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Plants, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Pompia is a citrus fruit endemic of Sardinia with an outstanding essential oil profile which shows [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Polyamines as Quality Control Metabolites Operating at the Post-Transcriptional Level
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Plant polyamines (PAs) have been assigned a large number of physiological functions with unknown molecular mechanisms in many cases. Among the most abundant and studied polyamines, two of them, namely spermidine (Spd) and thermospermine (Tspm), share some molecular functions related to quality control [...] Read more.
Plant polyamines (PAs) have been assigned a large number of physiological functions with unknown molecular mechanisms in many cases. Among the most abundant and studied polyamines, two of them, namely spermidine (Spd) and thermospermine (Tspm), share some molecular functions related to quality control pathways for tightly regulated mRNAs at the level of translation. In this review, we focus on the roles of Tspm and Spd to facilitate the translation of mRNAs containing upstream ORFs (uORFs), premature stop codons, and ribosome stalling sequences that may block translation, thus preventing their degradation by quality control mechanisms such as the nonsense-mediated decay pathway and possible interactions with other mRNA quality surveillance pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Residence Time, Auto-Fertility and Pollinator Dependence on Reproductive Output and Spread of Alien and Native Asteraceae
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
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Abstract
Alien plants benefit from auto-fertility to spread over areas where the lack of co-evolved mutualists would otherwise limit invasion success. However, the widespread generalists among mutualists and their large geographical ranges allow alien plants to be integrated into networks. The role of residence [...] Read more.
Alien plants benefit from auto-fertility to spread over areas where the lack of co-evolved mutualists would otherwise limit invasion success. However, the widespread generalists among mutualists and their large geographical ranges allow alien plants to be integrated into networks. The role of residence time also has to be accounted for, as it takes time for a species to spread and adapt to a new area. We investigated how residence time, auto-fertility and pollinator dependence affect reproductive output and invasion success of Asteraceae in Germany. We conducted a multi-species common-garden experiment along an alien–native continuum including 42 species of natives, archaeophytes and neophytes (casual and established), subjecting plant individuals either to free access or exclusion of pollinators. Pollinator dependence does not play a crucial role in invasion success, with most Asteraceae being able to self-fertilize. Surprisingly, both established neophytes and natives showed higher abilities to self-fertilize, while archaeophytes and casual neophytes were more attractive to pollinators. In contrast to casual neophytes, the established neophytes’ strategy was associated with a large reproductive output. Yet, auto-fertility was not associated with range size, since archaeophytes reached the largest range sizes. Elucidating how breeding systems affect invasion success is crucial for predicting and managing invasions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Temperature and Imbibition Influence Serianthes Seed Germination Behavior
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 21 April 2019
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Abstract
The direct role of physical dormancy in delaying germination of Serianthes grandiflora Bentham, Serianthes kanehirae Fosberg, and Serianthes nelsonii Merrill seeds has not been adequately studied, nor has the role of temperature on germination behaviors. Imbibition testing indicated seeds with scarified testa absorbed [...] Read more.
The direct role of physical dormancy in delaying germination of Serianthes grandiflora Bentham, Serianthes kanehirae Fosberg, and Serianthes nelsonii Merrill seeds has not been adequately studied, nor has the role of temperature on germination behaviors. Imbibition testing indicated seeds with scarified testa absorbed water for the duration of a 24 h imbibition period, but seeds with an intact testa stopped absorbing water after 1 h. The behavior of S. nelsonii seeds most closely matched those of S. kanehirae, with the pattern of water absorption for S. grandiflora seeds deviating from that for the other species. Scarified seeds germinated readily, with initial germination occurring by 50 h for S. nelsonii and 90 hr for the other species, and maximum germination of 80% to 90% occurring by 60 h for S. nelsonii and 100 h for the other species. Predicted optimum temperature based on a fitted quadratic model was 26 °C for S. nelsonii, 23 °C for S. grandiflora, and 22 °C for S. kanehirae. Seed respiration increased within 3 h of imbibition for scarified seeds and continued to increase in a linear pattern. The linear slope was greatest for S. nelsonii, intermediate for S. grandiflora, and least for S. kanehirae, but ultimate respiration was greatest for S. kanehirae seeds. Seed respiration was so limited for un-scarified seeds that the instrument was unable to quantify any carbon dioxide efflux. Physical dormancy in seeds of these Serianthes species is a powerful trait that spreads out the timing of seedling emergence in natural settings and controls imbibition and germination speed in managed nurseries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Root Hair Development to Sulfate Uptake in Arabidopsis
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
Root hairs often contribute to nutrient uptake from environments, but the contribution varies among nutrients. In Arabidopsis, two high-affinity sulfate transporters, SULTR1;1 and SULTR1;2, are responsible for sulfate uptake by roots. Their increased expression under sulfur deficiency (−S) stimulates sulfate uptake. Inspired [...] Read more.
Root hairs often contribute to nutrient uptake from environments, but the contribution varies among nutrients. In Arabidopsis, two high-affinity sulfate transporters, SULTR1;1 and SULTR1;2, are responsible for sulfate uptake by roots. Their increased expression under sulfur deficiency (−S) stimulates sulfate uptake. Inspired by the higher and lower expression, respectively, of SULTR1;1 in mutants with more (werwolf [wer]) and fewer (caprice [cpc]) root hairs, we examined the contribution of root hairs to sulfate uptake. Sulfate uptake rates were similar among plant lines under both sulfur sufficiency (+S) and −S. Under −S, the expression of SULTR1;1 and SULTR1;2 was negatively correlated with the number of root hairs. These results suggest that both −S-induced SULTR expression and sulfate uptake rates were independent of the number of root hairs. In addition, we observed (1) a negative correlation between primary root lengths and number of root hairs and (2) a greater number of root hairs under −S than under +S. These observations suggested that under both +S and −S, sulfate uptake was influenced by the root biomass rather than the number of root hairs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Sulfur Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Explorative Frequency Analysis of Leaf Temperature Behavior of Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) at Water Deficit
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
In this study, different standard frequency analysis (FA) methods are applied to measured leaf temperature data of maize plants (developmental stages EC13–15). These FA methods are used to identify specific behaviors, regularities, and sudden changes in frequencies/amplitudes of data, e.g., in control engineering. [...] Read more.
