will fail, while another one with 30 or 31 points will pass, which can be viewed as unjust. This problem is addressed by using fuzzy logic and different fuzzy functions to determine whether students with borderline test scores are assigned the higher or the lower grade of the two. Furthermore, although changing the grades of individual students, the authors endeavor to preserve the overall score of all test takers statistically unchanged. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Industry-Practice-Based Engineering Hydrology Education at USQ, Australia
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030213
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 11 August 2019
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Abstract
Engineering education must embrace several challenges, such as increased numbers of work-based students, increased demand for online education, mismatches in employability skills and industry requirements, and lack of student engagement. The hydrology course at the University of Southern Queensland attracts more than 100 [...] Read more.
Engineering education must embrace several challenges, such as increased numbers of work-based students, increased demand for online education, mismatches in employability skills and industry requirements, and lack of student engagement. The hydrology course at the University of Southern Queensland attracts more than 100 students every year, where more than 70% of students are off-campus and most of them are work-based. This study explored how an online hydrology course can embrace industry practice and engage students in order to achieve learning outcomes. Industrial careers in hydrology involve extensive use of hydroclimatological data and modeling applications. The course modules, learning objectives and outcomes, and assessment tools have been designed to align with industry practices. Active participation of students was observed in self-assessment quizzes and discussion forums. The course was rated very well in achieving learning outcomes and in overall student satisfaction. Students appreciated the well-structured real-world and professional practice in the course. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supporting Project-Based Learning through Economical and Flexible Learning Spaces
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030212
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
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Abstract
Project-based learning often centers learning experiences around projects and is characterized by the application of knowledge, management of resources, and self-directed learning. In recent years, newer classroom designs have been developed to facilitate communication, classroom interaction and active learning but the cost of [...] Read more.
Project-based learning often centers learning experiences around projects and is characterized by the application of knowledge, management of resources, and self-directed learning. In recent years, newer classroom designs have been developed to facilitate communication, classroom interaction and active learning but the cost of such spaces can be prohibitive. Here we present two economical options for flexible learning spaces that support the aims of project-based learning and cost much less than typical active learning classroom models. In a quasi-experimental study, one of our economical active learning environments was paired with a traditional classroom and a prototypical active learning classroom. These learning environments were used in a CS2 course that employed a group-based, active learning pedagogy centered on in-class projects. Students’ perceptions were gathered on the classrooms and their supporting technology. Between the economy and prototypical active learning environment, no significant differences were found in students’ perceptions of the space as it related to collaboration and supporting learning. Results from accompany focus groups indicates that the space was conducive to their learning and helped them engage with peers. These economical and flexible options support the aims of project-based learning at a reduced cost. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Contested Space of Animals in Education: A Response to the “Animal Turn” in Education for Sustainable Development
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030211
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
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Abstract
The so-called “animal turn”, having been on the agenda for around 15 years in the humanities and social sciences, is gaining force also in the educational sciences, typically with an orientation toward posthumanist ontologies. One particular space where educational “more-than-human” relations are debated [...] Read more.
The so-called “animal turn”, having been on the agenda for around 15 years in the humanities and social sciences, is gaining force also in the educational sciences, typically with an orientation toward posthumanist ontologies. One particular space where educational “more-than-human” relations are debated is the field of education for sustainable development (ESD). This paper responds to two recent contributions to this debate, both positioned within ESD frameworks. The purpose of this response is two-fold: First, to give a critical account of the knowledge claims of the two articles, their overlaps and divergences, as well as their implications for pedagogical practice and their potential consequences for the position of animals in education and in society at large. The meaning and usefulness of analytic tools such as “critical pluralism” and “immanent critique” in relation to animals in education is discussed, as well as whose realities are represented in ESD, revealing contested spaces of teaching and learning manifested through an “enlightened distance” to anthropocentrism in-between compliance and change. The second purpose is to sketch a foundation of reflective practice for critical animal pedagogies, offering a critical theory-based form of resistance against recent posthumanist configurations of the “animal question” in education and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecocentric Education)
Open AccessReview
The Dual-Coding and Multimedia Learning Theories: Film Subtitles as a Vocabulary Teaching Tool
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030210
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 3 August 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
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Abstract
The use of multimedia has often been suggested as a teaching tool in foreign language teaching and learning. In foreign language education, exciting new multimedia applications have appeared over the last years, especially for young learners, but many of these do not seem [...] Read more.
