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Pharmacy, Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Open AccessConference Report Briefing Note: Proceedings of the Singapore National Clinical Pharmacy Colloquium—Health Manpower Development Planning
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
The nation of Singapore highly values its health service as well as the component of healthcare delivery that includes clinical pharmacy and administration. The Ministry of Health (MOH) engaged the services of Dr. Richard Parrish to better understand the relationship between the Singaporean
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The nation of Singapore highly values its health service as well as the component of healthcare delivery that includes clinical pharmacy and administration. The Ministry of Health (MOH) engaged the services of Dr. Richard Parrish to better understand the relationship between the Singaporean citizenry and its clinical pharmacists. Through a series of five lectures, structured from the national to local unit level, four roundtables, two hands-on sessions, and three workshops, clinical pharmacists and administrative leadership participated in “open-mic” style lectures, discussed the issues facing Singapore pharmacy in its current provision of healthcare services, and deliberated on the future resources required to meet projected healthcare needs. From three distinct perspectives, these discussions were very frank, transparent, and passionate about what practitioners and administrators thought Singaporean health leadership needed to address in terms of (1) what programs and practices to continue; (2) what ones to start; and (3) what ones to evaluate. Each of the areas below will be framed using these three perspectives in order to clearly reflect the ideas and suggestions expressed in each of the 14 group sessions. These recommendations are forwarded to MOH pharmacy leadership for consideration and action. In addition, we met with MOH leaders regarding non-medical prescribing (NMP), and discussed strategies and tactics that seemed successful as well as unsuccessful in other jurisdictions when adopting expanded scope models for clinical pharmacists and other qualified healthcare providers that include prescribing of medications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Women’s Beliefs on Early Adherence to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer: A Theory-Based Qualitative Study to Guide the Development of Community Pharmacist Interventions
Received: 9 April 2018 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
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Abstract
Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) taken for a minimum of five years reduces the recurrence and mortality risks among women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. However, adherence to AET is suboptimal. To guide the development of theory-based interventions to enhance AET adherence, we conducted a
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Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) taken for a minimum of five years reduces the recurrence and mortality risks among women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. However, adherence to AET is suboptimal. To guide the development of theory-based interventions to enhance AET adherence, we conducted a study to explore beliefs regarding early adherence to AET. This qualitative study was guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). We conducted focus groups and individual interviews among women prescribed AET in the last two years (n = 43). The topic guide explored attitudinal (perceived advantages and disadvantages), normative (perception of approval or disapproval), and control beliefs (barriers and facilitating factors) towards adhering to AET. Thematic analysis was conducted. Most women had a positive attitude towards AET regardless of their medication-taking behavior. The principal perceived advantage was protection against a recurrence while the principal inconvenience was side effects. Almost everyone approved of the woman taking her medication. The women mentioned facilitating factors to encourage medication-taking behaviors and cope with side effects. For adherent women, having trouble establishing a routine was their main barrier to taking medication. For non-adherent women, it was side effects affecting their quality of life. These findings could inform the development of community pharmacy-based adherence interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Methods in Pharmacy Research)
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Open AccessArticle Over-The-Counter (OTC) Drug Consumption among Adults Living in Germany: Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008–2011 (DEGS1)
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 7 June 2018
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Abstract
In order to assess the effects of prescription-only (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC) drug switches and related policies, it is imperative to distinguish self-medication from OTC drug use. The objective of this study was to estimate the OTC drug use in the adult population
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In order to assess the effects of prescription-only (Rx) to over-the-counter (OTC) drug switches and related policies, it is imperative to distinguish self-medication from OTC drug use. The objective of this study was to estimate the OTC drug use in the adult population in Germany, to identify its predictors and to highlight methodological differences when compared to the study of a self-medication prevalence. Seven-day prevalence of OTC drug use was calculated on the basis of information provided by 7091 participants of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) conducted between 2008 to 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of OTC drug use. Seven-day prevalence of OTC drug use was higher in women (47.16%) than in men (33.17%). Female gender, an age of more than 60 years, reduced health status, Rx drug use, and multi-morbidity were identified as predictors of OTC drug use. The levels of OTC drug use were higher than the self-medication prevalence found in the same data set probably because some OTC drugs are commonly prescribed by physicians. Drug utilization studies should, therefore, make a methodological distinction between self-medication and OTC drug use depending on whether the focus is on drug safety or the impact of regulatory decisions on the trade status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Standing of OTC Medicines in Community Practice)
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Open AccessReview Community Pharmacy Use by Children across Europe: A Narrative Literature Review
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
The use of community pharmacies across Europe has potential to alleviate the burden on overstretched healthcare providers. Children and young people (0–18 years) account for a large number of primary care attendances. This narrative literature review between January 2000 and December 2017 examines