In this study, different standard frequency analysis (FA) methods are applied to measured leaf temperature data of maize plants (developmental stages EC13–15). These FA methods are used to identify specific behaviors, regularities, and sudden changes in frequencies/amplitudes of data, e.g., in control engineering. The thorough application of different FA methods in plant studies is novel. The aim of this paper is to analyze features of the measured data and to explore the explanatory power of different methods for the detection of plant dynamic behavioral changes. The basic assumption is an expected relation between plant water stress and resulting changes in leaf temperature oscillations caused by stress-induced changes in stomatal behavior. Therefore, an irrigation experiment (laboratory; controlled environmental conditions) was implemented to compare leaf temperature behavior of stressed and unstressed plants. Leaf temperature time series are processed and the results are compared as functions of time showing the behavioral changes in terms of the different methods applied. The analysis of results is explained; conclusions, which can be made based on different methods, are given. The study confirms the applicability of FA methods and provides new insights into leaf temperature behavioral patterns. Results are discussed regarding the hypothesized incipience of leaf temperature oscillations due to water stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Smoke-Water Enhances Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Horticultural Crops
Received: 28 January 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
The impact of plant-derived smoke as a promoter of seed germination in many crops is well documented. However, very little is known about (1) the appropriate plant species for smoke-water preparation, (2) the effect of smoke-water on the germination and the post-germination parameters [...] Read more.
The impact of plant-derived smoke as a promoter of seed germination in many crops is well documented. However, very little is known about (1) the appropriate plant species for smoke-water preparation, (2) the effect of smoke-water on the germination and the post-germination parameters in non-fire-prone environments, and (3) the relative importance of dark and light conditions and their possible effects. To fill these gaps in knowledge, we conducted field experiments to evaluate the effect of smoke-water produced from five plant species—white willow, sage, rice straw, rosemary, and lemon eucalyptus—on the germination and seedling growth of cucumber, tomato, scotch marigold, and gladiolus. The seeds and cormels were soaked in smoke-water under light or dark conditions. The results revealed that the smoke-water treatments derived from white willow and lemon eucalyptus enhanced germination, post-germination parameters, and macro element content whilst also contributing to dormancy-breaking. In addition, these smoke-water treatments significantly reduced abscisic acid content and increased α-amylase activity under light conditions; however, the stimulating effects were absent under dark conditions. In conclusion, we provide new evidence that germination and seedling growth in non-fire-prone environments can be enhanced by plant-derived smoke, and that stimulating impacts depend on the plant species used to prepare the smoke-water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CLE-CLAVATA1 Signaling Pathway Modulates Lateral Root Development under Sulfur Deficiency
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Plant root system architecture changes drastically in response to availability of macronutrients in the soil environment. Despite the importance of root sulfur (S) uptake in plant growth and reproduction, molecular mechanisms underlying root development in response to S availability have not been fully [...] Read more.
Plant root system architecture changes drastically in response to availability of macronutrients in the soil environment. Despite the importance of root sulfur (S) uptake in plant growth and reproduction, molecular mechanisms underlying root development in response to S availability have not been fully characterized. We report here on the signaling module composed of the CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide and CLAVATA1 (CLV1) leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase, which regulate lateral root (LR) development in Arabidopsis thaliana upon changes in S availability. The wild-type seedlings exposed to prolonged S deficiency showed a phenotype with low LR density, which was restored upon sulfate supply. In contrast, the clv1 mutant showed a higher daily increase rate of LR density relative to the wild-type under prolonged S deficiency, which was diminished to the wild-type level upon sulfate supply, suggesting that CLV1 directs a signal to inhibit LR development under S-deficient conditions. CLE2 and CLE3 transcript levels decreased under S deficiency and through CLV1-mediated feedback regulations, suggesting the levels of CLE peptide signals are adjusted during the course of LR development. This study demonstrates a fine-tuned mechanism for LR development coordinately regulated by CLE-CLV1 signaling and in response to changes in S availability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Sulfur Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Selenium Biofortification and Beneficial Microorganism Inoculation on Yield, Quality and Antioxidant Properties of Shallot Bulbs
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Plant biofortification with selenium in interaction with the application of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-based formulate, with the goal of enhancing Se bioavailability, is beneficial for the development of the environmentally friendly production of functional food with a high content of this microelement. [...] Read more.
