Special Issue "Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants"

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Physiology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. John T. Hancock

Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: redox signaling; reactive oxygen species; hydrogen sulfide; hydrogen gas; nitric oxide
Guest Editor
Prof. Steven J. Neill

Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0)117 32 86554
Interests: abscisic acid (ABA) signaling; stomatal mechanisms; nitric oxide; reactive oxygen species; drought stress

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous reactive molecule which is a key component of plant cell signaling mechanisms. NO is involved in the breaking of seed germination, the growth and development of the plant as well as flower senescence and formation of root nodules in legumes. Stress responses of plants, such as drought and pathogen challenge, involve the generation and accumulation of NO in plant cells. NO can be produced in plant cells by several mechanisms, one of the main sources being the enzyme nitrate reductase. Being relatively reactive NO can interact with superoxide anions to produce peroxynitrite, or with hydrogen sulfide to create nitrosothiols, both which can control cellular events. NO once produced can react with a variety of downstream protein targets. These include proteins which contain iron, often within heme, such as guanylyl cyclase and leghemoglobin which may lead to further signaling or NO removal. Modification of thiol groups of proteins by NO, a process known as S-nitrosation (or S-nitrosylation) is a key mechanism by which signaling is propagated in cells. This protein modification can be reversed by SNO-reductases, allowing such signaling to be toggled on and off. This Special Issue of Plants will highlight the production and roles of NO in plants, along with the ways NO can interact with other reactive signaling molecules, leading to coordinated signaling events in plants.

Prof. John Hancock
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Plants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nitric oxide
  • reactive oxygen species
  • stress responses
  • S-nitrosation
  • S-nitrosylation
  • thiol modification
  • nitrate reductase
  • SNO-reductase