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The use of community pharmacies across Europe has potential to alleviate the burden on overstretched healthcare providers. Children and young people (0–18 years) account for a large number of primary care attendances. This narrative literature review between January 2000 and December 2017 examines the use of community pharmacy by paediatric patients in Europe. The results report both positive and negative perceptions of community pharmacy by parents and children, opportunities for an extended role in Europe, as well as the need for further training. The main limitations were the inclusion of English language papers only and an initial review of the literature carried out by a single researcher. It remains to be seen whether a ‘new-look’ role of the community pharmacist is practical and in alignment with specific European Commission and national policies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A 15 Year Ecological Comparison for the Market Dynamics of Minnesota Community Pharmacies from 2002 to 2017
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
Background: Understanding the factors that influence the market entry, exit, and stability of community pharmacies (i.e., market dynamics) is important for stakeholders ranging from patients to health policymakers and small business owners to large corporate institutions. Objective: The study’s first objective was to
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Background: Understanding the factors that influence the market entry, exit, and stability of community pharmacies (i.e., market dynamics) is important for stakeholders ranging from patients to health policymakers and small business owners to large corporate institutions. Objective: The study’s first objective was to describe the market dynamics of community pharmacies for Minnesota counties in 2002, 2007, 2012, and 2017 by associating county (a) population density and (b) metropolitan designation with the change in the number of ‘All community pharmacies,’ ‘Chain community pharmacies’, and ‘Independent community pharmacies’. The study’s second objective was to describe the number and proportion of community pharmacies for Minnesota counties in 2002, 2007, 2012, and 2017 by (1) ‘Business Organization Structure’ and (2) ‘Pharmacy Type.’ Methods: County-level data were obtained from the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy, US Census Bureau, and Minnesota State Demographic Center for 2002, 2007, 2012, and 2017. Findings were summarized and the associations between study variables described using descriptive statistics. Results: The ratio of ‘Independent community pharmacies’ to ‘Chain community pharmacies’ was about 1:1 (466:530) in 2002, 1:2 (352:718) in 2007, 1:2 (387:707) in 2012, and 1:3 (256:807) in 2017. There was not a consistent relationship that carried through the 15 year analysis between county population density and metropolitan designation and the market dynamic patterns of community pharmacies. The types of pharmacy in Minnesota changed significantly over the study with increases in state, regional, and national chains and declines in single entity and small chain independents. There were also notable declines in mass merchandiser community pharmacies and increases in clinic and medical center community pharmacies. Discussion: The findings suggest that different or additional factors beyond traditional market dynamic predictors of population density and metropolitan designation were at play in each five year interval of this study. We propose that the traditional dichotomy of independent and chain community pharmacy groupings no longer provide an optimal characterization for the market dynamics of pharmacies today. Instead, community pharmacies may be better organized by their capacity to operate as healthcare access points that provide and are reimbursed for patient care and public health services like medication therapy management, immunizations, and more. Conclusions: The findings showed that community pharmacy distribution in Minnesota’s 87 counties has shifted between 2002 and 2017 from traditional retail models to emerging healthcare models based on population health needs. This signals the need for not only a new approach for tracking community pharmacy market dynamics but also adjustments by community pharmacies to remain relevant in a new environment of patient care services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Labor Market for Pharmacists)
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Open AccessArticle Clinical Pharmacy Education in Japan: Using Simulated Patients in Laboratory-Based Communication-Skills Training before Clinical Practice
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 14 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
The Japanese pharmaceutical curriculum was extended from four to six years in 2006. Students now receive practical communication-skills training in their fourth year, before progressing to train in hospital and community pharmacies in their fifth year. Kitasato University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo, had
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The Japanese pharmaceutical curriculum was extended from four to six years in 2006. Students now receive practical communication-skills training in their fourth year, before progressing to train in hospital and community pharmacies in their fifth year. Kitasato University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo, had established a program to meet these aims before the 2006 guidance. In the present study, we discuss and evaluate the features of this communication-skills training program. This study enrolled 242 fourth-year pharmacy students at Kitasato University. Students filled out a questionnaire survey after completing the laboratory element of their undergraduate education. As part of training, students were asked to obtain patient data from a model medical chart, before performing simulated patient interviews covering hospital admission and patient counseling. These simulations were repeated in a small group, and feedback was provided to students by both the simulated patient and the faculty after each presentation. It was found that students were able to develop their communication skills through this approach. Thus, an effective system of gradual and continuous training has been developed, which allows students to acquire clinical and practical communication skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
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Open AccessArticle Using a Model to Design Activity-Based Educational Experiences to Improve Cultural Competency among Graduate Students
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
To improve the cultural competency of 34 students participating in graduate nutrition counseling classes, the Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Health Care Services was used to design, implement, and evaluate counseling classes. Each assignment and activity addressed one or