Plant biofortification with selenium in interaction with the application of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-based formulate, with the goal of enhancing Se bioavailability, is beneficial for the development of the environmentally friendly production of functional food with a high content of this microelement. Research was carried out in order to assess the effects of an AMF-based formulate and a non-inoculated control in factorial combination with two selenium treatments with an organic (selenocystine) or inorganic form (sodium selenate) and a non-treated control on the yield, quality, antioxidant properties, and elemental composition of shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group). Selenocystine showed the best effect on the growth and yield of mycorrhized plants, whereas sodium selenate was the most effective on the non-inoculated plants. The soluble solids, total sugars, monosaccharides, titratable acidity, and proteins attained higher values upon AMF inoculation. Sodium selenate resulted in higher soluble solids, total sugars and monosaccharide content, and titratable acidity than the non-treated control, and it also resulted in higher monosaccharides when compared to selenocystine; the latter showed higher protein content than the control. Calcium, Na, S, and Cl bulb concentrations were higher in the plants inoculated with the beneficial microorganisms. Calcium and sodium concentrations were higher in the bulbs of plants treated with both the selenium forms than in the control. Selenocystine-treated plants showed enhanced accumulation of sulfur and chlorine compared to the untreated plants. The AMF inoculation increased the bulb selenium content by 530%, and the Se biofortification with selenocystine and sodium selenate increased this value by 36% and 21%, respectively, compared to control plants. The AMF-based formulate led to increases in ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity when compared to the non-inoculated control. The bulb ascorbic acid was increased by fortification with both selenium forms when compared to the non-treated control. The results of our investigation showed that both AMF and selenium application represent environmentally friendly strategies to enhance the overall yield and quality performances of shallot bulbs, as well as their selenium content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selenium Metabolism and Accumulation in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptomic Analysis of Orange Fruit Treated with Pomegranate Peel Extract (PGE)
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
A Pomegranate Peel Extract (PGE) has been proposed as a natural antifungal substance with a wide range of activity against plant diseases. Previous studies showed that the extract has a direct antimicrobial activity and can elicit resistance responses in plant host tissues. In [...] Read more.
A Pomegranate Peel Extract (PGE) has been proposed as a natural antifungal substance with a wide range of activity against plant diseases. Previous studies showed that the extract has a direct antimicrobial activity and can elicit resistance responses in plant host tissues. In the present study, the transcriptomic response of orange fruit toward PGE treatments was evaluated. RNA-seq analyses, conducted on wounded fruits 0, 6, and 24 h after PGE applications, showed a significantly different transcriptome in treated oranges as compared to control samples. The majority (273) of the deferentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly up-regulated compared to only 8 genes that were down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis showed the involvement of 1233 gene ontology (GO) terms and 35 KEGG metabolic pathways. Among these, important defense pathways were induced and antibiotic biosynthesis was the most enriched one. These findings may explain the underlying preventive and curative activity of PGE against plant diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RNAs and Plant Disease Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle
Differences among the Anthocyanin Accumulation Patterns and Related Gene Expression Levels in Red Pears
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
Differences in coloration exist among red pear cultivars. Here, we selected six red pear cultivars with different genetic backgrounds to elucidate the characteristics of fruit pigmentation. We detected anthocyanin contents and the expression levels of anthocyanin synthesis-related genes in these cultivars at different [...] Read more.
Differences in coloration exist among red pear cultivars. Here, we selected six red pear cultivars with different genetic backgrounds to elucidate the characteristics of fruit pigmentation. We detected anthocyanin contents and the expression levels of anthocyanin synthesis-related genes in these cultivars at different stages of fruit development. The anthocyanin contents of all six cultivars showed a rise–drop tendency. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses were used to distinguish the types of cultivars and the genes crucial to each anthocyanin accumulation pattern. The six cultivars were divided into three groups. Red Zaosu were clustered into one group, Red Sichou and Starkrimson into another group, and Palacer, Red Bartlett, and 5 Hao clustered into a third group. The expression levels of F3H, UFGT2, MYB10, and bHLH3 were similar among the differential coloration patterns of the six cultivars, suggesting a critical and coordinated mechanism for anthocyanin synthesis. Anthocyanin transporters (GST) and light-responsive genes, such as COP1, PIF3.1, and PIF3.2 played limited roles in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation. This study provides novel insights into the regulation of anthocyanins synthesis and accumulation in red pears. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Polyamine Oxidase from Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5) can Replace AtPAO5 in Arabidopsis through Converting Thermospermine to Norspermidine instead to Spermidine
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Of the five polyamine oxidases in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtPAO5 has a substrate preference for the tetraamine thermospermine (T-Spm) which is converted to triamine spermidine (Spd) in a back-conversion reaction in vitro. A homologue of AtPAO5 from the lycophyte Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5) back-converts [...] Read more.
Of the five polyamine oxidases in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtPAO5 has a substrate preference for the tetraamine thermospermine (T-Spm) which is converted to triamine spermidine (Spd) in a back-conversion reaction in vitro. A homologue of AtPAO5 from the lycophyte Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5) back-converts T-Spm to the uncommon polyamine norspermidine (NorSpd) instead of Spd. An Atpao5 loss-of-function mutant shows a strong reduced growth phenotype when growing on a T-Spm containing medium. When SelPAO5 was expressed in the Atpao5 mutant, T-Spm level decreased to almost normal values of wild type plants, and NorSpd was produced. Furthermore the reduced growth phenotype was cured by the expression of SelPAO5. Thus, a NorSpd synthesis pathway by PAO reaction and T-Spm as substrate was demonstrated in planta and the assumption that a balanced T-Spm homeostasis is needed for normal growth was strengthened. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Polyamines)
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat Seedlings Response to Low Nitrogen Stress
Received: 23 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Nitrogen (N) is one of the essential macronutrients that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Unfortunately, low utilization rate of nitrogen has become one of the main abiotic factors affecting crop growth. Nevertheless, little research has been done on the [...] Read more.