The use of multimedia has often been suggested as a teaching tool in foreign language teaching and learning. In foreign language education, exciting new multimedia applications have appeared over the last years, especially for young learners, but many of these do not seem to produce the desired effect in language development. This article looks into the theories of dual-coding (DCT) and multimedia learning (CTML) as the theoretical basis for the development of more effective digital tools with the use of films and subtitling. Bilingual dual-coding is also presented as a means of indirect access from one language to another and the different types of subtitling are explored regarding their effectiveness, especially in the field of short-term and long-term vocabulary recall and development. Finally, the article looks into some new alternative audiovisual tools that actively engage learners with films and subtitling, tailored towards vocabulary learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-enhanced Learning in Media Studies)
Open AccessArticle
SimCity in Infrastructure Management Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030209
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 1 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
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Abstract
Simulation games offer a safe space to experiment with system models and provide learning experiences about interdependencies and thus, are considered to foster the development of a deeper understanding of systems. This article describes the use of SimCity in the university course Infrastructure [...] Read more.
Simulation games offer a safe space to experiment with system models and provide learning experiences about interdependencies and thus, are considered to foster the development of a deeper understanding of systems. This article describes the use of SimCity in the university course Infrastructure Management, which has been in continuous operation since 2002. Methodologically, a total of four events were observed. Students’ motivation, the didactic scenario and the perceived learning outcomes were examined with the help of a focus group discussion and questionnaires. The didactic scenario shows characteristics not described in this combination in the literature to date: (1) the moderated open, simultaneous and competitive play in groups, (2) the used regional planning scenario and (3) the long, regular period of application of more than 15 years. The results show that SimCity 4 can still serve as a platform for exciting learning scenarios more than 15 years after its initial release. It could also be shown that the didactic scenario motivates the students and that SimCity also generates gaming fun. Furthermore, it could be argued that a regional scenario can be implemented by simple means and is perceived as motivating by the students. Furthermore, this study indicates that even a technically complex and fast-moving medium such as a computer game can be used in a didactic scenario over a longer period with limited effort. Nevertheless, the challenge of game aging should be actively addressed. Furthermore, the study revealed that game-based learning still faces challenges with being recognized by students as a serious learning activity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Insights from a Latent Semantic Analysis of Patterns in Design Expertise: Implications for Education
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030208
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 1 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
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Abstract
Design and design thinking are increasingly being taught across several disciplines—ranging from arts, architecture, and technology and engineering to business schools—where expertise plays a central role. A substantial corpus of literature on research in regard to design expert and design expertise has accumulated [...] Read more.
Design and design thinking are increasingly being taught across several disciplines—ranging from arts, architecture, and technology and engineering to business schools—where expertise plays a central role. A substantial corpus of literature on research in regard to design expert and design expertise has accumulated in the last decades. However, in spite of its importance for design and design education, the topic has remained largely unframed. A major goal of this study was to carry out an assessment of literature through leading interdisciplinary design journals in order to identify main topics and categorize them into thematic patterns concerned with expertise in design. A structured assessment approach based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) was used over 861 abstracts. The emerging thematic patterns associated with design expertise allowed a categorization at different levels of detail, which included 80, 50, 20, and 12 factors analyses, respectively. The major contribution of the study was to offer a structured assessment of key design literature that enabled to gain a clearer and more comprehensive understanding of the thematic patterns in the discussion on design expertise. Implications of the identified key factors for design education are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Organising Levels of Organisation for Biology Education: A Systematic Review of Literature
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030207
Received: 8 July 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
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Abstract
Many authors suggest an explicit reflection on the levels of organisation, based on known difficulties related to understanding biological systems. Yet, there is no scientific consensus on the characteristics of biological levels and the quality of their relationships. This review intends to present [...] Read more.