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To improve the cultural competency of 34 students participating in graduate nutrition counseling classes, the Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Health Care Services was used to design, implement, and evaluate counseling classes. Each assignment and activity addressed one or more of the five constructs of the model, i.e., knowledge, skill, desire, encounters, and awareness. A repeated measure ANOVA evaluated pre- and post-test cultural competence scores (Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence among Healthcare Professionals). The overall cultural competence score significantly improved (p < 0.001) from “culturally aware” (68.7 at pre-test) to “culturally competent” (78.7 at post-test). Students significantly improved (p < 0.001) in four constructs of the model including awareness, knowledge, skill, and encounter. Factor analysis indicated that course activities accounted for 83.2% and course assignments accounted for 74.6% of the total variance of cultural competence. An activity-based counseling course encouraging self-evaluation and reflection and addressing Model constructs significantly improved the cultural competence of students. As class activities and assignments aligned well with the Campinha-Bacote Model constructs, the findings of this study can help guide health educators to design effective cultural competence training and education programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimising Cultural Capabilities in Pharmacy Practice and Education)
Open AccessArticle Uncertainty and Motivation to Seek Information from Pharmacy Automated Communications
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
Pharmacy personnel often answer telephones to respond to pharmacy customers (subjects) who received messages from automated systems. This research examines the communication process in terms of how users interact and engage with pharmacies after receiving automated messages. No study has directly addressed automated
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Pharmacy personnel often answer telephones to respond to pharmacy customers (subjects) who received messages from automated systems. This research examines the communication process in terms of how users interact and engage with pharmacies after receiving automated messages. No study has directly addressed automated telephone calls and subjects’ interactions. The purpose of this study is to test the interpersonal communication (IC) process of uncertainty in subjects in receipt of automated telephone calls ATCs from pharmacies. Subjects completed a survey of validated scales for Satisfaction (S); Relevance (R); Quality (Q); Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC). Relationships between S, R, Q, NFC, and subject preference to ATCs were analyzed to determine whether subjects contacting pharmacies display information seeking behavior. Results demonstrated that seeking information occurs if subjects: are dissatisfied with the content of the ATC; perceive that the Q of ATC is high and like receiving the ATC, or have a high NFC and do not like receiving ATCs. Other interactions presented complexities amongst uncertainty and tolerance of NFC within the IC process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication in Pharmacy Practice)
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Open AccessArticle One-Stop Dispensing: Hospital Costs and Patient Perspectives on Self-Management of Medication
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
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Abstract
(1) Objective: To assess hospital medication costs and staff time between One-Stop Dispensing (OSD) and the Traditional Medication System (TMS), and to evaluate patient perspectives on OSD. (2) Methods: The study was conducted at Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark in an elective
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(1) Objective: To assess hospital medication costs and staff time between One-Stop Dispensing (OSD) and the Traditional Medication System (TMS), and to evaluate patient perspectives on OSD. (2) Methods: The study was conducted at Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark in an elective gastric surgery and acute orthopedic surgery department. This study consists of three sub-studies including adult patients able to self-manage medication. In Sub-study 1, staff time used to dispense and administer medication in TMS was assessed. Medication cost and OSD staff time were collected in Sub-study 2, while patient perspectives were assessed in Sub-study 3. Medication costs with two days of discharge medication were compared between measured OSD cost and simulated TMS cost for the same patients. Measured staff time in OSD was compared to simulated staff time in TMS for the same patients. Patient satisfaction related to OSD was evaluated by a questionnaire based on a five-point Likert scale (‘very poor’ (1) to ‘very good’ (5)). (3) Results: In total, 78 elective and 70 acute OSD patients were included. Overall, there was no significant difference between OSD and TMS in medication cost per patient ($2.03 [95% CI −0.57–4.63]) (p = 0.131). Compared with TMS, OSD significantly reduced staff time by an average of 12 min (p ≤ 0.001) per patient per hospitalization. The patients’ satisfaction for OSD was high with an average score of 4.5 ± 0.7. (4) Conclusion: There were no differences in medication costs, but staff time was significantly lower in OSD and patients were overall satisfied with OSD. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Co-Morbidities as Predictors of Airflow Limitation among Smokers in England
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
The prevalence of co-morbidities among patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is well documented in the literature. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to identify whether co-morbidities screening would enhance COPD case-finding. Smoking patients were approached at Croydon University Hospital and two local
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The prevalence of co-morbidities among patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is well documented in the literature. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to identify whether co-morbidities screening would enhance COPD case-finding. Smoking patients were approached at Croydon University Hospital and two local community pharmacies (CPs). Their co-morbidities, respiratory symptoms, smoking pack-years and exercise capacity were collected. Airflow limitation was determined using handheld spirometry (COPD-6) device. The prevalence of airflow limitation was 42% (n = 21/50). The main identified predictors of airflow limitation were: co-morbidities (OR = 9, CI: 1.04–77.81, p = 0.025), respiratory symptoms (OR = 33.54, CI: 1.06–11.77, p = 0.039) and smoking history of ≥20 pack-years (OR = 3.94, CI: 1.13–13.64, p = 0.029). CPs were the main location for case-finding. This study demonstrated the need to screen for co-morbidities for COPD case-finding within CPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Appointment-Based Medication Synchronization on Proportion of Days Covered for Chronic Medications
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
Appointment-based medication synchronization (ABMS) programs have been associated with increased adherence and persistence to chronic medications. Adherence to statin therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and non-insulin antidiabetic medications (NIDM) are used to determine a health plan’s Centers for Medicare