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Isoform-Specific NO Synthesis by Arabidopsis thaliana Nitrate Reductase
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
PDF Full-text (2319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nitrate reductase (NR) is important for higher land plants, as it catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, the two-electron reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Furthermore, it is considered to be a major enzymatic source of the important signaling molecule nitric [...] Read more.
Nitrate reductase (NR) is important for higher land plants, as it catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, the two-electron reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Furthermore, it is considered to be a major enzymatic source of the important signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO), that is produced in a one-electron reduction of nitrite. Like many other plants, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana expresses two isoforms of NR (NIA1 and NIA2). Up to now, only NIA2 has been the focus of detailed biochemical studies, while NIA1 awaits biochemical characterization. In this study, we have expressed and purified functional fragments of NIA1 and subjected them to various biochemical assays for comparison with the corresponding NIA2-fragments. We analyzed the kinetic parameters in multiple steady-state assays using nitrate or nitrite as substrate and measured either substrate consumption (nitrate or nitrite) or product formation (NO). Our results show that NIA1 is the more efficient nitrite reductase while NIA2 exhibits higher nitrate reductase activity, which supports the hypothesis that the isoforms have special functions in the plant. Furthermore, we successfully restored the physiological electron transfer pathway of NR using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and nitrate or nitrite as substrates by mixing the N-and C-terminal fragments of NR, thus, opening up new possibilities to study NR activity, regulation and structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Post-Translational Modification of Proteins Mediated by Nitro-Fatty Acids in Plants: Nitroalkylation
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
PDF Full-text (3799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitrate fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are considered reactive lipid species derived from the non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by nitric oxide (NO) and related species. Nitrate fatty acids are powerful biological electrophiles which can react with biological nucleophiles such as glutathione [...] Read more.
Nitrate fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are considered reactive lipid species derived from the non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by nitric oxide (NO) and related species. Nitrate fatty acids are powerful biological electrophiles which can react with biological nucleophiles such as glutathione and certain protein–amino acid residues. The adduction of NO2-FAs to protein targets generates a reversible post-translational modification called nitroalkylation. In different animal and human systems, NO2-FAs, such as nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) and conjugated nitro-linoleic acid (NO2-cLA), have cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory influences in a broad spectrum of pathologies by modulating various intracellular pathways. However, little knowledge on these molecules in the plant kingdom exists. The presence of NO2-OA and NO2-cLA in olives and extra-virgin olive oil and nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln) in Arabidopsis thaliana has recently been detected. Specifically, NO2-Ln acts as a signaling molecule during seed and plant progression and beneath abiotic stress events. It can also release NO and modulate the expression of genes associated with antioxidant responses. Nevertheless, the repercussions of nitroalkylation on plant proteins are still poorly known. In this review, we demonstrate the existence of endogenous nitroalkylation and its effect on the in vitro activity of the antioxidant protein ascorbate peroxidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Role of Nitrate Reductase in NO Production in Photosynthetic Eukaryotes
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 6 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
PDF Full-text (672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitric oxide is a gaseous secondary messenger that is critical for proper cell signaling and plant survival when exposed to stress. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in plants, under standard phototrophic oxygenic conditions, has long been a very controversial issue. A few algal strains [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide is a gaseous secondary messenger that is critical for proper cell signaling and plant survival when exposed to stress. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in plants, under standard phototrophic oxygenic conditions, has long been a very controversial issue. A few algal strains contain NO synthase (NOS), which appears to be absent in all other algae and land plants. The experimental data have led to the hypothesis that molybdoenzyme nitrate reductase (NR) is the main enzyme responsible for NO production in most plants. Recently, NR was found to be a necessary partner in a dual system that also includes another molybdoenzyme, which was renamed NO-forming nitrite reductase (NOFNiR). This enzyme produces NO independently of the molybdenum center of NR and depends on the NR electron transport chain from NAD(P)H to heme. Under the circumstances in which NR is not present or active, the existence of another NO-forming system that is similar to the NOS system would account for NO production and NO effects. PII protein, which senses and integrates the signals of the C–N balance in the cell, likely has an important role in organizing cell responses. Here, we critically analyze these topics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase—The Master Regulator of Protein S-Nitrosation in Plant NO Signaling
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
S-nitrosation has been recognized as an important mechanism of protein posttranslational regulations, based on the attachment of a nitroso group to cysteine thiols. Reversible S-nitrosation, similarly to other redox-base modifications of protein thiols, has a profound effect on protein structure and activity and [...] Read more.
S-nitrosation has been recognized as an important mechanism of protein posttranslational regulations, based on the attachment of a nitroso group to cysteine thiols. Reversible S-nitrosation, similarly to other redox-base modifications of protein thiols, has a profound effect on protein structure and activity and is considered as a convergence of signaling pathways of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. In plant, S-nitrosation is involved in a wide array of cellular processes during normal development and stress responses. This review summarizes current knowledge on S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), a key enzyme which regulates intracellular levels of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and indirectly also of protein S-nitrosothiols. GSNOR functions are mediated by its enzymatic activity, which catalyzes irreversible GSNO conversion to oxidized glutathione within the cellular catabolism of nitric oxide. GSNOR is involved in the maintenance of balanced levels of reactive nitrogen species and in the control of cellular redox state. Multiple functions of GSNOR in plant development via NO-dependent and -independent signaling mechanisms and in plant defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress conditions have been uncovered. Extensive studies of plants with down- and upregulated GSNOR, together with application of transcriptomics and proteomics approaches, seem promising for new insights into plant S-nitrosothiol metabolism and its regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Nitric Oxide: Its Generation and Interactions with Other Reactive Signaling Compounds
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 10 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is an immensely important signaling molecule in animals and plants. It is involved in plant reproduction, development, key physiological responses such as stomatal closure, and cell death. One of the controversies of NO metabolism in plants is the identification of [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is an immensely important signaling molecule in animals and plants. It is involved in plant reproduction, development, key physiological responses such as stomatal closure, and cell death. One of the controversies of NO metabolism in plants is the identification of enzymatic sources. Although there is little doubt that nitrate reductase (NR) is involved, the identification of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzyme remains elusive, and it is becoming increasingly clear that such a protein does not exist in higher plants, even though homologues have been found in algae. Downstream from its production, NO can have several potential actions, but none of these will be in isolation from other reactive signaling molecules which have similar chemistry to NO. Therefore, NO metabolism will take place in an environment containing reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), glutathione, other antioxidants and within a reducing redox state. Direct reactions with NO are likely to produce new signaling molecules such as peroxynitrite and nitrosothiols, and it is probable that chemical competitions will exist which will determine the ultimate end result of signaling responses. How NO is generated in plants cells and how NO fits into this complex cellular environment needs to be understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Impact of Nitric Oxide (NO) on the ROS Metabolism of Peroxisomes
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical endogenously generated in plant cells. Peroxisomes are cell organelles characterized by an active metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also one of the main cellular sites of NO production in higher plants. In [...] Read more.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical endogenously generated in plant cells. Peroxisomes are cell organelles characterized by an active metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are also one of the main cellular sites of NO production in higher plants. In this mini-review, an updated and comprehensive overview is presented of the evidence available demonstrating that plant peroxisomes have the capacity to generate NO, and how this molecule and its derived products, peroxynitrite (ONOO) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), can modulate the ROS metabolism of peroxisomes, mainly throughout protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including S-nitrosation and tyrosine nitration. Several peroxisomal antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), have been demonstrated to be targets of NO-mediated PTMs. Accordingly, plant peroxisomes can be considered as a good example of the interconnection existing between ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), where NO exerts a regulatory function of ROS metabolism acting upstream of H2O2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants)
Figures

Figure 1

Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top