Many authors suggest an explicit reflection on the levels of organisation, based on known difficulties related to understanding biological systems. Yet, there is no scientific consensus on the characteristics of biological levels and the quality of their relationships. This review intends to present the state of the current discussion in order to establish an educational argumentation as a basis for the development of learning environments and teaching experiments in biology education. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic literature review. Three databases (BIOSIS, ERIC, Fachportal-Pädagogik) were searched for literature on levels of organisation. The papers were analysed by means of a qualitative content analysis based on the following research questions: (1) Which levels of organisation do the authors name? (2) How do the authors describe the levels of organisation? (3) How do the authors describe the relationship between different levels of organisation? (4) How do the authors describe the challenges of these levels for biological education? (5) How do the authors describe the benefit of these levels for biological education? Based on the results, we propose a system of levels that features the concept of zooming-in and makes the relationships between the levels explicit. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Multidimensional Self-Concept and Its Association with Problematic Use of Video Games in Spanish College Students
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030206
Received: 6 July 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
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Abstract
Background: At present, new technologies provide numerous benefits in their correct use, while the need arises to study the consumption of some technologies, in this case, videogames, due to the negative consequences that they can cause in those subjects who have not yet [...] Read more.
Background: At present, new technologies provide numerous benefits in their correct use, while the need arises to study the consumption of some technologies, in this case, videogames, due to the negative consequences that they can cause in those subjects who have not yet consolidated their personality due to their excessive use. The study aimed to determine and establish associations between the dimensions of self-concept and the problematic use of videogames and their gender differences. Methods: A total of 525 university students participated in this study, representing 44.7% of the male gender and 55.3% of the female gender, with an average age of M = 20.80 SD = 3.12 years old. The instruments used were the CESR and AF-5 questionnaires. Results: The results reveal the association (p ≤ 0.05) between the problematic use of videogames and the dimensions of self-concept, showing that students with severe or potential problems have lower levels of self-concept. In addition, it has been found that men have more problems associated with the use of video games than women. Men have a greater physical and emotional self-concept, while women have better social self-concept. Conclusions: This study highlights the inverse association between self-concept and problematic use of video games, a fact that shows the need to develop intervention programs aimed at improving self-concept and to reduce the problematic use of video games. Likewise, the levels of self-concept reveal that men have higher scores in the emotional and physical dimension, while women stand out in the social dimension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Didactics of Physical Education and Sport)
Open AccessArticle
Choice without Inclusion?: Comparing the Intensity of Racial Segregation in Charters and Public Schools at the Local, State and National Levels
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030205
Received: 12 July 2019 / Revised: 24 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
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Abstract
We conduct descriptive and inferential analyses of publicly available Common Core of Data (CCD) to examine segregation at the local, state, and national levels. Nationally, we find that higher percentages of charter students of every race attend intensely segregated schools. The highest levels [...] Read more.
We conduct descriptive and inferential analyses of publicly available Common Core of Data (CCD) to examine segregation at the local, state, and national levels. Nationally, we find that higher percentages of charter students of every race attend intensely segregated schools. The highest levels of racial isolation are at the primary level for public and middle level for charters. We find that double segregation by race and class is higher in charter schools. Charters are more likely to be segregated, even when controlling for local ethnoracial demographics. A majority of states have at least half of Blacks and a third of Latinx in intensely segregated charters. At the city level, we find that higher percentages of urban charter students were attending intensely segregated schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban/City Schools)
Open AccessArticle
Comparing Teaching Methods of Mathematics at University Level
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030204
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 26 July 2019 / Accepted: 28 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
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Abstract
According to the views of social constructivism, learning takes place when individuals engage socially to talk about and act on shared problems or interests. In recent years, this approach has been very popular for the teaching and learning of mathematics in primary and [...] Read more.
According to the views of social constructivism, learning takes place when individuals engage socially to talk about and act on shared problems or interests. In recent years, this approach has been very popular for the teaching and learning of mathematics in primary and secondary education. On the contrary, in tertiary education, it seems that most teachers still prefer the traditional way of delivering explicit mathematics instruction, sometimes combined with challenging questions and mathematical discourse with the students to promote conceptual understanding and critical analysis of the mathematical context. The paper at hand presents a classroom experiment comparing those two teaching methods at university level. The outcomes of the experiment were assessed and compared with the help of the Grade Point Average index to evaluate the student quality performance and by using grey numbers to evaluate their mean performance. Further empirical research is needed to obtain definitive results on the effectiveness of those two methods for teaching mathematics at university level. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mobile Technology and Generation Z in the English Language Classroom – A Preliminary Study
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030203
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 24 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 31 July 2019
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Abstract
Every generation of students has different characteristics that reflect the conditions of the time period they were growing in. It is important for educators from all fields of study, especially English language teachers, to understand the generational differences and the learning preferences of [...] Read more.