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Appointment-based medication synchronization (ABMS) programs have been associated with increased adherence and persistence to chronic medications. Adherence to statin therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and non-insulin antidiabetic medications (NIDM) are used to determine a health plan’s Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Star Rating under a pay-for-performance model. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing an ABMS program on overall pharmacy adherence measures for statins, ACEI/ARBs, and NIDM, as presented through the Electronic Quality Improvement Platform for Plans and Pharmacies (EQuIPP©) platform. This retrospective, pre-post ABMS program study evaluated EQuIPP© generated adherence performance measures, represented as proportion of days covered (PDC), 6-months before and 6- and 12-months after the ABMS service for statin therapy, ACEIs/ARBs, and NIDM. All adherence measures showed statistically significant improvement in PDC percentage post ABMS implementation, except for NIDM percentage in 6-months post-ABMS service. This study shows that a comprehensive medication synchronization program can enhance adherence measures that are important to health plans to increase CMS Star Rating under a pay-for-performance model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comprehension of Top 200 Prescribed Drugs in the US as a Resource for Pharmacy Teaching, Training and Practice
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
Pharmacists have access to a plethora of information related to drugs. Online compendia concerning top 200 prescribed drugs are readily-accessible, comparatively-easy to search. While these resources provide some information about the commonly prescribed drugs, they lack in furnishing in-depth knowledge to pharmacy students,
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Pharmacists have access to a plethora of information related to drugs. Online compendia concerning top 200 prescribed drugs are readily-accessible, comparatively-easy to search. While these resources provide some information about the commonly prescribed drugs, they lack in furnishing in-depth knowledge to pharmacy students, pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to present the relevant details of top 200 most prescribed drugs in the United States. The names and therapeutic classes of top 200 prescribed drugs were compiled from online resources. The pharmacological actions of drugs, any reported adverse reactions and black box warnings are collected from drug bank resources, such as AccessPharmacy and Lexicomp. The paper provides comprehensive information about top 200 prescribed drugs, which includes generic names, pharmacological action, route of administration and adverse reaction profile including black box warning when applicable. Overall, the drug list may serve as an easy access of ideas for pharmacists, researchers and other healthcare professionals interested in developing new strategies for treating patients with various ailments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dental Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes towards Antibiotic Prescribing Guidelines in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Received: 18 April 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: The use of antibiotics prophylactically and therapeutically in dentistry has become common practice. Inappropriate prescription may lead to adverse side effects and bacterial resistance. During clinical training, dental students in Saudi Arabia are authorized to prescribe antibiotics. Aim: To evaluate dental students’
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Background: The use of antibiotics prophylactically and therapeutically in dentistry has become common practice. Inappropriate prescription may lead to adverse side effects and bacterial resistance. During clinical training, dental students in Saudi Arabia are authorized to prescribe antibiotics. Aim: To evaluate dental students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic prescription in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a validated questionnaire consisting of 34 questions focusing on antibiotic indications in dentistry, antibiotic regimens, and knowledge regarding resistance was distributed amongst dental students in five leading dental colleges in Riyadh. Results: A large proportion of students (71.7%) were familiar with the concept of antibiotic resistance. When comparing junior and senior dental students’ knowledge with regards to indications of antibiotic use in commonly encountered conditions, it was found that there was no significant difference in antibiotic prescription frequency between these groups. Most dental students choose to prescribe amoxicillin as their first-choice of antibiotic (88.4%), and most also chose to use it for a duration of 3–5 days (69.2%). Conclusions: This study concludes that dental students may prescribe antibiotics inappropriately to manage various conditions when not indicated. This may indicate a defect in education of students with regards to current antibiotic guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimising Cultural Capabilities in Pharmacy Practice and Education)
Open AccessArticle Simulation and Feedback in Health Education: A Mixed Methods Study Comparing Three Simulation Modalities
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
Background. There are numerous approaches to simulating a patient encounter in pharmacy education. However, little direct comparison between these approaches has been undertaken. Our objective was to investigate student experiences, satisfaction, and feedback preferences between three scenario simulation modalities (paper-, actor-, and
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Background. There are numerous approaches to simulating a patient encounter in pharmacy education. However, little direct comparison between these approaches has been undertaken. Our objective was to investigate student experiences, satisfaction, and feedback preferences between three scenario simulation modalities (paper-, actor-, and computer-based). Methods. We conducted a mixed methods study with randomized cross-over of simulation modalities on final-year Australian graduate-entry Master of Pharmacy students. Participants completed case-based scenarios within each of three simulation modalities, with feedback provided at the completion of each scenario in a format corresponding to each simulation modality. A post-simulation questionnaire collected qualitative and quantitative responses pertaining to participant satisfaction, experiences, and feedback preferences. Results. Participants reported similar levels satisfaction across all three modalities. However, each modality resulted in unique positive and negative experiences, such as student disengagement with paper-based scenarios. Conclusion. Importantly, the themes of guidance and opportunity for peer discussion underlie the best forms of feedback for students. The provision of feedback following simulation should be carefully considered and delivered, with all three simulation modalities producing both positive and negative experiences in regard to their feedback format. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
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Open AccessArticle Simulation as a Central Feature of an Elective Course: Does Simulated Bedside Care Impact Learning?