Nitrogen (N) is one of the essential macronutrients that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Unfortunately, low utilization rate of nitrogen has become one of the main abiotic factors affecting crop growth. Nevertheless, little research has been done on the molecular mechanism of wheat seedlings resisting or adapting to low nitrogen environment. In this paper, the response of wheat seedlings against low nitrogen stress at phenotypic changes and gene expression level were studied. The results showed that plant height, leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, total root length, and number under low nitrogen stress decreased by 26.0, 28.1, 24.3, 38.0, 41.4, and 21.2 percent, respectively compared with plants under normal conditions. 2265 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in roots and 2083 DEGs were detected in leaves under low nitrogen stress (N-) compared with the control (CK). 1688 genes were up-regulated and 577 genes were down-regulated in roots, whilst 505 genes were up-regulated and 1578 were down-regulated in leaves. Among the most addressed Gene Ontology (GO) categories, oxidation reduction process, oxidoreductase activity, and cell component were mostly represented. In addition, genes involved in the signal transduction, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, and environmental adaptation were highlighted. Our study provides new information for further understanding the response of wheat to low nitrogen stress. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Bacillus Spp.: Efficient Biotic Strategy to Control Postharvest Diseases of Fruits and Vegetables
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Postharvest diseases significantly reduce the shelf-life of harvested fruits/vegetables worldwide. Bacillus spp. are considered to be an eco-friendly and bio-safe alternative to traditional chemical fungicides/bactericides due to their intrinsic ability to induce native anti-stress pathways in plants. This review compiles information from multiple [...] Read more.
Postharvest diseases significantly reduce the shelf-life of harvested fruits/vegetables worldwide. Bacillus spp. are considered to be an eco-friendly and bio-safe alternative to traditional chemical fungicides/bactericides due to their intrinsic ability to induce native anti-stress pathways in plants. This review compiles information from multiple scientific databases (Scopus, ScienceDirect, GoogleScholar, ResearchGate, etc.) using the keywords “postharvest diseases”, “Bacillus”, “Bacillus subtilis”, “biocontrol”, “storage”, “losses”, and “fruits/vegetables”. To date, numerous examples of successful Bacillus spp. application in controlling various postharvest-emerged pathogens of different fruits/vegetables during handling, transportation, and storage have been described in the literature. The mechanism/s of such action is/are still largely unknown; however, it is suggested that they include: i) competition for space/nutrients with pathogens; ii) production of various bio-active substances with antibiotic activity and cell wall-degrading compounds; and iii) induction of systemic resistance. With that, Bacillus efficiency may depend on various factors including strain characteristics (epiphytes or endophytes), application methods (before or after harvest/storage), type of pathogens/hosts, etc. Endophytic B. subtilis-based products can be more effective because they colonize internal plant tissues and are less dependent on external environmental factors while protecting cells inside. Nevertheless, the mechanism/s of Bacillus action on harvested fruits/vegetables is largely unknown and requires further detailed investigations to fully realize their potential in agricultural/food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Induced Resistance (IR) of Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Total Phenolic Content, Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of Wild Vegetables from Western Nepal
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 19 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
Eight selected wild vegetables from Nepal (Alternanthera sessilis, Basella alba, Cassia tora, Digera muricata, Ipomoea aquatica, Leucas cephalotes, Portulaca oleracea and Solanum nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidative potential using 2,2-dyphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide [...] Read more.
Eight selected wild vegetables from Nepal (Alternanthera sessilis, Basella alba, Cassia tora, Digera muricata, Ipomoea aquatica, Leucas cephalotes, Portulaca oleracea and Solanum nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidative potential using 2,2-dyphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ferric thiocyanate (FTC) methods. Among the selected plant extracts C. tora displayed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value 9.898 μg/mL, whereas A. sessilis had the maximum H2O2 scavenging activity with an IC50 value 16.25 μg/mL—very close to that of ascorbic acid (16.26 μg/mL). C. tora showed the highest absorbance in the FRAP assay and the lowest lipid peroxidation in the FTC assay. A methanol extract of A. sessilis resulted in the greatest phenolic content (292.65 ± 0.42 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method, while the smallest content was recorded for B. alba (72.66 ± 0.46 GAE/g). The greatest flavonoid content was observed with extracts of P. oleracea (39.38 ± 0.57 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g) as measured by an aluminium chloride colorimetric method, while the least was recorded for I. aquatica (6.61 ± 0.42 QE/g). There was a strong correlation between antioxidant activity with total phenolic (DPPH, R2 = 0.75; H2O2, R2 = 0.71) and total flavonoid content (DPPH, R2 = 0.84; H2O2, R2 = 0.66). This study demonstrates that these wild edible leafy plants could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Phytochemicals on Crop Protection and Biotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Glucosinolate Distribution in the Aerial Parts of sel1-10, a Disruption Mutant of the Sulfate Transporter SULTR1;2, in Mature Arabidopsis thaliana Plants
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
Plants take up sulfur (S), an essential element for all organisms, as sulfate, which is mainly attributed to the function of SULTR1;2 in Arabidopsis. A disruption mutant of SULTR1;2, sel1-10, has been characterized with phenotypes similar to plants grown under sulfur deficiency [...] Read more.
Plants take up sulfur (S), an essential element for all organisms, as sulfate, which is mainly attributed to the function of SULTR1;2 in Arabidopsis. A disruption mutant of SULTR1;2, sel1-10, has been characterized with phenotypes similar to plants grown under sulfur deficiency (−S). Although the effects of −S on S metabolism were well investigated in seedlings, no studies have been performed on mature Arabidopsis plants. To study further the effects of −S on S metabolism, we analyzed the accumulation and distribution of S-containing compounds in different parts of mature sel1-10 and of the wild-type (WT) plants grown under long-day conditions. While the levels of sulfate, cysteine, and glutathione were almost similar between sel1-10 and WT, levels of glucosinolates (GSLs) differed between them depending on the parts of the plant. GSLs levels in the leaves and stems were generally lower in sel1-10 than those in WT. However, sel1-10 seeds maintained similar levels of aliphatic GSLs to those in WT plants. GSL accumulation in reproductive tissues is likely to be prioritized even when sulfate supply is limited in sel1-10 for its role in S storage and plant defense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plant Sulfur Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Cytokinin-Dependent Control of GH3 Group II Family Genes in the Arabidopsis Root
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
The Arabidopsis root is a dynamic system where the interaction between different plant hormones controls root meristem activity and, thus, organ growth. In the root, a characteristic graded distribution of the hormone auxin provides positional information, coordinating the proliferating and differentiating cell status. [...] Read more.