Every generation of students has different characteristics that reflect the conditions of the time period they were growing in. It is important for educators from all fields of study, especially English language teachers, to understand the generational differences and the learning preferences of students in order to create productive learning environments. In today’s technology driven era, students have different learning needs in comparison with their predecessors. To enhance language learning in the new generation, it is recommended to use mobile technology in class. Mobile devices and applications offer a wide range of activities that support language learning. The aim of this study was to discover if the students using mobile devices in the class got higher scores in tests than the students using traditional methods. The methods included pre- and post-tests, as well as a questionnaire survey. The results of this study reveal that the use of a mobile application had a positive effect on students’ achievement results as far as the vocabulary learning was concerned. The students using the app seemed to retain more words than the students in the control group. Furthermore, the results of the questionnaire showed that using the app was more enjoyable for students than the traditional teaching methods. In addition, it contributed to collaborative learning. However, the results also indicate that being a Generation Z student does not make him/her automatically interested in using mobile applications in the process of language acquisition. Considering the small number of participants, further studies are planned to confirm the results from the current preliminary study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Language Education in the 21 Century)
Open AccessArticle
Environmental Education for Students from School to University: Case Study on Biorefineries
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030202
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
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Abstract
Universities play an important role in society. On the other hand, more and more governments and international organizations are concerned about the environment. Thus, both in their educational programs and research, as well as in the case of public exhibitions, universities are increasingly [...] Read more.
Universities play an important role in society. On the other hand, more and more governments and international organizations are concerned about the environment. Thus, both in their educational programs and research, as well as in the case of public exhibitions, universities are increasingly including subjects related to the environment and its preservation. In the case of Spain, there are fewer university students than ten years ago (from approximately 140,000 to fewer than 130,000), and the number of students interested in technical and scientific degrees has equally decreased. Consequently, the importance of fostering a scientific culture with concerns in environmental issues is continuously increasing, from schools to universities. The role of real scientific environments, such as laboratories devoted to scientific research, could be an important support for environmental divulgation, as most research carried out at universities have to do with these subjects. The aim of this work was to show a specific case of environmental education in a laboratory devoted to the production of biodiesel and biolubricants, covering a wide range of academic levels and, depending on the audience, selecting the right content (both theoretical and practical). This guide was useful for the laboratory technicians, increasing the interest of the audience (considering the expositions good or excellent, depending on the academic level, and gaining enough or excellent knowledge about biorefineries). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Issues and Trends in Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle
Reading Development of Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Inclusive Education Classrooms
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030201
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 27 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this article is to discuss the major research findings associated with the reading/literacy development of students who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) in inclusive education classrooms. The conditions for developing effective literacy skills are also described. A professional [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to discuss the major research findings associated with the reading/literacy development of students who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) in inclusive education classrooms. The conditions for developing effective literacy skills are also described. A professional review approach was utilized, and relevant journal articles from 1985 to 2019, inclusive, were selected and analyzed. Other relevant publications including selected chapters and books were used to support the available salient findings. Results of the reviews, recommendations for future research and the limitations of the review process are also provided. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Self-Regulation as a Basic Element of the Professional Culture of Engineers
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030200
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
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Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of the formation of the self-regulation of educational activities of students studying in a technical university. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the problem of the self-regulation of educational activities of students, presenting data from an [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the problem of the formation of the self-regulation of educational activities of students studying in a technical university. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the problem of the self-regulation of educational activities of students, presenting data from an experimental study of students’ self-regulation. Special attention is paid to the distinction between the terms self-control and self-regulation. This paper presents data on the state of self-regulation among students studying technical specialties. The research methodology is based on the theoretical analysis of the results of scientific works, which present the main provisions on the formation of students’ self-regulation. The research methods include questioning and a methodical experiment. The stages of the formation of students’ self-regulation are highlighted, and the main directions of teachers’ work on the formation of students’ self-regulation are determined. The structure of self-regulation is described and the condition for its formation is justified using the technology of self-regulation formation. Based on the study, students’ self-regulation is linked to the awareness of their professional and personal goals, as well as to the level of regulatory and reflective qualities. Personal and professional self-improvement in the process of vocational education depends on the level of the formation of regulatory and reflexive qualities. Full article
Open AccessConcept Paper
An Extended Constructive Alignment Model in Teaching Electromagnetism to Engineering Undergraduates
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030199
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
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Abstract
Introducing abstract concepts to students from applied fields can be challenging. Electromagnetics is one of those courses where abstract concepts are introduced. This work presents a conceptual model which defines learning objectives in three levels for Engineering Electromagnetics. Each level is aligned with [...] Read more.