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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A three-credit, simulation-based, emergency medicine elective course was designed and offered to doctor of pharmacy students for two years. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in exam performance stratified by student simulation experience, namely either as an active
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A three-credit, simulation-based, emergency medicine elective course was designed and offered to doctor of pharmacy students for two years. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in exam performance stratified by student simulation experience, namely either as an active observer or as part of bedside clinical care. The secondary objective was to report student satisfaction. Examination performance for simulation-based questions was compared based on the student role (evaluator versus clinical) using the Student’s t-test. Summary responses from Likert scale-based student satisfaction responses were collected. A total of 24 students took the course: 12 in each offering. Performance was similar whether the student was assigned to the evaluation team or the clinical team for all of the comparisons (mid-term and final 2015 and 2016, all p-values > 0.05). Students were very satisfied with the course. Of the 19 questions assessing the qualitative aspects of the course, all of the students agreed or strongly agreed to 17 statements, and all of the students were neutral, agreed, or strongly agreed to the remaining two statements. Direct participation and active observation in simulation-based experiences appear to be equally valuable in the learning process, as evidenced by examination performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Simulation in Pharmacy Education and Beyond)
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Open AccessProtocol The Development of a Community Pharmacy-Based Intervention to Optimize Patients’ Use of and Experience with Antidepressants: A Step-by-Step Demonstration of the Intervention Mapping Process
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
Objective: To describe the development of a community pharmacy-based intervention aimed at optimizing experience and use of antidepressants (ADs) for patients with mood and anxiety disorders. Methods: Intervention Mapping (IM) was used for conducting needs assessment, formulating intervention objectives, selecting change methods and
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Objective: To describe the development of a community pharmacy-based intervention aimed at optimizing experience and use of antidepressants (ADs) for patients with mood and anxiety disorders. Methods: Intervention Mapping (IM) was used for conducting needs assessment, formulating intervention objectives, selecting change methods and practical applications, designing the intervention, and planning intervention implementation. IM is based on a qualitative participatory approach and each step of the intervention development process was conducted through consultations with a pharmacists’ committee. Results: A needs assessment was informed by qualitative and quantitative studies conducted with leaders, pharmacists, and patients. Intervention objectives and change methods were selected to target factors influencing patients’ experience with and use of ADs. The intervention includes four brief consultations between the pharmacist and the patient: (1) provision of information (first AD claim); (2) management of side effects (15 days after first claim); (3) monitoring treatment efficacy (30-day renewal); (4) assessment of treatment persistence (2-month renewal, repeated every 6 months). A detailed implementation plan was also developed. Conclusion: IM provided a systematic and rigorous approach to the development of an intervention directly tied to empirical data on patients’ and pharmacists’ experiences and recommendations. The thorough description of this intervention may facilitate the development of new pharmacy-based interventions or the adaptation of this intervention to other illnesses and settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Methods in Pharmacy Research)
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Open AccessBrief Report Older Peoples’ Adherence and Awareness of Changes in Drug Therapy after Discharge from Hospital
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
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Abstract
Non-adherence is important to address because it might affect the effectiveness of therapy and lead to adverse effects. The objectives of this interview study were to investigate old peoples’ general adherence to drugs and their awareness of and adherence to changes in drug
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Non-adherence is important to address because it might affect the effectiveness of therapy and lead to adverse effects. The objectives of this interview study were to investigate old peoples’ general adherence to drugs and their awareness of and adherence to changes in drug therapy after their hospital stay. Following ethical approval, 42 patients admitted to the medical ward were invited to participate in this study. Of these, 36 persons, with a mean age of 82.5 years, who were discharged to their home, were interviewed by telephone using the Medical Adherence Report Scale (MARS) to assess their general adherence to prescribed drugs. Questions regarding awareness and adherence to drug changes during their hospital stay were asked. Different factors related to adherence and non-adherence were investigated using the Pearson chi-square test and the independent sample t-test. The average MARS score was 23.9 ± 1.4, with 31 persons (86%) assessed as adherent to their drug therapy and 5 persons (14%) as non-adherent. Of the 36 people, 30 had at least one change in their drug therapy during their hospital stay, and 23 (77%) of these people were aware of all changes and 23 (77%) were adherent to all of the changes. No significant differences between adherence and age, gender, living situation, or number of drugs were found. This small study found that some older people who were discharged from hospital were generally non-adherent, and some were not aware of or adherent to changes made in the drug therapy during their hospital stay. This is an important problem to address with further interventions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Experiences of Pharmacy Trainees from an Interprofessional Immersion Training
Received: 1 January 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 22 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Interprofessional education is essential in that it helps healthcare disciplines better utilize each other and provide team-based collaboration that improves patient care. Many pharmacy training programs struggle to implement interprofessional education. This purpose of the study was to examine the effect of a
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Interprofessional education is essential in that it helps healthcare disciplines better utilize each other and provide team-based collaboration that improves patient care. Many pharmacy training programs struggle to implement interprofessional education. This purpose of the study was to examine the effect of a 30-h interprofessional training that included pharmacy students to determine if the training helped these students build valuable knowledge and skills while working alongside other health care professions. The interprofessional training included graduate-level trainees from pharmacy, behavioral health, nursing, and family medicine programs where the trainees worked within teams to build interprofessional education competencies based on the Interprofessional Education Collaborative core competencies. Sixteen pharmacy trainees participated in the training and completed pre- and post-test measures. Data were collected over a two-year period with participants completing the Team Skills Scale and the Interprofessional Attitudes Scale. Paired sample t-tests indicated that, after this training, pharmacy trainees showed significant increases in feeling better able to work in healthcare teams and valuing interprofessional practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interprofessional Working and Collaborative Practice)
Open AccessArticle Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Practices Regarding Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccination in Pregnancy and Surrounding Newborns
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough is a serious and vaccine-preventable illness. Despite widespread vaccination in the pediatric population, pertussis still infects approximately 100,000 infants each year in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine gaps in pharmacists’ understanding,
