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Pharmacy 2018, 6(2), 48;

Using a Model to Design Activity-Based Educational Experiences to Improve Cultural Competency among Graduate Students

Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimising Cultural Capabilities in Pharmacy Practice and Education)
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To improve the cultural competency of 34 students participating in graduate nutrition counseling classes, the Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Health Care Services was used to design, implement, and evaluate counseling classes. Each assignment and activity addressed one or more of the five constructs of the model, i.e., knowledge, skill, desire, encounters, and awareness. A repeated measure ANOVA evaluated pre- and post-test cultural competence scores (Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence among Healthcare Professionals). The overall cultural competence score significantly improved (p < 0.001) from “culturally aware” (68.7 at pre-test) to “culturally competent” (78.7 at post-test). Students significantly improved (p < 0.001) in four constructs of the model including awareness, knowledge, skill, and encounter. Factor analysis indicated that course activities accounted for 83.2% and course assignments accounted for 74.6% of the total variance of cultural competence. An activity-based counseling course encouraging self-evaluation and reflection and addressing Model constructs significantly improved the cultural competence of students. As class activities and assignments aligned well with the Campinha-Bacote Model constructs, the findings of this study can help guide health educators to design effective cultural competence training and education programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: cultural competence; nutrition counseling; health education; multicultural education cultural competence; nutrition counseling; health education; multicultural education
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Bauer, K.; Bai, Y. Using a Model to Design Activity-Based Educational Experiences to Improve Cultural Competency among Graduate Students. Pharmacy 2018, 6, 48.

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