Introducing abstract concepts to students from applied fields can be challenging. Electromagnetics is one of those courses where abstract concepts are introduced. This work presents a conceptual model which defines learning objectives in three levels for Engineering Electromagnetics. Each level is aligned with its own assessment and evaluation methods. The advantage is that the three-level learning objectives can be extended as student self-assess and instructor assessment rubrics, and a detailed implementation is presented here. This model gives students more accessibility to the learning objectives and increases the transparency of the learning and grading processes. The main goal of this conceptual model is to make students learn with the end in mind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Education and Technological / Professional Learning)
Open AccessArticle
Machine-Assisted Learning in Highly-Interdisciplinary Media Fields: A Multimedia Guide on Modern Art
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030198
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
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Abstract
Art and technology have always been very tightly intertwined, presenting strong influences on each other. On the other hand, technological evolution led to today’s digital media landscape, elaborating mediated communication tools, thus providing new creative means of expression (i.e., new-media art). Rich-media interaction [...] Read more.
Art and technology have always been very tightly intertwined, presenting strong influences on each other. On the other hand, technological evolution led to today’s digital media landscape, elaborating mediated communication tools, thus providing new creative means of expression (i.e., new-media art). Rich-media interaction can expedite the whole process into an augmented schooling experience though art cannot be easily enclosed in classical teaching procedures. The current work focuses on the deployment of a modern-art web-guide, aiming at enhancing traditional approaches with machine-assisted blended-learning. In this perspective, “machine” has a two-folded goal: to offer highly-interdisciplinary multimedia services for both in-class demonstration and self-training support, and to crowdsource users’ feedback, as to train artificial intelligence systems on painting movements semantics. The paper presents the implementation of the “Istoriart” website through the main phases of Analysis, Design, Development, and Evaluation, while also answering typical questions regarding its impact on the targeted audience. Hence, elaborating on this constructive case study, initial hypotheses on the multidisciplinary usefulness, and contribution of the new digital services are put into test and verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-enhanced Learning in Media Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
I Didn’t Understand, I´m Really Not Very Smart”—How Design of a Digital Tutee’s Self-Efficacy Affects Conversation and Student Behavior in a Digital Math Game
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030197
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
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Abstract
How should a pedagogical agent in educational software be designed to support student learning? This question is complex seeing as there are many types of pedagogical agents and design features, and the effect on different student groups can vary. In this paper we [...] Read more.
How should a pedagogical agent in educational software be designed to support student learning? This question is complex seeing as there are many types of pedagogical agents and design features, and the effect on different student groups can vary. In this paper we explore the effects of designing a pedagogical agent’s self-efficacy in order to see what effects this has on students´ interaction with it. We have analyzed chat logs from an educational math game incorporating an agent, which acts as a digital tutee. The tutee expresses high or low self-efficacy through feedback given in the chat. This has been performed in relation to the students own self-efficacy. Our previous results indicated that it is more beneficial to design a digital tutee with low self-efficacy than one with high self-efficacy. In this paper, these results are further explored and explained in terms of an increase in the protégé effect and a reverse role modelling effect, whereby the students encourage digital tutees with low self-efficacy. However, there are indications of potential drawbacks that should be further investigated. Some students expressed frustration with the digital tutee with low self-efficacy. A future direction could be to look at more adaptive agents that change their self-efficacy over time as they learn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence and Education)
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Open AccessReview
Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching Methodologies through Audiovisual Media
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030196
Received: 8 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
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Abstract
Contemporary rapid advancements in science and technology have brought about and continue to convey change in all sectors of everyday life. Education as one of the institutions of utmost importance is directly and indirectly affected by these changes and needs to redefine its [...] Read more.