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Background: Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough is a serious and vaccine-preventable illness. Despite widespread vaccination in the pediatric population, pertussis still infects approximately 100,000 infants each year in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine gaps in pharmacists’ understanding, attitudes, practices, and barriers surrounding the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccination recommendation for patients who are pregnant or planning to come in close contact with infants. Methods: This study was a descriptive, exploratory electronic survey. The survey assessed three major areas; the role of the pharmacist in Tdap vaccination, perceived barriers to vaccination, and understanding the recommendations. Results: A total of 225 pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists who responded to this survey agreed that pharmacists should have a role vaccinating the public and individuals expecting to come into contact with a newborn, (88.5% and 86.9%) respectively, but fewer agreed that pharmacists should have a role vaccinating pregnant women against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (77%, p < 0.001). Based on the responses to case scenarios, only 22.5% and 30.6% of respondents understood the recommendations. Numerous barriers to vaccinating pregnant women were identified. Conclusion: While most pharmacists surveyed felt they should have a role in vaccinating pregnant women and those expecting to come in contact with a newborn, there are barriers to implementing this practice. Future efforts should focus on further evaluating identified gaps and developing programs for pharmacists that emphasize the significance of vaccinating these patients to reduce the burden of pertussis in infants. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Analysis of the Relationship between the Learning Process and Learning Motivation Profiles of Japanese Pharmacy Students Using Structural Equation Modeling
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Pharmacy students in Japan have to maintain strong motivation to learn for six years during their education. The authors explored the students’ learning structure. All pharmacy students in their 4th through to 6th year at Josai International University participated in the survey. The
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Pharmacy students in Japan have to maintain strong motivation to learn for six years during their education. The authors explored the students’ learning structure. All pharmacy students in their 4th through to 6th year at Josai International University participated in the survey. The revised two factor study process questionnaire and science motivation questionnaire II were used to assess their learning process and learning motivation profiles, respectively. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine a causal relationship between the latent variables in the learning process and those in the learning motivation profile. The learning structure was modeled on the idea that the learning process affects the learning motivation profile of respondents. In the multi-group SEM, the estimated mean of the deep learning to learning motivation profile increased just after their clinical clerkship for 6th year students. This indicated that the clinical experience benefited students’ deep learning, which is probably because the experience of meeting with real patients encourages meaningful learning in pharmacy studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Patient Education on Oral Anticoagulation
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Given the potential harm associated with anticoagulant use, patient education is often provided as a standard of care and emphasized across healthcare settings. Effective anticoagulation education involves face-to-face interaction with a trained professional who ensures that the patient understands the risks involved, the
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Given the potential harm associated with anticoagulant use, patient education is often provided as a standard of care and emphasized across healthcare settings. Effective anticoagulation education involves face-to-face interaction with a trained professional who ensures that the patient understands the risks involved, the precautions that should be taken, and the need for regular monitoring. The teaching should be tailored to each patient, accompanied with written resources and utilize the teach-back method. It can be incorporated in a variety of pharmacy practice settings, including in ambulatory care clinics, hospitals, and community pharmacies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication in Pharmacy Practice)
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Open AccessArticle Managing Complexity: Exploring Decision Making on Medication by Young Adults with ADHD
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) causes difficulties with hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Treatment of ADHD includes both medication and non-pharmacological options. Knowledge of treatment preferences by young adults with ADHD is sparse. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and experiences
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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) causes difficulties with hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention. Treatment of ADHD includes both medication and non-pharmacological options. Knowledge of treatment preferences by young adults with ADHD is sparse. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and experiences of young adults with ADHD related to their medication treatment decisions. Data were collected in Denmark in 2016 through a focus group and individual in-depth interviews. Conventional content analysis was used. Ten young adults with ADHD (22-to 29-year-old) participated. Three major themes were identified: (1) the patient’s right to choose concerning ADHD medicine; (2) the patient’s decision of whether or not to treat ADHD with medication; and (3) factors affecting the patient’s decision on whether to take ADHD medication or not. The latter theme contained 15 factors, which were distributed across three levels: individual, between-individuals, and societal. The dominant factors were increasing quality of life and improving oneself e.g., improving social skills. For counselling at the pharmacy and by prescribers, it is important to be aware of the different factors that affect young adult patients’ decisions on whether to take ADHD medication or not. This knowledge will aid to understand reasons for non-adherence and to determine appropriate treatment for the individual patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medication Adherence)
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Open AccessProject Report Improving Pharmacists’ Targeting of Patients for Medication Review and Deprescription
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: In an acute hospital setting, a multi-disciplinary approach to medication review can improve prescribing and medicine selection in patients with frailty. There is a need for a clear understanding of the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists to ensure that interventions have the
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Background: In an acute hospital setting, a multi-disciplinary approach to medication review can improve prescribing and medicine selection in patients with frailty. There is a need for a clear understanding of the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists to ensure that interventions have the greatest impact on patient care. Aim: To use a consensus building process to produce guidance for pharmacists to support the identification of patients at risk from their medicines, and to articulate expected actions and escalation processes. Methods: A literature search was conducted and evidence used to establish a set of ten scenarios often encountered in hospitalised patients, with six or more possible actions. Four consultant physicians and four senior pharmacists ranked their levels of agreement with the listed actions. The process was redrafted and repeated until consensus was reached and interventions were defined. Outcome: Generalised guidance for reviewing older adults’ medicines was developed, alongside escalation processes that should be followed in a specific set of clinical situations. The panel agreed that both pharmacists and physicians have an active role to play in medication review, and face-to-face communication is always preferable to facilitate informed decision making. Only prescribers should deprescribe, however pharmacists who are not also trained as prescribers may temporarily “hold” medications in the best interests of the patient with appropriate documentation and a follow up discussion with the prescribing team. The consensus was that a combination of age, problematic polypharmacy, and the presence of medication-related problems, were the most important factors in the identification of patients who would benefit most from a comprehensive medication review. Conclusions: Guidance on the identification of patients on inappropriate medicines, and subsequent pharmacist-led intervention to prompt and promote deprescribing, has been developed for implementation in an acute hospital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deprescribing)
Open AccessBrief Report Does a Consumer-Targeted Deprescribing Intervention Compromise Patient-Healthcare Provider Trust?