The Arabidopsis root is a dynamic system where the interaction between different plant hormones controls root meristem activity and, thus, organ growth. In the root, a characteristic graded distribution of the hormone auxin provides positional information, coordinating the proliferating and differentiating cell status. The hormone cytokinin shapes this gradient by positioning an auxin minimum in the last meristematic cells. This auxin minimum triggers a cell developmental switch necessary to start the differentiation program, thus, regulating the root meristem size. To position the auxin minimum, cytokinin promotes the expression of the IAA-amido synthase group II gene GH3.17, which conjugates auxin with amino acids, in the most external layer of the root, the lateral root cap tissue. Since additional GH3 genes are expressed in the root, we questioned whether cytokinin to position the auxin minimum also operates via different GH3 genes. Here, we show that cytokinin regulates meristem size by activating the expression of GH3.5 and GH3.6 genes, in addition to GH3.17. Thus, cytokinin activity provides a robust control of auxin activity in the entire organ necessary to regulate root growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Blue Light added with Red LEDs Enhance Growth Characteristics, Pigments Content, and Antioxidant Capacity in Lettuce, Spinach, Kale, Basil, and Sweet Pepper in a Controlled Environment
Received: 16 March 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the different combinations of red (R) and blue (B) light emitting diode (LEDs’) lighting effects on growth, pigment content, and antioxidant capacity in lettuce, spinach, kale, basil, and pepper in a growth chamber. The growth [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the different combinations of red (R) and blue (B) light emitting diode (LEDs’) lighting effects on growth, pigment content, and antioxidant capacity in lettuce, spinach, kale, basil, and pepper in a growth chamber. The growth chamber was equipped with R and B light percentages based on total light intensity: 83% R + 17% B; 91% R + 9% B; 95% R + 5% B; and control was 100% R. The photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), photoperiod, temperature, and relative humidity of the growth chamber were maintained at 200 ± 5 μmol m−2 s−1, 16 h, 25/21 ± 2.5 °C, and 65 ± 5%, respectively. It is observed that the plant height of lettuce, kale, and pepper was significantly increased under 100% R light, whereas the plant height of spinach and basil did not show any significant difference. The total leaf number of basil and pepper was significantly increased under the treatment of 95% R + 5% B light, while no significant difference was observed for other plant species in the same treatment. Overall, the fresh and dry mass of the studied plants was increased under 91% R + 9% B and 95% R + 5% B light treatment. The significantly higher flower and fruit numbers of pepper were observed under the 95% R + 5% B treatment. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content of lettuce, spinach, basil, and pepper was significantly increased under the 91% R + 9% B treatment while the chlorophyll content of kale was increased under the 95% R + 5% B light treatment. The total carotenoid content of lettuce and spinach was higher in the 91% R + 9% B treatment whereas the carotenoid content of kale, basil, and pepper was increased under the 83% R + 17% B treatment. The antioxidant capacity of the lettuce, spinach, and kale was increased under the 83% R + 17% B treatment while basil and pepper were increased under the 91% R + 9% B treatment. This result indicates that the addition of B light is essential with R light to enhance growth, pigment content, and antioxidant capacity of the vegetable plant in a controlled environment. Moreover, the percentage of B with R light is plant species dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication
Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Other Limiting Factors in the Growth of C3 and C4 Plants
Received: 22 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
It has been widely observed that recent increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations have had, so far, a positive effect on the growth of plants. This is not surprising since CO2 is an important nutrient for plant matter, being directly involved in [...] Read more.
It has been widely observed that recent increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations have had, so far, a positive effect on the growth of plants. This is not surprising since CO2 is an important nutrient for plant matter, being directly involved in photosynthesis. However, it is also known that the conditions which have accompanied this increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration have also had significant effects on other environmental factors. It is possible that these other effects may emerge as limiting factors which could act to prevent plant growth. This may involve complex interactions between prevailing sunlight and water conditions, variable temperatures, the availability of essential nutrients and the type of synthetic pathway for the plant species. The issue of concern to this investigation is if we should be worried about a possible shift in the C3-C4 paradigm driven by changes in the atmospheric CO2 concentration, or if some other factor, such as water scarcity, is much more relevant within a 30-year time frame. If an opinion is needed on what will have the worst effect on the survival of the planet between the scarcity of water or the reduced efficiency of C3 plants to sequester CO2, the issue of water is the more incisive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Functional and Genetic Diversity of Bacteria Associated with the Surfaces of Agronomic Plants
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and agricultural significance of bacterial communities associated with the surfaces of selected agronomic plants (carrot, cabbage and turnip). The bacterial diversity of fresh agricultural produce was targeted to identify beneficial plant [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and agricultural significance of bacterial communities associated with the surfaces of selected agronomic plants (carrot, cabbage and turnip). The bacterial diversity of fresh agricultural produce was targeted to identify beneficial plant microflora or opportunistic human pathogens that may be associated with the surfaces of plants. Bacterial strains were screened in vitro for auxin production, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of several bacterial genera including Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Bacillus, Kluyvera, Lysinibacillus, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Serratia, Staphylococcus, Burkholderia, Exiguobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Arthrobacter and Klebsiella. To address the biosafety issue, the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of strains was determined against different antibiotics. The majority of the strains were resistant to amoxicillin (25 µg) and nalidixic acid (30 µg). Strains were also screened for plant growth-promoting attributes to evaluate their positive interaction with colonized plants. Maximum auxin production was observed with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MCt-1 (101 µg mL−1) and Bacillus cereus PCt-1 (97 µg mL−1). Arthrobacter nicotianae Lb-41 and Exiguobacterium mexicanum MCb-4 were strong biofilm producers. In conclusion, surfaces of raw vegetables were inhabited by different bacterial genera. Potential human pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter amnigenus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also isolated, which makes the biosafety of these vegetable a great concern for the local community. Nevertheless, these microbes also harbor beneficial plant growth-promoting traits that indicated their positive interaction with their host plants. In particular, bacterial auxin production may facilitate the growth of agronomic plants under natural conditions. Moreover, biofilm formation may help bacteria to colonize plant surfaces to show positive interactions with host plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flowering and Morphogenesis of Kalanchoe in Response to Quality and Intensity of Night Interruption Light
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
The effects of the quality and intensity of night interruption light (NIL) on the flowering and morphogenesis of kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana) ‘Lipstick’ and ‘Spain’ were investigated. Plants were raised in a closed-type plant factory under 250 μmol·m−2·s−1 PPFD [...] Read more.