Contemporary rapid advancements in science and technology have brought about and continue to convey change in all sectors of everyday life. Education as one of the institutions of utmost importance is directly and indirectly affected by these changes and needs to redefine its role to keep pace. Nowadays, information and communications technologies (ICTs), in which audiovisual media technologies are encompassed, are omnipresent in all educational levels and disciplines, including media studies. New approaches in traditional teaching methodologies, which demand many skills and abilities by the educators, are reformulated through utilization of audiovisual media technologies, aiming at administering enriched outcomes that support the objectives that are set, especially in the field of media studies, where audiovisual media technologies are an integral part and even inherent in many of the courses (journalism, radio, television, social media, public relations, communication). The purpose of this paper is to summarize, through a theory and bibliographic review, the various implementations of audiovisual media as the educational techniques and tools that will provide technology-enhanced learning. As this paper is an investigation of the effects of audiovisual media in technology-enhanced learning and teaching methodologies, the contribution to the discipline of media studies is straightforward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-enhanced Learning in Media Studies)
Open AccessArticle
Film Students’ Attitude toward Open Educational Resources (OERs) for Film Studies in Greece
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030195
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
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Abstract
Open Educational Resources (OERs) have become a very useful medium in the fields of education, research, and training in recent decades, supported by governments and highly respected universities and institutions worldwide. Today’s university students—in western societies mainly—have been born and raised in a [...] Read more.
Open Educational Resources (OERs) have become a very useful medium in the fields of education, research, and training in recent decades, supported by governments and highly respected universities and institutions worldwide. Today’s university students—in western societies mainly—have been born and raised in a digital world; consuming, providing, and sharing information over the internet 24/7. In that respect, it is interesting to examine whether OERs are a type/kind of information that they would like to “consume, provide, and share” throughout their studies in a formal university course. The paper focus on the attitude toward OERs of students enrolled in a film studies course, offered by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. The aim of the study is to provide film educators with evidence regarding their students’ attitudes toward OERs that can be useful in designing teaching strategies to enhance the learning process. Findings suggest that film students want to use OERs in their studies but many of them are not aware that these resources exist and that they are offered from highly recognized institutions and universities worldwide. Therefore, university teachers should assist students to develop familiarity with OERs of high quality and educational value as a useful aid to their studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-enhanced Learning in Media Studies)
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Open AccessArticle
Future Teachers’ Smartphone Uses and Dependence
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030194
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 22 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
Smartphones are indeed becoming an essential tool in the daily lives and relations of their users in recent years, thanks to their uses and potential. However, excessive and inappropriate use can lead to dependence syndromes. The objectives of our study were to ascertain [...] Read more.
Smartphones are indeed becoming an essential tool in the daily lives and relations of their users in recent years, thanks to their uses and potential. However, excessive and inappropriate use can lead to dependence syndromes. The objectives of our study were to ascertain how these devices are being used and whether students are at risk of addiction. The study was carried out based on a survey with students—future teachers—from two Spanish universities. A sample of 453 students between the ages of 18 and 47 was analyzed, 76.8% female and 23.2% male. Smartphones were found to be the preferred Internet connection device for 80% of students, 38% of students connect to the Internet five hours or more a day (which can be considered an addiction) and smartphones are used primarily to connect with others (social media and instant messaging). The abusive use of smartphones affects men’s behavior more than women and can lead them to neglect other activities, while smartphones affect women more in the emotional field, in matters related to boredom, impatience, and irritability. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Focusing on the Place Model for Optometrists
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030193
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: The Place Model was developed in order to conceptualize the various roles and career pathways of the teaching profession. It can be used to evaluate long-term professional career trajectories and to encourage the student-teacher to visualize their future personal and professional development. [...] Read more.