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
One in four community-dwelling older adults is prescribed an inappropriate medication. Educational interventions aimed at patients to reduce inappropriate medications may cause patients to question their prescriber’s judgment. The objective of this study was to determine whether a patient-focused deprescribing intervention compromised trust
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One in four community-dwelling older adults is prescribed an inappropriate medication. Educational interventions aimed at patients to reduce inappropriate medications may cause patients to question their prescriber’s judgment. The objective of this study was to determine whether a patient-focused deprescribing intervention compromised trust between older adults and their healthcare providers. An educational brochure was distributed to community-dwelling older adults by community pharmacists in order to trigger deprescribing conversations. At baseline and 6-months post-intervention, participants completed the Primary Care Assessment Survey, which measures patient trust in doctors and pharmacists. Changes in trust were ascertained post-intervention. Proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and logistic regression were used to determine a shift in trust and associated predictors. 352 participants responded to the questionnaire at both time points. The majority of participants had no change or gained trust in their doctors for items related to the choice of medical care (78.5%, 95% CI = 74.2–82.8), communication transparency (75.4%, 95% CI = 70.7–79.8), and overall trust (81.9%, 95% CI = 77.9–86.0). Similar results were obtained for participants’ perceptions of their pharmacists, with trust remaining intact for items related to the choice of medical care (79.4%, 95% CI = 75.3–83.9), transparency in communicating (82.0%, 95% CI = 78.0–86.1), and overall trust (81.6%, 95% CI = 77.5–85.7). Neither age, sex nor the medication class targeted for deprescribing was associated with a loss of trust. Overall, the results indicate that patient-focused deprescribing interventions do not shift patients’ trust in their healthcare providers in a negative direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deprescribing)
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Open AccessArticle Benzodiazepines Withdrawal: Initial Outcomes and Long-Term Impact on Falls in a French Nursing Home
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Long-term use of benzodiazepines (BZDs) is known to induce tolerance and dependence, and increase the risk of falls-related injuries in older adults. We present a study carried out in a French nursing home that concerns the implementation of a BZD withdrawal program reassessed
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Long-term use of benzodiazepines (BZDs) is known to induce tolerance and dependence, and increase the risk of falls-related injuries in older adults. We present a study carried out in a French nursing home that concerns the implementation of a BZD withdrawal program reassessed at one year. BZD deprescription was achieved by gradual cessation of doses. A secondary benefit of this program was assessed by comparing the number of falls among residents before and after withdrawal. The number of falls was recorded over a six-month period prior to the onset of withdrawal (T1) and then over a six-month period after reassessment at one year (T2). At the beginning, 31 (28.7%) of the patients were under BZD. Total deprescription was obtained for 11 patients. The number of falls per patient over the T1 period was not different between the two groups (future non-withdrawn and withdrawn patients in BZD): 2.1 ± 1.3 and 2.3 ± 0.6 falls per resident, respectively. Conversely, the number of falls per patient was significantly decreased in the population completely withdrawn in BZD between the T1 and T2 periods (2.3 ± 0.6 vs. 0.5 ± 0.2 falls, p = 0.01). The results show that BZD deprescription, through a gradual reduction of doses, is possible to achieve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deprescribing)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Barriers towards Pharmacovigilance among Physicians and Pharmacists of Abbottabad, Pakistan
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Objectives: Pharmacovigilance in Pakistan needs robust preference in terms of implementation and consistent movement of structured approaches. The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitude and barriers towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among physicians and pharmacists and to explore
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Objectives: Pharmacovigilance in Pakistan needs robust preference in terms of implementation and consistent movement of structured approaches. The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitude and barriers towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among physicians and pharmacists and to explore the encouraging factors of ADR reporting. Methods: The current research was a cross-sectional study design in which a pre-validated questionnaire was administered to physicians and pharmacists in Abbottabad, Pakistan. The study was conducted for two months from January 2016 to February 2016. Results: A total of 194 physicians and pharmacists responded with a response rate of 35.3%. All the respondents either strongly agreed or agreed that ADRs reporting is a part of their duty. Half of the respondents agreed that monitoring of drug safety is important. Around three quarters of respondents (74.2%) stated that they did not report ADRs due to unavailability of reporting forms while 70% cited lack of a proper pharmacovigilance center as one of the key barriers. Half of the respondents (52.2%) did not report due to their insufficient knowledge. A large majority (81.8%) said that they would report ADRs if there is pharmacovigilance center. On the point of incentives, opinion seems to be divided. Slightly less than half (47.8%) cited their wish to have few incentives while the remaining 52.2% either preferred to be neutral or disagreed. Conclusion: Based on the study findings, barriers were mostly related to general unfamiliarity with ADRs reporting guidelines and the non-existence of a pharmacovigilance center. It is highlighted that the regulatory body should carve a niche for a properly functional pharmacovigilance center and initiate educational programs for strengthening knowledge and attitudes towards ADR reporting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patient Safety and Adverse Drug Events in Medication Practice)
Open AccessArticle De-Prescribing of Psychotropic Medications in the Adult Population with Intellectual Disabilities: A Commentary
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
The population with intellectual disabilities is one of the most vulnerable groups in society. Medication use is the main therapeutic intervention in this population and psychotropic medications can be prescribed for mental health conditions and for challenging behaviors. Clinical experience of prescribers and