The effects of the quality and intensity of night interruption light (NIL) on the flowering and morphogenesis of kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana) ‘Lipstick’ and ‘Spain’ were investigated. Plants were raised in a closed-type plant factory under 250 μmol·m−2·s−1 PPFD white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with additional light treatments. These treatments were designated long day (LD, 16 h light, 8 h dark), short day (SD, 8 h light, 16 h dark), and SD with a 4 h night interruption (NI). The NIL was constructed from 10 μmol·m−2·s−1 or 20 μmol·m−2·s−1 PPFD blue (NI-B), red (NI-R), white (NI-W), or blue and white (NI-BW) LEDs. In ‘Spain’, the SPAD value, area and thickness of leaves and plant height increased in the NI treatment as compared to the SD treatment. In ‘Lipstick’, most morphogenetic characteristics in the NI treatment showed no significant difference to those in the SD treatment. For both cultivars, plants in SD were significantly shorter than those in other treatments. The flowering of Kalanchoe ‘Lipstick’ was not affected by the NIL quality, while Kalanchoe ‘Spain’ flowered when grown in SD and 10 μmol·m−2·s−1 PPFD NI-B. These results suggest that the NIL quality and intensity affect the morphogenesis and flowering of kalanchoe, and that different cultivars are affected differently. There is a need to further assess the effects of the NIL quality and intensity on the morphogenesis and flowering of short-day plants for practical NIL applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Analysis of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa Chloroplast Genome
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
In the last decade, several studies have relied on a small number of plastid genomes to deduce deep phylogenetic relationships in the species-rich Myrtaceae. Nevertheless, the plastome of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, an important representative plant of the Rhodomyrtus (DC.) genera, has not yet [...] Read more.
In the last decade, several studies have relied on a small number of plastid genomes to deduce deep phylogenetic relationships in the species-rich Myrtaceae. Nevertheless, the plastome of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, an important representative plant of the Rhodomyrtus (DC.) genera, has not yet been reported yet. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the complete chloroplast (CP) genome of R. tomentosa, which is a 156,129-bp-long circular molecule with 37.1% GC content. This CP genome displays a typical quadripartite structure with two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb), of 25,824 bp each, that are separated by a small single copy region (SSC, 18,183 bp) and one large single copy region (LSC, 86,298 bp). The CP genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, eight rRNA genes and three pseudogenes (ycf1, rps19, ndhF). A considerable number of protein-coding genes have a universal ATG start codon, except for psbL and ndhD. Premature termination codons (PTCs) were found in one protein-coding gene, namely atpE, which is rarely reported in the CP genome of plants. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that R. tomentosa has a sister relationship with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium guajava. In conclusion, this study identified unique characteristics of the R. tomentosa CP genome providing valuable information for further investigations on species identification and the phylogenetic evolution between R. tomentosa and related species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Organic Certification is Not Enough: The Case of the Methoxydecane Frankincense
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
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Abstract
Frankincense, the oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia trees, has been an important religious and medicinal element for thousands of years, and today is used extensively for essential oils. One of the most popular frankincense species is Boswellia sacra Flueck. (syn. Boswellia carteri Birdw.) from Somalia [...] Read more.
Frankincense, the oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia trees, has been an important religious and medicinal element for thousands of years, and today is used extensively for essential oils. One of the most popular frankincense species is Boswellia sacra Flueck. (syn. Boswellia carteri Birdw.) from Somalia and Somaliland. Recent increases in demand have led to many areas being overharvested, emphasizing the need for incentives and monitoring for sustainable harvesting, such as certification schemes. Concurrently, a new chemical component, called methoxydecane, has emerged in oils claimed to be B. carteri, suggesting the possibility of a chemical marker of overharvesting or other stress that could aid in monitoring. To find the source of this new chemical component, we sampled resin directly from trees in areas producing the new methoxydecane chemotype. This revealed that methoxydecane comes not from Boswellia carteri, but from a newly described frankincense species, Boswellia occulta. The presence of Boswellia occulta oil in essential oil sold as pure B. carteri, including certified organic oil, emphasizes the current lack of traceability in the supply chain and the ineffectiveness of organic certification to secure purity and sustainable harvesting in wildcrafted species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sequencing and Structural Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Medicinal Plant Lycium chinense Mill
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 31 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
Lycium chinense Mill, an important Chinese herbal medicine, is widely used as a dietary supplement and food. Here the chloroplast (CP) genome of L. chinense was sequenced and analyzed, revealing a size of 155,756 bp and with a 37.8% GC content. The L. [...] Read more.