Background: The Place Model was developed in order to conceptualize the various roles and career pathways of the teaching profession. It can be used to evaluate long-term professional career trajectories and to encourage the student-teacher to visualize their future personal and professional development. Methods: In the present study, the Place Model has been applied to the Optometric profession. The four categories of the place model have been discussed in terms of Optometry and a survey of undergraduate Optometrists highlights the perception of the model amongst pre-qualified professionals. Results: The majority of participants placed qualified optometrists in the Professional area on the Place Model (87%, n = 88) with the remainder placing qualified optometrists in the De-Professional area on the Place Model (13%, n = 13). There was no statistically significant difference between responses from male and female participants (t-test, p = 0.38). There was also no statistically significant difference between responses from participants in year 1, 2 or 3 of their undergraduate program (one-way analysis of variance [ANOVA], p = 0.10). Conclusion: The Place Model may be an opportunity to discuss with Optometry students their future career pathways and to ensure that we maintain a highly skilled and caring profession that provides high quality eyecare for the public. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for the Professions in Times of Change )
Open AccessArticle
All Animals Learn, but Only Humans Teach: The Professional Place of Teacher Educators
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030192
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
The profession that creates all other professions has been subject to much debate in recent years. Largely invisible at times, teacher educators have recently been visible mainly in the negative headlines which have surrounded attempts to disrupt this important, but often unsung, profession [...] Read more.
The profession that creates all other professions has been subject to much debate in recent years. Largely invisible at times, teacher educators have recently been visible mainly in the negative headlines which have surrounded attempts to disrupt this important, but often unsung, profession in order to introduce neoliberal reforms. This paper uses both Eliot Freidson’s three logics (adding artificial intelligence as a fourth logic) and Clarke’s Place Model to deconstruct and map the contested place of the teacher educator in respect of status and career-long learning journey. The question, ‘who is my teacher education professional’? is addressed, highlighting the complexity surrounding teacher educators’ roles and realms. In a world where many animals learn but only humans teach, teaching teachers is poorly recognised for the singularly inclusive profession it might be. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Education for the Professions in Times of Change )
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Open AccessArticle
Study Approaches in Higher Education Mathematics: Investigating the Statistical Behaviour of an Instrument Translated into Norwegian
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030191
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
The revised two-factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) has widely been considered valid and reliable in many contexts for measuring students’ learning approaches. However, its cultural specificity has generated considerable discussion, with inconclusive results when translated to different languages. This paper provides more insights [...] Read more.
The revised two-factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) has widely been considered valid and reliable in many contexts for measuring students’ learning approaches. However, its cultural specificity has generated considerable discussion, with inconclusive results when translated to different languages. This paper provides more insights into the construct validity of a Norwegian version of this instrument. The R-SPQ-2F is composed of ten items designed to expose deep learning approaches and 10 items designed to expose surface learning approaches. A survey research design involving a sample of 253 first year university students in a mathematics course was adopted. Ten hypothesized models were compared using a series of confirmatory factor analyses following the model proposals reported in the literature. A weighted least square mean and variance adjusted (WLSMV) estimator was used to enhance model parameter estimations under multiple violations of assumptions inherent in ordinal data. The results favored a two first-order factor model with ten items measuring the deep approach and nine items measuring the surface approach including a deletion of one item from this instrument. The findings of this study provide empirical evidence for the cultural specificity of the instrument that is consistent with the literature. The R-SPQ-2F is therefore recommended to assess students’ approaches to learning, and further studies into its cultural specificity are recommended. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Multi-Timescale Education Program for Temporal Expansion in Ecocentric Education: Using Fixed-Point Time-Lapse Images for Phenology Observation
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci9030190
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Ecocentric education programs should include a method for the in-depth understanding of multi-scale ecological time concepts. To accomplish this, the common restriction that ecocentric education should pertain only to realistic nature may have to be removed. The purpose of this research was to [...] Read more.
Ecocentric education programs should include a method for the in-depth understanding of multi-scale ecological time concepts. To accomplish this, the common restriction that ecocentric education should pertain only to realistic nature may have to be removed. The purpose of this research was to confirm the validity of a program featuring phenology observation, employing fixed-point time-lapse images as climate change learning, and to obtain suggestions on the influence of the program on the multi-timescale concepts of the learners. An observation sheet listing images of cherry flowering from 16 April to 15 March each year from 1996 to 2017 was created, and the 50-min educational program using the observation sheet was conducted with 189 third year junior high school students. The tendencies among students’ answers to the two questions before and after the program suggest that the program contributed to the students acquiring the hundreds-year timescale concept based on the short-term timescale concept of dynamic nature. The contribution of this research is to visualize long-term and multi-scale ecological time concepts. By combining long-term time-lapse images with everyday nature experiences, the possibility of expanding such emotions as wonder and attachment to nature towards a long-term ecological timescale is achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecocentric Education)
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