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The population with intellectual disabilities is one of the most vulnerable groups in society. Medication use is the main therapeutic intervention in this population and psychotropic medications can be prescribed for mental health conditions and for challenging behaviors. Clinical experience of prescribers and pharmacists working with people with intellectual disabilities suggests that reducing or stopping psychotropic medication is not always straightforward. What is required is rational, rather than rationed, prescribing of psychotropic medications. Concerns of clinicians working with people with intellectual disabilities and both formal and informal carers can result in maintenance of the ‘status quo.’ Setting-related, carer-related and staff-related factors play an important role in the real world of people with intellectual disabilities. Optimizing medication regimens in the adult population with intellectual disabilities is complicated but it is recognized that efforts to improve the current state of medication utilization are required for many individuals with intellectual disabilities. Pharmacists have a responsibility to include the person and/or their carer in their efforts to promote optimization of psychotropic medication use in environment in which the person lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deprescribing)
Open AccessReview The Relevancy of paracetamol and Breastfeeding Post Infant Vaccination: A Systematic Review
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 18 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Background: Paracetamol may be used as an antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain post-vaccination in infants. The use of paracetamol during fever may be or may not be
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Background: Paracetamol may be used as an antipyretic agent for the treatment of fever, as well as an analgesic in the treatment of mild to moderate pain post-vaccination in infants. The use of paracetamol during fever may be or may not be recommended since it may alter the natural human body immune response, although it may reduce fever and fussiness. Objectives: The aims of this study are to describe the effectiveness of breastfeeding in reducing pain and paracetamol in reducing fever and pain post infant vaccination. Methods: Data sources and study selection was conducted by electronic searching of six databases. Manual reference checks of all articles on paracetamol and breastfeeding post infant vaccination published in the English language between 1978 and 2017. Two levels of screening were used on 9614 citations, which include screening of abstracts and titles followed by full text screening. The data synthesis were tabulated into study characteristics, quality, and effects. Results: Systematic review of breastfeeding included three studies from 9614 database searches found significant benefit from breastfeeding in pain scores and the duration of crying, as well as behavioural changes. None of the studies stated the detriment of breastfeeding before, during, and after immunization. Systematic review of paracetamol effectiveness included four studies from 1177 database searches found significant benefit from prophylaxis paracetamol in fever, one study found significant benefit from prophylaxis paracetamol in fussiness, and one study’s results were found to be not significant. Two studies on evaluating the safety of prophylactic paracetamol in 2009 found that antibody responses to several antigens were significantly reduced, and the other study in 1988 found that antibody titres to DTP bacteria of placebo and PCM did not differ significantly. Conclusions: The relevancy of giving paracetamol post all types of vaccination may be questionable. Breastfeeding before, during, and after immunization are recommended for pain reduction and are proven effective. Further research is required in deciding if paracetamol is to be of rational use following infant immunization. Full article
Open AccessArticle Implementation of a Medication Reconciliation Process in an Internal Medicine Clinic at an Academic Medical Center
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Discrepancies in medication orders at transitions of care have been shown to affect patient outcomes in a negative way. The Joint Commission recognizes the importance of medication reconciliation through their National Patient Safety Goals, with an emphasis placed on maintaining accurate medication information
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Discrepancies in medication orders at transitions of care have been shown to affect patient outcomes in a negative way. The Joint Commission recognizes the importance of medication reconciliation through their National Patient Safety Goals, with an emphasis placed on maintaining accurate medication information for each patient. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of implementing a medication reconciliation process in an internal medicine clinic at an academic medical center. A retrospective chart review of patients seen at an Internal Medicine Clinic within and Academic Medical Center, a continuity and teaching clinic for Internal Medicine residents and faculty practice clinic, was conducted. Nursing staff were educated by PharmDs to perform a standardized medication history during the triage process. Medication reconciliation data was analyzed for 3263 patients from 1 August 2014 to 27 February 2015. A total of 4479 discrepancies were found through this process, with the majority (71%) of discrepancies being medications on the list that patient was no longer taking. This project illustrated to our nursing and physician staff the need for regular thorough review of the patient medication list. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Professional Culture of Community Pharmacy and the Provision of MTM Services
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
The integration of advanced pharmacy services into community pharmacy practice is not complete. According to implementation research understanding professional culture, as a part of context, may provide insights for accelerating this process. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective of
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The integration of advanced pharmacy services into community pharmacy practice is not complete. According to implementation research understanding professional culture, as a part of context, may provide insights for accelerating this process. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective of this study was to validate an adapted version of an organizational culture measure in a sample of United States’ (US) community pharmacists. The second objective was to examine potential relationships between the cultural factors identified using the validated instrument and a number of socialization and education variables. The third objective was to examine any relationships between the scores on the identified cultural factors and the provision of MTM services. This study was a cross-sectional online survey for community pharmacists in the southeastern US. The survey contained questions on socialization/education, respondents’ self-reported provision of medication therapy management (MTM) services, and the organizational culture profile (OCP). Analyses included descriptive statistics, a principle components analysis (PCA), independent samples t-test, and multivariate ordinal regression. A total of 303 surveys were completed. The PCA revealed a six-factor structure: social responsibility, innovation, people orientation, competitiveness, attention to detail, and reward orientation. Further analysis revealed significant relationships between social responsibility and years in practice, and people orientation and attention to detail and pharmacists’ training and practice setting. Significant positive relationships were observed between social responsibility, innovation, and competitiveness and the increased provision of MTM services. The significant relationships identified between the OCP factors and community pharmacist respondents’ provision of MTM services provides an important starting point for developing interventions to improve the uptake of practice change opportunities. Full article
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