Lycium chinense Mill, an important Chinese herbal medicine, is widely used as a dietary supplement and food. Here the chloroplast (CP) genome of L. chinense was sequenced and analyzed, revealing a size of 155,756 bp and with a 37.8% GC content. The L. chinense CP genome comprises a large single copy region (LSC) of 86,595 bp and a small single copy region (SSC) of 18,209 bp, and two inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) of 25,476 bp separated by the single copy regions. The genome encodes 114 genes, 16 of which are duplicated. Most of the 85 protein-coding genes (CDS) had standard ATG start codons, while 3 genes including rps12, psbL and ndhD had abnormal start codons (ACT and ACG). In addition, a strong A/T bias was found in the majority of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) detected in the CP genome. Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among 16 species revealed that L. chinense is a sister taxon to Lycium barbarum. Overall, the complete sequence and annotation of the L. chinense CP genome provides valuable genetic information to facilitate precise understanding of the taxonomy, species and phylogenetic evolution of the Solanaceae family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Bioinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle
Light-Induced Vitamin C Accumulation in Tomato Fruits is Independent of Carbohydrate Availability
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
L-ascorbate (ASC) is essential for human health. Therefore, there is interest in increasing the ASC content of crops like tomato. High irradiance induces accumulation of ASC in green tomato fruits. The D-mannose/L-galactose biosynthetic pathway accounts for the most ASC in plants. The myo-inositol [...] Read more.
L-ascorbate (ASC) is essential for human health. Therefore, there is interest in increasing the ASC content of crops like tomato. High irradiance induces accumulation of ASC in green tomato fruits. The D-mannose/L-galactose biosynthetic pathway accounts for the most ASC in plants. The myo-inositol and galacturonate pathways have been proposed to exist but never identified in plants. The D-mannose/L-galactose starts from D-glucose. In a series of experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ASC levels depend on soluble carbohydrate content when tomato fruits ripen under irradiances that stimulate ASC biosynthesis. We show that ASC levels considerably increased when fruits ripened under light, but carbohydrate levels did not show a parallel increase. When carbohydrate levels in fruits were altered by flower pruning, no effects on ASC levels were observed at harvest or after ripening under irradiances that induce ASC accumulation. Artificial feeding of trusses with sucrose increased carbohydrate levels, but did not affect the light-induced ASC levels. We conclude that light-induced accumulation of ASC is independent of the carbohydrate content in tomato fruits. In tomato fruit treated with light, the increase in ASC was preceded by a concomitant increase in myo-inositol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C Metabolism in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Elevated Ozone Concentration Reduces Photosynthetic Carbon Gain but Does Not Alter Leaf Structural Traits, Nutrient Composition or Biomass in Switchgrass
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
Elevated tropospheric ozone concentration (O3) increases oxidative stress in vegetation and threatens the stability of crop production. Current O3 pollution in the United States is estimated to decrease the yields of maize (Zea mays) up to 10%, however, [...] Read more.
Elevated tropospheric ozone concentration (O3) increases oxidative stress in vegetation and threatens the stability of crop production. Current O3 pollution in the United States is estimated to decrease the yields of maize (Zea mays) up to 10%, however, many bioenergy feedstocks including switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) have not been studied for response to O3 stress. Using Free Air Concentration Enrichment (FACE) technology, we investigated the impacts of elevated O3 (~100 nmol mol−1) on leaf photosynthetic traits and capacity, chlorophyll fluorescence, the Ball–Woodrow–Berry (BWB) relationship, respiration, leaf structure, biomass and nutrient composition of switchgrass. Elevated O3 concentration reduced net CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and maximum CO2 saturated photosynthetic capacity (Vmax), but did not affect other functional and structural traits in switchgrass or the macro- (except potassium) and micronutrient content of leaves. These results suggest that switchgrass exhibits a greater O3 tolerance than maize, and provide important fundamental data for evaluating the yield stability of a bioenergy feedstock crop and for exploring O3 sensitivity among bioenergy feedstocks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
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Open AccessArticle
New Insights into Leaf Physiological Responses to Ozone for Use in Crop Modelling
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
Estimating food production under future air pollution and climate conditions in scenario analysis depends on accurately modelling ozone (O3) effects on yield. This study tests several assumptions that form part of published approaches for modelling O3 effects on photosynthesis and [...] Read more.
Estimating food production under future air pollution and climate conditions in scenario analysis depends on accurately modelling ozone (O3) effects on yield. This study tests several assumptions that form part of published approaches for modelling O3 effects on photosynthesis and leaf duration against experimental data. In 2015 and 2016, two wheat cultivars were exposed in eight hemispherical glasshouses to O3 ranging from 22 to 57 ppb (24 h mean), with profiles ranging from raised background to high peak treatments. The stomatal O3 flux (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose, POD) to leaves was simulated using a multiplicative stomatal conductance model. Leaf senescence occurred earlier as average POD increased according to a linear relationship, and the two cultivars showed very different senescence responses. Negative effects of O3 on photosynthesis were only observed alongside O3-induced leaf senescence, suggesting that O3 does not impair photosynthesis in un-senesced flag leaves at the realistic O3 concentrations applied here. Accelerated senescence is therefore likely to be the dominant O3 effect influencing yield in most agricultural environments. POD was better than 24 h mean concentration and AOT40 (accumulated O3 exceeding 40 ppb, daylight hours) at predicting physiological response to O3, and flux also accounted for the difference in exposure resulting from peak and high background treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Karyological Analysis and DNA Barcoding of Pompia Citron: A First Step toward the Identification of Its Relatives
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
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Abstract
Pompia is a citrus fruit endemic of Sardinia, Italy, with an essential oil profile showing outstanding anti-inflammatory and anti-microbic properties. Despite its remarkable pharmaceutical potential, little taxonomic and genetic information is available for this species. We applied flow cytometry and classical cytogenetic techniques [...] Read more.
