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Post-Translational Modification of Proteins Mediated by Nitro-Fatty Acids in Plants: Nitroalkylation

Group of Biochemistry and Cell Signaling in Nitric Oxide, Department of Experimental Biology, Center for Advanced Studies in Olive Grove and Olive Oils, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University Campus Las Lagunillas, University of Jaén, E-23071 Jaén, Spain
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Plants 2019, 8(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040082
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants)
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Abstract

Nitrate fatty acids (NO2-FAs) are considered reactive lipid species derived from the non-enzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by nitric oxide (NO) and related species. Nitrate fatty acids are powerful biological electrophiles which can react with biological nucleophiles such as glutathione and certain protein–amino acid residues. The adduction of NO2-FAs to protein targets generates a reversible post-translational modification called nitroalkylation. In different animal and human systems, NO2-FAs, such as nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA) and conjugated nitro-linoleic acid (NO2-cLA), have cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory influences in a broad spectrum of pathologies by modulating various intracellular pathways. However, little knowledge on these molecules in the plant kingdom exists. The presence of NO2-OA and NO2-cLA in olives and extra-virgin olive oil and nitro-linolenic acid (NO2-Ln) in Arabidopsis thaliana has recently been detected. Specifically, NO2-Ln acts as a signaling molecule during seed and plant progression and beneath abiotic stress events. It can also release NO and modulate the expression of genes associated with antioxidant responses. Nevertheless, the repercussions of nitroalkylation on plant proteins are still poorly known. In this review, we demonstrate the existence of endogenous nitroalkylation and its effect on the in vitro activity of the antioxidant protein ascorbate peroxidase. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitro-fatty acids; nitroalkenes; nitroalkylation; electrophile; nucleophile; signaling mechanism; post-translational modification; reactive lipid species; nitro-lipid-protein adducts nitro-fatty acids; nitroalkenes; nitroalkylation; electrophile; nucleophile; signaling mechanism; post-translational modification; reactive lipid species; nitro-lipid-protein adducts
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Aranda-Caño, L.; Sánchez-Calvo, B.; Begara-Morales, J.C.; Chaki, M.; Mata-Pérez, C.; Padilla, M.N.; Valderrama, R.; Barroso, J.B. Post-Translational Modification of Proteins Mediated by Nitro-Fatty Acids in Plants: Nitroalkylation. Plants 2019, 8, 82.

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