Pompia is a citrus fruit endemic of Sardinia, Italy, with an essential oil profile showing outstanding anti-inflammatory and anti-microbic properties. Despite its remarkable pharmaceutical potential, little taxonomic and genetic information is available for this species. We applied flow cytometry and classical cytogenetic techniques to assess the DNA content and to reconstruct the karyotype of several Pompia accessions. Molecular data from plastid DNA barcoding and nuclear DNA sequencing were used to study the genetic distance between Pompia and other citrus species. Flow cytometric estimates of DNA content and somatic chromosome counts suggest that Pompia is a regular diploid Citrus species. DNA polymorphisms of nuclear and chloroplast markers allowed us to investigate the genetic relationships between Pompia accessions and other Citrus species. Based on DNA polymorphism data we propose that Pompia is a very recent interspecific hybrid generated by a cross between C. aurantium (as seed bearer) and C. medica (as pollen donor). Our findings pave the way for further and more specific investigations of local Pompia germplasm resources that may help the preservation and valorisation of this valuable citrus fruit tree. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics for Plant Breeding)
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Open AccessReview
Post-Translational Modification of Proteins Mediated by Nitro-Fatty Acids in Plants: Nitroalkylation
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Nitrate fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are considered reactive lipid species derived from the non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by nitric oxide (NO) and related species. Nitrate fatty acids are powerful biological electrophiles which can react with biological nucleophiles such as glutathione [...] Read more.
Nitrate fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are considered reactive lipid species derived from the non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by nitric oxide (NO) and related species. Nitrate fatty acids are powerful biological electrophiles which can react with biological nucleophiles such as glutathione and certain protein–amino acid residues. The adduction of NO2-FAs to protein targets generates a reversible post-translational modification called nitroalkylation. In different animal and human systems, NO2-FAs, such as nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) and conjugated nitro-linoleic acid (NO2-cLA), have cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory influences in a broad spectrum of pathologies by modulating various intracellular pathways. However, little knowledge on these molecules in the plant kingdom exists. The presence of NO2-OA and NO2-cLA in olives and extra-virgin olive oil and nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln) in Arabidopsis thaliana has recently been detected. Specifically, NO2-Ln acts as a signaling molecule during seed and plant progression and beneath abiotic stress events. It can also release NO and modulate the expression of genes associated with antioxidant responses. Nevertheless, the repercussions of nitroalkylation on plant proteins are still poorly known. In this review, we demonstrate the existence of endogenous nitroalkylation and its effect on the in vitro activity of the antioxidant protein ascorbate peroxidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants)
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Open AccessReview
A Review on Si Uptake and Transport System
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Silicon (Si) was long listed as a non-essential component for plant growth and development because of its universal availability. However, there has been a resurgence of interest in studying the underlying uptake and transport mechanism of silicon in plants because of the reported [...] Read more.
Silicon (Si) was long listed as a non-essential component for plant growth and development because of its universal availability. However, there has been a resurgence of interest in studying the underlying uptake and transport mechanism of silicon in plants because of the reported dynamic role of silicon in plants under stressed environmental conditions. This uptake and transport mechanism is greatly dependent upon the uptake ability of the plant’s roots. Plant roots absorb Si in the form of silicic acid from the soil solution, and it is moved through different parts of the plant using various influx and efflux transporters. Both these influx and efflux transporters are mostly found in the plasma membrane; however, their location and pattern of expression varies among different plants. The assessment of these features provides a new understanding of different species-dependent Si accumulations, which have been studied in monocots but are poorly understood in other plant groups. Therefore, the present review provides insight into the most recent research exploring the use of Si transporters in angiosperms and cryptogams. This paper presents an extensive representation of data from different families of angiosperms, including monocots and eudicots. Eudicots (previously referred to as dicots) have often been neglected in the literature, because they are categorized as low/intermediate Si accumulators. However, in this review, we attempt to highlight the accumulating species of different plant groups in which Si uptake is mediated through transporters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Ozone Sensitivity in Three Wheat Cultivars Using Ethylenediurea
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 23 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars [HD 2987 (ozone (O3) sensitive), PBW 502 (intermediately sensitive) and Kharchiya 65 (O3 tolerant)] with known sensitivity to O3 were re-evaluated using ethylenediurea (EDU; 400 ppm) to ascertain the use of EDU [...] Read more.
Three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars [HD 2987 (ozone (O3) sensitive), PBW 502 (intermediately sensitive) and Kharchiya 65 (O3 tolerant)] with known sensitivity to O3 were re-evaluated using ethylenediurea (EDU; 400 ppm) to ascertain the use of EDU in determiningO3 sensitivity under highly O3-polluted tropical environments. EDU treatment helped in improving the growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments and the antioxidative defense system of all the wheat cultivars. Under EDU treatment, PBW 502 retained more biomass, while HD 2987 showed better performance and ultimately the greatest increment in yield. Cultivar Kharchiya 65 also showed a positive response to EDU as manifested with an increase in pigment contents, total biomass and enzymatic antioxidants; however, this increment was comparatively lower compared to the other two cultivars. The results indicated that EDU did not have many physiological effects on cultivars but helped in counteracting O3 primarily by scavenging reactive oxygen species and enhancing the antioxidative defense system where superoxide dismutase emerged as the major responsive biochemical parameter against ambient O3. The observed results clearly indicated that differential O3 sensitivity in three wheat cultivars established by the previous study is in accordance with the present study using EDU as a sensitivity tool, which is an easy and efficient technology in comparison to chamber and Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiments although its mechanistic understanding needs to be further validated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ozone Tolerance Mechanisms)
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